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*xio\ .  e  - 1^ 









Nichols,  Sob,  and  Bentley,  Printers, 
Und  lion  Passage,  Fleet  Street,  Lofidon* 














VOL.  n. 









ALLEN  ^Anthony),  an  English  lawyer  and  antiquaiy, 
was  born  at  Great  Hadbam  in  Hertfordshire,  about  the  end 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  was  edu<?^ted  at  ffton; 
whence  he  went  to  King's  college,  Cambridge,  and  took 
his  bachelor's  degree  in  1707,  and  his  master's  in  1711. 
He  afterwards  studied  law,  was  ciiJI^'  the  bar,  and  bjr 
the  influence  of  Arthur  OnsloW^  speaker  of  the  house  of 
commons,  became  a  roaster  in  chancery.  His  reputation 
as  a  lawyer  was  inconsiderable,  Jbiut  he  was  Esteemed  a  good 
classical  scholar,  and  a  man  of  Wit:  and -convivial  habits. 
He  became  afterwards  an  alderman  of  the  corporation  of 
Guildford,  and  an  useful  magistrate  in  that  neighbourhood, 
fie  died  April  11,  1764,  and  was  buried  in  the  Tentple 
church*  He  collected  a  biographical  account  of  the  mem«- 
bers  of  Eton  college,  which  by  his  will,  dated  1753,  he  or-, 
dered  to  be  placed  in  the  libraries  of  the  two  colleges,  and 
a  third  copy  to  be  given  to  his  patron,  Mr.  Onslow.  He 
also  compiled,  at  his  leisure  hours,  or  rather  made  collec- 
tions for,  an  English  dictionary  of  obsolete  words,  of  words 
which  have  changed  their  meaning,''as  villamj  knavCy  and  of 
proverbial  or  cant  words,  tLs  helter-skeUery  wUch  he  ddrived 
from  hUariter  celeriter.  It  is  not  known  what  became  of 
this  manuscript.  He  bequeathed  his  fortune,  and  probably 
his  books,  to  a  brother  who  wa$a  Turkey  merchant.' 

ALLEN  (John),  archbishop  of  Dublin  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIIL  was  first  educated  at  Oxford,  whence  he  re* 

^  Harwood's  Alumni  Etonenses.— Whiston's  MS  additions  to  the  first  edition 
M  this  Dictionary. 

VoL.lI.  B 

9  ALLEN. 

moved  to  Cambridge,  and  took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts ; 
or,  as  Wood  rather  thinks,  that  of  bachelor  of  laws.  He 
was  afterwards  sent  to  Rome  to  the  pope,  by  Wairbam, 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  to  manage  some  afFail-s  relating 
to  the  church.  He  continued  there  about  nine  ye^rs,  and 
was  created  doctor  of  laws  in  some  Italian  university.  On 
his  return  he  was  made  chaplain  to  cardinal  Wolsey,  and 
commissary  or  judge  of  his  court,  when  he  'was  legate  it  la- 
tere,  but  he  was  accused  of  great  dishonesty  in  the  exe- 
cution of  that  office.  He  assisted  the  cardinal  in  6rst  vi* 
siting  and  afterwards  dissolving  forty  small  monasteries,  for 
the  erection  of  his  colleges  at  Oxford  and  Ipswich..  His 
church-preferment  was  considerable.  Archhishop  Warham 
gave  him  Aldyngton,  with  the  chapel  annexed,  March «6, 
1510,  in  which  he  was  succeeded  by  Erasmus;  and  in  the 
following  year  his  grace  presented  him  to  Riseburgh,  in  the 
deanery  of  Riseburgh.  In  1524  he  was  presented  to  the 
perpetual vicaifige  of  Alborne,  and  he  had,  by  the  favour  of 
Wolsey,  the  church  of  Dalby  on  theWoulds  in  Leicestershire, 
though  it  belonged  to  the  master  and  brethren  of  the  hospi- 
tal of  Burton  Lazars.  In  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1525, 
he. was  incorporated  doctor  of  laws  of  the  university  of  Ox- 
ford; and  March  13,  1528,  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Hugh 
Inge,  be  was  consecrated  archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  about 
the  same  time  was  made  chancellor  of  Ireland.  In  1 534*  he 
was  barbarously  murdered  in  an  insnrrection,  by  Thomas 
Fit^-gerald,  eldest  son  of  the  earl  of  Kildare,  in  the  fiftieth 
year  of  his  age.  He  wrote  some  treatises  on  ecclesiastical 
affairs,  which  remain  in  manuscript. '  - 

ALLEN  (Thomas),  an  eminent  mathematician  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Uttoxeter  in  Staffordshire| 
Dec.  21,  1542,  and  was  a  descendant,  through  six  gene- 
rations, of  Henry  Allen,  or  Alan,  lord  of  the  manor  of 
Buckenhall  in  that  county.  He  was  admitted  scholar  of 
Trinity  college,  Oxford,  June  4,  1561,  became  fellow  in 
JSBS,  and  in  1567,  took  his  master^s  degree.  From  a 
strong  indination  to  a  retired  life,  and  a  dislike  to  entering 
into  holy  orders,  to  which,  according  to  the  statutes,  he 
must  have  been  called,  he  quitted  the  college,  resigned  his 
fellowship,  and  went  to  Gloucester*hall  (now Worcester  col- 
lege), in  1570.     Here  be  studied  very  closely,  jftod  acquired 

V  Wood'f  Atb«o«.<^«^en.  Diet— Biog.  Brit. — ^Tanner. — Fiddes's  I^ife  of  WoU 
fley.—-Stry)>«*8  Memorials,  voi  I.  pp.  73.  125.-— Nichols's  Uist  of  I^icestf}cshii«B 
TOl.  «I.  p.  95S. 

ALLEN.  .« 

a  high  reputation  for  bis  knowledge  in  antiquity^  philosoe, 
phy,  and  mathematics.     Having  received  an  invitatbn  from 
Henry  earl  of  Northumberland,  a  great  friend  and  patron 
of  the  mathematicians,  he  spent  some  time  at  the  earl's 
h6use,  where  he  became  acquainted  with  those  celebrated 
mathematicians  Thomas  Harriot,  John  Dee,  Walter  War- 
ner, and  Nathanael  Torporley.     Robert  earl  of  Leicester 
bad  a  particular  esteem  for  Mr.  Allen,  and  would  have  con- 
ferred a  bishopric  upon  him,  but  his  love  of  solitude  and 
retirement  made  him  decline  die  offer.     He  was  also  highly 
respected  by  other  celebrated  contemporaries,  sir  Thomaa. 
Bodley,  sir  Henry  Savile,  Mr.  Camden,  sir  Robert  Cotton, 
air  Henry  Spelman,  Mr.  Selden,  &c.     His  great  skill  in 
the  mathematics  made  the  ignorant  and  vulgar  look  upon 
him  as  a  magician  or  conjuror;  and  the  author  of  a  book^ 
intituled  *^  Leice$ter's  Commonwealth,"  has  absurdly  ac- 
cused him  of  using  the  art  of  6guring,  to  bring  about  the 
earl  of  Leicester's  schemes,    and  endeavouring,  by  the 
black  art,  to  effect  a  match  betwixt  him  and  queen  Eliza- 
beth.    It  is  more  certain  the  earl  placed  such  confidence  in 
Allen,  that  nothing  material  in  the  ^tate  was  transacted 
without  his  knowledge,  and  he  had  constant  information^ 
by  letter  from  Allen,   of  what  passed  in  the  university. 
Allen  was  very  curious  and  indefatigable  in  collecting  scat- 
tered manuscripts  relating  te  history,  antiquity,  astronomy, 
philosophy,  and  mathematics,  which  collections  have  been 
quoted  by  several  learned  authors,  &c*     There  is  a  cata<- 
logue  of  them,  bearing  date  162^,  among  Anthony  Wood's 
papers^  in  the  Ashmolean  museum-    He  published  in  Latin 
the  second  and  third  books  of  Ptolemy,  **  concerning  the 
Judgment  of  the  Stars,"  or,  as  it  is  commonly  called,  of 
the  quadripartite  construction,  with  an  exposition.     He 
wrote  also  notes  ou  many  of  Lilly's  books,  and  sooie  on 
John   Bale's  work,    '*  De  scriptoribus  Maj.  Britanniae.** 
Having  lived  to  a  great  ag^,  he  died  at  Gloucester-hall,  Sept 
^0,  1632,  and  was  buried  with  a  solemnity  suited  to  the 
greatness  of  his  character.     He  bequeathed  a  valuable  por- 
trait  of  himself,  which  has  since  been  engraven,  to  the 
president  of  Trinity  college  and  his  successors.     Mr.  Bur* 
■ton,  the  author  of  his  funeral  oration,  calls  him  not  only 
l!he  Coryph^us,  but  the  very  soul  and  sun  of  all  the  nuthe- 
maticians  of  his  time.     Mr.  Selden  mentions  him  as  <^  omoi 
eruditionis  genere  summoque  judicio  ornatissimus,  cete- 
berrimae   acadeoii?^   Oiconiensis  decus  insignissimum :    a 

B  2 

*        ,  A  L  L  EN. 

f^ersQD  of  tib^  most  extensive  learning  and  consummale 
judgment,  t^  brightest  ornament  of  the  university  of  Ox* 
{bra.*'  Camden  says,  iie  wbs  ^  Piurimis  optimisque  arti* 
Ims  omatissimus ;  skilled  in  most  of  the  be«n;  aru  and  sci* 
ences.*'  Mr.  Wood  has  transcribed  part  of  his  character 
^m  a  manuscript  in  the  library  of  Trinity  college,  in  these 
words :  ^  He  studied  polite  literature  with  great  applica-* 
iaon ;  he  was  strictly  tenacioiis  ^  academic  discipline,  al- 
<wi^8  highly  esteemed  both  by  foreigners  and  those  of  the 
university,  and  *by  all  of  the  highest  stations  in  the  church 
of  £ ngbnd  and  the  university  of  Oxford.  He  was  a  saga^ 
^ious  observer,  and  an  agpreeable  companion*^ 

ALLEN  (Thomas),  a  learned  divine,  was  born  in  the 
year  1578,  educated  in  the  king's  school  at  Worcester,  and 
#rom  thence  removed  to  Brazen-^nose  college,  Oxford, 
i589.  He  was  elected  a  probationer  fellow  of  Merton  col- 
lege in  1593 r  He  afterwards  went  into  orders;  but,  instead 
of  preaching,  he  applied  himself  to  the  more  abstruse  and 
critical  parts  of  learning.  This  pecoromended  him  to  the 
esteem  of  sir  Henry  SaHle,  by  whose  interest  he  obtained 
a  fellowship  of  Eton  college  in  1604,  and  whom  he  assisted 
In  his  elaborate  edition  of  St,  Chry$ostom.  While  at  Eton, 
lie  assisted  the  studies  of  Dr.  Hammond,  then  a  school-boy, 
|>articularly  in  4^e  Greek  language.  He  wrote  **  Obser- 
vationes  in  libellum  Chrysostomi  in  Esaiam.**  He  died 
Oct.  10,  1638,  and  was  buried  in  Dton  college  chapel. 
ile  was  a  benefactor  in  books  to  the  libraries  of  Brazen^* 
nose  and  Merton  colleges.' 

ALLEN  (Thomas),  a  non-conformist  clergyman  of 
Norwich,  was  bom  in  that  city  in  160S,  and  educated  at^ 
daius  college,  Cambridge.  He  appears  to  have  been  mi- 
nister ef  8t.  Edmund's,  Norwich,  where  he  was  silenced  by 
l>i^p  Wren,,  in  1636,  for  refusing  to  read  the  book  of 
Sports,  and  other  non-compliances  peculiar  to  the  times. 
Two  years  afterwards  he  went  to  New  England,  and  was  a 
preacher  at  Charlestown  until  1651,  when  he  returned  to 
Norwich,  and  had  the  rectory  of  St.  George's,  from  whidi 
fie  was  ejected  for  nonconforiiifity  in  16^2,  and  during  the 
1$«ne  period  he  preached  in  a  meeting  csfUed  the  congre*- 
gaHonal  church.  He  afterwards  preached  in  the  latter 
place^  as  he  had  opportunity,  and  without  molestation,  till 

1  G^n.  Diet— Biof.  Biit^WMon't  Life  of  Sir  Ti)Q«M8  Pope,  p.  416.r;*-Atlu 
0Sj^fn\W9  Woithics.  ' 

>  AUu  Ox«wpHarwood'8  Alamm  Stoaessef,  f.  Sf^jst-Biofr.  Brttr 


A  L  L  X  nr.  s 

the  time  of  his  death,  Sept.  21^  1671  He  pii&tighed  »e«- 
vetsil  pions  pvacUcal  trettises ;  hut  the  work  which  obtaiued 
lUffi  moBt  reputotioB,  was  his  **  Chain  of  Scripture  Cbro--' 
ikoiogy,  from  the  creation  to  the  death  of  Christy  in  seren 
period^''  1639,  4ta  On«r  of  his  biographets  compares 
hin  to  Bucboh^ery  wbo,  being  weary  of  controversy^  betook 
Kmsetf  to  clMronology,  sayii^g  that  be  would  rather  com* 
pute  tban  dispote.  > 

.  ALLEON  (DtiLAC  John  Lfiwis)  was  born  at  Lyons,* 
and  for  a  long  tiine  was  a  practitioner  there  at  the  bar.  He 
united,  however,  a  knowledge  of  the  law  with  a  taste  for 
natural  hiftary,  which  last  induced  him  to  retire  from  busiw 
ness  to  St.  Ettenne  in  Forez,  where  be  could  more  conve- 
niently .pursue  his  inqisiries  into  the  properties  of  fossilsf 
and  mineTBlagy  in  general*  He  accordingly  publisbed 
^*  Memoires  poor  servir  a  I'histoire  naturelle  du  Lyonnois, 
Forez,  et  Beaojolais,"  2  vols.  12 mo,  1765  ;  and  <<  Melanges 
d'histoiire  n^tnrelle,"  which  first  appeared  in  1763,  2  vols. 
12mo,  but  afterwards  there  was  a  new  edition  in  6  vols. 
He  died  at  St.  Etienne  in  1768,* 

ALLESTElY  (Jacob),  an  English  minor  poet  of  thei 
seventeenth  century,  was  the  son  of  James  Atlestry,  a  book«. 
fieiler  of  London,  who  was  ruined  by  the  great  fire  in  1666^ 
and  related  to  provost  Allestry,  the  subject  of  the  next  ar<« 
ticle.  Jacob  was  educated  a«  Westminster  school,  and  en^ 
tered  at  Cbrist-^duirch,  Oxford,  m  the  act*term  1671,  at 
the  age  of  crighteen,  and  was  elected  student  in  1672.  Het 
took  the  degree  in  arts;  was  music-reader  in  1679,  an^ 
terr^  filins  in  1681 ;  both  which  offices  he  executed  with 
great  applause,  being  esteemed  a  good  philcdogist  and 
poet.  He  had  a  chief  hand  in  the  verses  and  p^storak 
spoken  in  the  theatre  at  Oxford,  May  21,  1681,  by  Mr. 
William  Savile,  second  son  of  the  marquis  of  Halifax,  and 
George  Cbolmondeliey,  second  son  Of  Robert  viscount  Kells 
(both  of  Christ-church),  before  James  duke  of  York,  hig 
duchess^  and  the  lady  Anne;  which  verses  and  pastoralil 
were  aftei'ward^  printed  in  the  '<  Examen  Poeticura."  He 
died  of  the  consequence  of  youthful  excesses,  October  1 5; 
16^6,  and  was  buried,  in  an  obscure  manner,  in  St.  Tho^ 
mas's  church-yard,  Oxibrd,* 

1  Calamy,->-Matber*r  History  of  Ntw  £iiglMid»  book  iii.  p.  S15. 
•  Diet  Hiat— Biog.  Unirerselle. 

i  AtK  Oje«^,<^JHiclM>U'i  PotKB^i  Tol.  |IL  «tttf«  trt  sptcime&ier fail  poefi^. 

6  A  L  L  E  S  T  R  V, 

ALLESTRY,  or  Allestree  (RicharI)),  aii  eminent 
English  divine,  jtvas  born  in  March  1619,  at  Uppington 
near  the  Wrekin  in  Shropshire.  He  was  at  first  educated 
at  a  free-school  in  that  neighbourhood,  and  afterwards  re- 
inoved  to  one  at  Coventry,  taught  by  Philemon  Holland 
the  tran^ator.  In  1636,  he  was  sent  to  Oxford,  and  en* 
t^red  a  commoner  in  Christ- church,  under  the  tuition  of 
Mr.  Richard  Busby,  afterwards  master  of  Westminster 
school.  Six  months  after  his  settlement  in  the  university, 
Br.  Fell,  dean  of  Christ-church,  having  observed  the  part» 
and  industry  of  young  Allestry,  made  him  a  student  of  that 
college,  where  he  ajipUed  himself  to  his  books  with  great 
assiduity  and  success.  When  he  had  taken  the  degree  of 
l^achelor  of  arts,  he  was  chosen  moderator  in  philosophy, 
in  which  office  he  continued  till  the  disturbai>ces  of  the 
kingdom  interrupted  the  studies  and  repose  of  the  univer- 
sity. In  1641,  Mr.  Allestry,  amongst  other  of  the  Oxford 
students,  took  arms  for  the  king,  under  sir  John  Bdron, 
and  continued  therein  till  that  gentleman  withdrew  from 
Oxford,  when  he  returned  to  his  studies.  Soon  after,  a 
party  of  the  parliament  forces  having  entered  Oxford  and 
plundered  the  colleges,  Mr.  Allestry  narrowly  escaped  be- 
ing severely  handled  by  them.  Some  of  them  .having 
attempted  to  break  into  the  treasury  of  Christ-church,  and 
leaving  forced  a  passage  into  it,  met  with^  nothing  hut  a 
single  groat  and  a  halter,  at  the  bottom  of  a  large  iron 
chest.  Enraged  at  their  disappointment,  theyVent  to  th^ 
deanry,  where  having  plundered  as  much  as  they  thought 
fit,  they  put  it  all  together  in  a  chamber,  locked  it  up,  and 
retired  to  their  quarters^  intending  next  day  to  return  and 
dispose  of  their  prize ;  but,  when  they  came,  they  found 
theniselves  disappointed,  and  every  thing  removed  out  of 
the  chamber.  Upon  examination  it  was  discovered^  that 
Mr.  Allestry  had  a  key  to  the  lodgings,  and  that  this  key 
had  been  made  use  of.  Upon  this  he  was  seized,  and  would 
probably  have  suffered  severely,  luul  not  the  earl  of  Essex 
called  away  the  forces  on  a  sudden,  and  by  that  means  res* 
cued  him  from  their  fury.  In  October  following,  he  took 
^rms  again,  and  was  at  the  batde  fought  betwixt  the  king 
and  the  parliament's  forces  under  the  command  of  the  earl 
of  Essex  upon  Keinton-field  in  Warwickshire ;  after  which, 
understanding  that  the  king  designed  immediately  to  march 
to.  Oxford,  and  take  up.hi^  residence  at  the  deanry  of 
Christ- church,  he  hastened  thither  to  mako  preparatiQos 

•A  L  L  E  S  T  R  Y.  7 

for  his  majesty's- reception;   but   in   his  way  was  taken 
prisoner  by  a  party  of  horse  from  Boughton-house,  which 
was  garrisoned  by  lord  Say  for  the  parliament :  his  con- 
finement, however,  was  but  short,  as  the  garrison  surren- 
dered to  the  king.     And  now  Mr.  Ailestry  returned  again 
to  his  studies,  and  the  spring  following  took  his  degree  of 
master  of  arts.     The  same  year  he  was  in  extreme  danger 
of  his  life  by  a  pestilential  distemper,  which  raged  in  the- 
garrison  at  Oxford ;  but  as  soon  as  he  recovered,  he  entered 
once  more  into  his  majesty's  service,  and  carried  a  mus- 
quet  in  a  regiment  formed  out  of  the  Oxford  scholars. 
Nor   did   he  in  the  mean  time  neglect  his  studies,  ^^  but 
frequently  (as  the  author  of  the  preface  to  Dr.  AUestry's 
Sermons  Expresses  it)  held  the  musquet  in  one  hand  ^nd 
the  book  in  the  other,  uniting  the  watchfulness  of  a  soldier 
with  the  lucubrations  of  a  student."     In  this  service  he 
continued  till  the  end  of  the  war;  then  went  into  holy  or- 
ders,  and  was  chosen  censor  of  his  college.     He  had  a 
considerable  share  in  that  test  of  loyalty,  which  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford  gave  in  their  decree  and  judgment  against 
llie  Sk)len^n  League  and  Covenant.     In  1 648,   the  parlia- 
ment sent  visito/s  to  Oxford,  to  demand  the  submission  of 
that  body  to  their  authority :  those  who  refused  to  comply 
were  immediately  proscribed ;  which  was  done  by  writing 
their  names  on  a  paper,  and  affixing  it  on  the  door  of  St. 
Mary's  church,  signifying  that  such  persons  were,  by  the 
authority  of  the  visitors,  banished  the  university,  and  re- 
quired to  depart  the  precincts  within  three  days,  upon  pain 
of  being  taken  for  spies  of  war,  and  proceeded  against  as 
such.    Mr.  Ailestry,  amongst  many  others,  was  accordingly 
expelled  the  university.     He  now  retired  into  Shropshire, 
and.  was  entertained  as  chaplain  to  the  honourable  Francis 
Newport,  esq.  and  upon  the  death  of  Richard  lord  New- 
port, that  gentleman's  father,  in  France,  whither  he  had 
fled  to  avoid  the  violence  of  the  prevailing  party,  was  sent 
over  to  France  to  take  care  of  his  effects.     Having  dis- 
patched this  affair  with  success,  he  returned  to  his  employ-^ 
ment,  in  which  he  continued  till  the  defeat  of  king  Charles 
II.  at  Worcester.     At  this  time  the  royalists  wanting  an  in- 
telligent and  faithful  person  to  send  over  to  his  majesty, 
Mr.  Ailestry  was  solicited  to  undertake  the  journey,  wliich 
he  accordingly  did ;  and  having  attended  the  king  at  Roan, 
and  received  his  dispatches,  returned  to  England.    In  1659, 
he  went  over  again  to  his  majesty  in  Flanders ,  and  uppa 


bis  return  was  seized  at  Dover  by  a  party  of  soldiers^  buti 
be  had  the  address  to  secure  his  letters,  by  conveying  them 
to  a  faithful  hand.  The  soldiers  guarded  him  to  London^ 
and  after  .being  examined  by  a  committee  of  the  council  o£ 
safety,  he  was  sent  prisoner  to  Lambeth-house,  wheve  he 
contracted  a  dangerous  sickness.  About  six  or  eight  week& 
after,  he  Was  set  at  hberty ;  and  this  enlargement  was  per* 
baps^  owing  to  the  prospect  of  aa  approaching  f evolution;. 
fi>r  some  of  the  heads  of  the  republican  party,  seeing  every 
thing  tend  towards  bis  majesty's  restoration,  were  willing 
by .  kindnesses  to  recommend  themselves  to  the  royal 

Soon  after  the  restoration,  Mr.  Allestry  was  made  a  ca- 
non of  Christ-church ;  at  the  same  time  he  undertook  one 
of  the  leptureships  of  the  city  of  Oxford,  but  never  received 
any  part  of  the  salary.;  for  he  ordered  it  to  be  distributed: 
amongi^t  the  poor.     In  October  1660,  he  took  the  degree 
t)f  D.'D.  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  king's  chaplains  ia 
ordinary,  and  in  Seprt  1663,  regius  professor  of  divinity,  in, 
which  chair  he  gat  seventeen  years,  and  acquitted  himself 
with  honour.   In  1665  hewas  appointed  provost  of  Eton  col-; 
lege,  where  he  raised  the  school,  which  he  found  in  a  low 
condition,  to  an  uncommon  pitch  of  reputafion.     The  west 
side  of  the  outward  quadrangle  of  that  college  was  built  from 
the  ground  at  his  expense.     The  excellent  Dr.  Hammond, 
who  was  his  intimate  friend,  left  him  his  valuable  library, 
which  he  bequeathed  himself  to  his  successors  in  the  divinity 
chair.     His  eagerness  for  study^  and  his  intention  of  mind 
while  he  was  employed  in  it  was  so  great,  that  it  impaired  * 
his  constitution,,  and  hastened  his  deaths     In  1630,  find-, 
ing  his  health  and  sight  much  weakened,  he  resigned  his. 
professorship  of  divinity  to  Dr.  Jane.    And  now  the  decay 
of,  his  constitution  terminating  in  a  dropsy,  he  removed  to 
London,  to  have  the  advice  of  physicians;  but  medicines, 
proving  ineffectual,  he  died  January  27th,  1680;  and  was 
buried  in  Eton  chapel,  where  a  marble  monument,  with  ai^ 
elegant  Latin  inscription,  was  erected  to  his  memory. 

Ther§  ar,e  extant  forty  sermons  by  Dr.  Allestry,  for  thct  ' 
most  part  preached  before  the  king,  upon  solemn  occa<b' 
sions,  fol.  1684.  Mr.  Wood  likewise  mentions  a  small . 
tract,  written  by  him,  entitled,  "  The  Privileges  of  the 
University  of  Oxford,  in  point  of  Visitation,'*  in  a  letter 
to  an  honourable  personage,  1647.  The  first  eighteen  of 
liis  sermons  were  publijihed  in  1669,  foL  for  a  benevolent 


purpose.     He  gave  them  to  Allestrj  the  faooks^er,  inen«« 
tioned  in  the  preceding  articte,  who  was  his  kinsman^  and 
was  mined  by  the  great  fire.  '  These^  with  the  others^  wer^ 
afterwards  published  by  Dr.  Fell,  bishop  of  Oxford,  whQ 
has  donegreat  justice  to  his  memory  in  the  life  prefixed.  * 
ALL£tZ  (Pons  Auoustjn),  a  French  advocatei  was^ 
born  at  Montpellier,  aivd  died  at  Paris,  March  7,  1785^ 
in  the  eighty-second  year  of  bis  age.     Having  no  talentt 
to  ma&e  a  figure  at  the  bar,  he  became  an  author  by  prot* 
fession,  and  compiled  a  sreat  number  of  works .  for  th^ 
booksellers,  some  of  which  nad  considerable  success.     The 
principal  productions  of  his  industry  were,  1.  Several  dic*^. 
tionaries,  particularly  ^^  L' Agronome,'*  2  vols.  8vo ;  a  good 
abridgment  of  the  ^'  Maison  Rustique  ;'*  a  ^^  Dictionnaire 
Theologique/*  and  another  "  Des  Conciles,"  both  in  8vo, 
concise,  but  not  remartiable  for  perspicuity.    2.  ^^  Manael 
(ie  Fhomme  du  monde,"  8>vo;  and  ^^  UEncyclopedie  de 
Pensees,"  Svo;  compilations  made  with  little  care.  3.  **  Sy- 
nopsis Doctrinae  Sacrse,'*  dvo,  a  collection  of  the  passages 
in  the  Bible  which  regard  the  articles  of  belief*     4.  "  Ta- 
bleau de  rhistoire  de  France,"  2  vols.  12mo,  which  was 
adopted  into  some  schools,  and  although  negligently  written, 
and  with  little  attraction,  gives  the  principal  facts  of  the 
French   history  with  fidelity   and  simplicity.      5.  "  Les 
Princes  celebres  qui  ont  regn6  dans  le  monde,*'  4  vols. 
1 2mo.    6.  L'Histoire  deB  P^apes,"  2  vols.  1 2mo.   7.  "  L*His- 
toire  des  Singes,''  2  vols.  12aio,     This  transition  from  the 
Ivistory  of  "pnnces  and  popes  to  that  of  apes  and  monkeys, 
may  be  thought  a  proof  of  the  versatility  of  our  author's 
genius :  his  history  of  princes,  however,  is  the  best  of  the 
three ;  that  of  popes  is  said  tq  be  superficial,  and  not  very 
impartial.     8.  ^^  Les  ornamens  de  la  memoire/'   12mo,  ia 
which  the  title  is  more  happy  thaifi  usual  in  such  works,  is  a 
collection  of  the  beauties  of  the  French  poets,  and  has  been 
often  repriated  and  enlarged.    9.  "  Les  Lemons  de  Thalie,'* 
3  vols.  12mo:>  these  are  portraits  and  characteristic  pieces* 
from  the  comic  poets,    iO.  "  Connoisances  des  Poctes  Fran- 
coises," 2  vols.  12mo.     H.  "  Catechiame  d^  Tage  mur," 
12nio,  an  abridgment  of  tHe  proofs  of  relig^oa  by  ques« 
tion  and  answer.     12.  "  L' Albert  modetne,"  2  vols.  l2mo.. 
13.  *^.L'jE§pritdesJournalistes  de  Trcvoux^"  4vok  I2rao« 

^I.ifiB  prdBttd  U>  his  Serflioi».«-*^Glett«  D!ct. — Bkf^^  Die4.-«Atbv  0)^9n.-.-H»r«^ 
wood's  AluaiBJ^  p<  24.— His  great  niece,  wlio  very  much  resembled  bis  picture  19 
GMsi-cl^ttrch  hail,  died  lSa9.  '  GeaU  Mag.:  Toi.  UQCIX.  9*  Vd-;?. 

10  A  L  L  E  T  Z. 

14.  "  L' Esprit  des  Journalistes  de  Hollande,''  2  vols. 
13nio.  The  former  of  these  is  a  judicious  selection.  He 
compiled  likewise  several  books  for  schools,  and  abridg- 
ments of  the  Greek  history,  the  *^Magasin  des  Adoles- 
f*ens,"  lives  of  the  saints,  &c*  &c.  This  copious  list,  in 
which  we  have  not  given  all  his  compilations,  is  no  small 
testimony  to  the  industry  of  M.  Alletz,  who  was  at  least 
virtuously,  and  often  usefully  employed,  and  whose  cha- 
racter made  his  death,  although  at  a  very  advanced  period, 
be  much  regretted  by  hi$  friends  and  family. » 

ALLEY,  or  Alleigh  (William),  bishop  of  Exeter  in 
the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  was  born  at  Great  Wycomb- 
in  Buckinghamshire,  and  educated  at  Eton  school.     In 
J  528  he  went  from  thence  to  King's  college,  Cambridge, 
where  he  took  a  bachelor's  degree,  but  removed  to  Oxford, 
and  spent  some  time  in  the  academical  studies  of  that  uni- 
versity.    He  afterwards  married,  was  presented  to  a  living, 
and  became  a  zealous  reformer.     On  queen  Mary's  ac- 
cession he  left  his  cure,  and  retired  into  the  north  of  Eng- 
land, where  he  maintained  himself  by  keeping  a  school 
and  practising  physic.     On  queen  Elizabeth's  accession, 
when  he  could  avow  his  principles  with  safety,  he  went  to 
London^  and  was  appointed  to  read  the  divinity  lecture  at 
St.  Paul's,  in  which  he  acquired  great  reputation ;  and  in 
July   1560,  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Exeter.     He  was 
not  created  doctor  of  divinity  until  November  1 56  J .     He 
died  April  15,  1570,  and  was  buried  at  Exeter.    He  wrote, 
I.  **  The  Poor  Man's  Library,"  2  vols,  folio,  1571.     These 
volumes  contain  his  twelve  lectures  at  St.  Paul's,  on  the 
first  epistle  of  St.  Peter.     2.  **  A  Hebrew  Grammar,"  but 
it  is  uncertain  whether  it  was  ever  published.    He  translated 
the  Pentateuch  in  the  version  of  the  Bible  undertaken  by 
command  of  queen  Elizabeth.     Three  epistles  of  Alley  to 
Matthew  Parker,  in  Latin,  are  preserved  among  the  MSS, 
of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Cambridge.     His  "  Judgment 
cjoncerning  the  Doctrine  and  Discipline  of  the  Church"  is  in 
Strype's  Annals.     Wood  and  Godwin  agree  in  placing 
bishop  Alley's  death  in  J  570;  but  Tanner  says,  that  it 
wasron  April  15,  1571,  and  Fuller  carries  it  down  so  low 
as  1576.     He  left  a  son,  Roger  Alley,  who  was  archdea« 
con  of  Cornwall ;  and  his  great  grandson,  the  rev.  Peter 
Alley,  died  so  lately  as  August  1763,  at  the  very  extraor- 

^  Diet  fiitft.— BiOf  r»jphi«  Univ«r»elk^ 

ALLEY.  11 

dinary  age  of  ooe  hundred  and  ten  years  and  two  months. 
He  was  for  seventy-three  years  rector  of  Donamow,  in 
Qaeen's  County^  Dublin^  and  served  his  own  cure  till 
within  a  few  d^ys  of  hi;  death. 

The   following  particulars  of   bishop  Alley's  personal. 

history  are  given  by  a  contemporary.     He  was  well  stored, 

and  his  library  well  replenished  with  all  the  best  writers  ; 

which  most  gladly  he  did  impart,  and  lay  open  to  every 

good  scholar  and  student   requesting  the  sanle^    whose 

company  and  conference  he  did  desire  and  embrace.      He 

seemed  at  the  first  appearance  to  be  a  rough  and  austere 

man,  but  in  truth  was  a  very  courteous,  gentle,  and  af* 

fable  man  ;  at  his  table  full  of  honest  speeches,  joined 

with  learning  and  pleasantness,    according  to  the  time, 

place,  and  company ;  at  his  exercises,  which  for  the  most 

part  were  at  bowls,  very  merry  and  pleasant,  void  of  all 

sadness,  which  might  abate  the  benefit  of  recreation,  loth 

to  offend,  ready  to  forgive,  void  of  malice,  full  of  love, 

bountiful  in  hospitality,  liberal  to  the  poor,  and  a  sue- 

courer  of  the  needy ;  faithful  to  his  friend,  and  courteous 

to  all  men  ;  a  hater  of  covetousness,  and  an  enemy  to  all 

evil  and  wicked  men  ;  and  lived  an  honest,  godly,  and 

virtuous  life.     Finally,  he  was  endued  with  many  notable 

good  gifts  and  virtues ;  only  he  was  somewhat  credulous,  of 

a  hasty  belief,  and  light  of  credit,  which  he  did  oftentimes 

mislike  and  blame  in  himself.     In  his  latter  time  he  waxed 

somewhat  gross,  and  his  body  was  full  of  humours,  which 

abated  much  of  his  wonted  exercise.     Queen  Elizabeth, 

out  of  the  great  respect  she  bad  for  this  bishop,  sent  him, 

yearly,  a  sUver  cup  for  a  new  year's  gift.     The  mayor  of 

Exeter  much  opposed  him,  on  his  obtaining  a  commission 

to  be  a  justice  of  the  peace  within  the  same,  contrary  to 

the  charters  and  liberties  thereof.  ^ 

.  ALLEY N  (Edward),  a  celebrated  comedian  in  the 
seigns  of  queen  Elizabeth  and  king  James,  but  more  justly 
celebrated  as  the  founder  of  the  college  at  Dulwich,  in 
Surrey,  was  born  in  London,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Botolph 
without  Bishopsgate,  Sept.  1,  1566,  as  appears  from  a 
memorandum  of  his  own  writing.  Dr.  Fuller  says,  that  he 
was  bred  a  stage«>playeip  ^  and  that  his  father  would  have 

*  Biog.  Brit.— Gen.  Diet.— FuHer^s  Worthies.— Harwoo4*»  Alumni  ^ton.— 
Ath.Ox. — Tanner. — Strype's  Life  of  Partter,  pp.  67, 103,  156. — Strype's  Annals^ 
VOL  I.  p.  201.— St.  James's  Chronicle,  Sept.  3,  1703.— Pol whele's  Hist,  of  De- 
viDiiiJure.-^Uack«'s  Aaiiqoitiet  of  l^xeter.^ 

12  A  L  t  E  Y  N. 

given  him  a  liberal  edupaition,  but  that  be  was  not 
turned  for  a  serious  course  of  life.  He  was^  however,  a 
youth  of  good  capacity,  of  a  cheerful  temper,  and  tenia-; 
clous  memory,  and  in  bis  person  of^  a  stately  port  and  as«: 
pect  ^  all  'which  advantages  are  4^^''^^<^^^^i^&  foi'>  ^nd 
sometimo^  incitements  to,  the  theatrical  profesMon.  By* 
several  authorities  ^^e  fiad  be  must  have  beeo  on  the  sttagidt 
^me  time  before  1592;  for  at  this  lime  he  was  in  higfar 
favour  with  the  town,  and  greatly  applauded  by  the  besft 
judges,  particularly  by  Ben  Jdnson.  Haywood,  in  fai» 
prologue  to  Marlow's  Jew  of  Malta,  caUs  him  Proteus  for 
shapes,  and  Roscijis  for  a  tongue.  He  usually  played  tfao 
capital  parts,  and  was  one  of  the  original  actors  in  Shak-' 
speare^s  plays;  in  some  of  Ben  Jonson^s  he  was  also  di 
principal  performer  :  but  what  characters  he  personated  in 
either  of.  these  poets,  is  diiEcult  now  to  determine.  Thitf 
is  owing,  to  the  inaccuracy  of  theit  editors,  who  did  not 
print  the  names  of  the  players  opposite  to  the  character 
they  performed,  as  the  modern  custom  is,  but  gave  on^ 
general  list  of  actors  to  the  whole  set  of  playsj  as  in  the 
old  folio  edition  of  Sbakspeate  ;  or  ^divided  one  from  th<^ 
other,  setting  the  dramsltis  personam  before  the  plays,  and 
the  catalogue  of  performers  after  them,  as  in  Jonson's. 

It  maj'  appear  surprising,  how  one  of  Mr.  Alleyn's  pro-* 
fession  should  be  enabled  to  erect  such  an  edifice  as  thil^ 
wich  college,  and  liberally  endow  it  for  the  maintenanGo 
of  so  many  persons.  But  it  must  be  observed  that  he  bad 
some  paternal  fortune,  which,  tliough  small,  probably  laid 
the  foundation  of  his  future  affluence  ;  and  it  is  to  be^  pf e^ 
sumed  that  the  profits  he  received  from  acting,  to  one»  of^ 
his  provident  and  managing  disposition,  and  one  who  \>y 
bis  excellence  in  playing  drew  after  him  such  crowds  o^ 
spectators,  must  have  considerably  improved  bis  fortime  v 
besides,  he  was  not  only  an  actor,  but  master  of  a  play- 
house, built  at  his  own  expence,  by  which  he  is  said  tis 
have  amassed  considerable  wealth.  This  was  the  Fortune 
play-house,  near  Whitecross  street,  by  Moorfields..  There 
is  a  tradition  in  tbe  neigbbourboi>d:  of  this  place,  tbat  iw 
digging  the  foundation  of  this  hoose,  there  was  fo«(iid  a* 
considerable  treasure ;  so  that  it  is  probable  the  whole  or 
greatest  part  of  it  might  fall  to  Mr.  AUeyn.  He  was  also 
keeper  of  the  king's  wild  beasts,  or  master  of  the  royal 
bear-garden,  which  was  frequented  by  vast  crowds  of 
spectators :  and  the  profits  arising  from  these  sports  are  said 

A  L  L  E  Y  H.  nl3 

to  hare  smounted  to  50Q/.  per  annunL  He  was  thride 
Qianried  ;  and  the  portions  of  his  two  first  wives,  they 
leavijig  him  no  issue  to  iiiherit,  probably  contributed  to  this 
benefa^ioD.  Such  donations  have  been  frequently  thought 
to  proceed  more  from  vanity  and  ostentation  than  real 
charity ;  but  this  of  Mr.  Alleyn  has  been  ascribed  to  a  very 
singular  cause*  Mr.  Aubrey  mentions  a  tradition,  that 
Mr.  Alleyn,  playing  a  daemon  with  six  others,  in  one  of 
•Sbakspeare's  plays,  was,  in  the  midst  of  the  play,  stir- 
prised  by  an  apparition  of  the  devil,  which  so  worked  on 
his  &ncy,  that  he  made  a  vow,  which  he  performed  by 
building  Dulwich  college.  Whatever  may  be  in  this  story^ 
he  began- the  foundation  of  this  college,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Inigo  Jones,  in  1614;  and  the  buildings,  gardens, 
&c.  were  finished  in  1617,  in  which  he  is  said  to  have  ex« 
pended  about  10,000/.  After  the  college  was  built,  he 
met  with  some  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  charter  for  settling 
his  lands  in  mortmain ;  for  he  proposed  to  endow  it  with 
.900/.  per  annuniy  for  the  mainteriance  of  oiie  master,  one 
warden,  and  four  fellows,  three  whereof  were  to  be  cler- 
gymen, and  the  foutth  a  skilful  organist;  also  six  poor 
men,  and  as  many  wemen,  besides  twelve  poor  boys,  to 
be  educated  till  the  age  of  fourteen  or  sixteen,  and  then 
piA  out  to  some  trade  or  calling.  The  obstruction  he  met 
with  arose  from  the  lord  chancell(M!'  Bacon,  who  wished 
^ing  James  to  settle  part  of  those  lands  for  the  support  of 
two  academical  lectures;  and  he  wrote  a  letter  to  the  mar^ 
quis  of  Buckingham,  dated  Aug.  18,  1618,  entreating  him 
to  use  Jiis  interest  with  his  majesty  for  that  purpose  *.  Mr. 
Alieyn's  solicitation  was,  however,  at  last  complied  with, 
and  he  obtained  the  royal  licence,  giving  him  full  power 


*  The  letter  is  as  foUovs :  "  I  now  tores,  the  one  in  Oxford,  the  oUier  ift 

write  to  give  the  king  an  account  of  a  Cambridge,    foundalions    of   singular 

patent  I  have  stayed  at  the  seal ;  it  is  honour  to  his  majesty,  and  St  which 

0f  lioence  to  give  in  mortmain  800/.  there  is  great  want ;  whereas  hospitali 

l^ndy  though  it  be  of  tenure  in  chief,  to  abound,  ond  beggars  abomid  never  9. 

Allen  that  was  the  player,  for  an  h^s-  whit  the  less.     If  bis  majesty  do  like 

liitaL    X  like  well  that  Allen  playeth  !•  pass  the  book  at  all,  yet  if  he  would 

•Ihe  last  act  of  his  life  so  well ;  but  if  be  pleased  to  abridge  the  800/.  to  500f. 

his  majesty  give  away  thus  to  amortize  and  then  give  way  to  the  other  tw(» 

Ikis  tennres,   his  court  of  wards  will  books  for  the  university,    it  were   a 

ilacay ;  which  I  had  wel|  hoped  ^llOQld  princely  work  ;  and  I  would  make  «t  / 

hnpr^ve.     But  that  which  moved  mc  humble  suit  to  the  king,  and  desic* 

chiefly,  is  that  his  miyesty  now  lately  vour  lordship  to  join  in  it,  that  it  Qkight 

4id  aibsoUitely  deny  sir  Henry  JSavile  .  he  so«"    The  works  of  Francis  loit| 

for  200/.  and  sir  Edward  ^ndys  for  ISacon,  yoi,  IV.  foU  n4iO,  j^.  ^^ 
|00i  to  the  perpetMatiQ|;  of  two  lee- 

14  A  L  L  E  Y  N. 

to  lay  his  foundation,   by  his    majesty's  letters    patent, 
bearing  date  th^  21st  of  June,   1619;   by  virtue  where- 
of he  did,  in  the  chapel  of  the  said  new  hospital  at  Dul- 
•wich,  called  "The  College  of  God's  Gift,"  on  the  I3tb 
of   Septennber    following,  publicly  read,   and   published, 
a  quadripartite  writing  in  parchment,  whereby  he  created 
and  established  the  said   college;  he  then  subscribed   it 
with  his  name,  and  fixed  his  seal  to  several  parts  thereof, 
in    presence   of   several    honourable   persons,    aud    or- 
dered copies  of  the  writings  to  four  different  parishes. 
-  Those  honourable  persons  were  Francis  lord  Verulam  lord 
chancellor ;  Thomas  earl  of  Arundel,  earl  marshal  of  Eng- 
land ;  sir  Edward  Cecil,  second  son  to  the  earl  of  Exeter  ; 
sir  John  Howard,  high  sheriff  of  Sussex  and  Surrey ;  sir 
£4ward  Bowyer,  of  Camberwell ;  sir  Thomas  Grymes  of 
Peckbam;  sir  John  Bodley,  of  Stretham  ;  sir  John  Tonstal, 
of  Carshalton ;  and  divers  other  persons  of  great  worth 
and  respect.     The  parishes  in  which  the  said  writings  were 
deposited,   were  St.  Botolph's  without  Bishopsgate,   St. 
Giles's  without  Cripplegate,  St.  Saviour's  in  Southwarfc, 
and  the  parish  of  Camberwell  in  Surrey.     The  contents  or 
heads  of  the  said  statutes,  or  quadripartite  writings,  con- 
taining the  laws  and  rules  of  this  foundation,  axe  as  follow : 
1.  A  recital  of  king  James's  letters  patent.     2«  Recital  of 
the  founder's  deed  quadripartite.      3.  Ordination  of  the 
master,  warden,  &c.     4.  Ordination  of  the  assistant  mem^,. 
bers,  &c^     5.  The  roaster  and  warden  to  be  unmarried, 
and  always  to  be  of  the  name  of  Alleyn  or  Allen.     6.  The 
master  and  warden  to  be  twenty-one  years  of  age  at  least 
7.  Of  what  degree  the  fellows  to  be.     8.  Of  what  degree 
the  poor  brothers  and  sisters  to  be.     9.  Of  what  condition 
the  poor  scholars  are  to  be.     10.  Of  what  parishes  the  as- 
sistants are  to  be.     11.  From  what  parishes  the  poor  are 
to  be  chosen,  and  the  members  of  this  college,     12.  The 
form  of  their  election.     1 3.  The  warden  to  supply  when 
the  master's  place  is  void.     14,  The  election  of  the  war- 
.den.      15.    The   warden  to  be   bound  by   recognizance. 
16.  The  warden  to  provide  a  dinner  for  the  college  upon 
his  election.       17*    The   form   of  admitting  the  fellows: 
18^  The  manner  of  electing  the  scholars.     19.  Election  of 
the  poor  of  Camberwell.     20.  The  master  and  warden's 
oath.     21.  The  fellow's  oath.     22.  The  poor  brother's  and 
sister^s  oath.     23.  The  assistant's  oath.     24.  The  pronua- 
ciation  of  admission.     25.  The  master*s  oflSce/    26.  The 

A  L  L  E  Y  N.  IS 

warden's  office.  27.  The  fellow's  office.  2a.  The  poor 
brother's  and  sister's  oifitb.  29.  That  of  the  matron  of 
the  poor  scholars.  30.  The  porter's  office.  31.  The  of- 
fice of  the  thirty  members.  32,  Of  residence.  33.  Orders 
of  the  poor  and  their  goods.  34.  Of  obedience.  35.  Or- 
ders for  the  chapel  and  burial.  36.  Orders  for  the  school 
and  scholars,  and  putting  them  forth  apprentice.  37.  Or* 
derofdiet  38,  The  scholars'  surplices  and  coats.  39. 
Time  for  viewing  expences.  40.  Public  audit  and  private 
sitting  days.  41.  Audit  and  sitting  chamber.  42.  Of 
lodgings.  43.  Orders  for  the  lands  and  wopds.  44.  Al- 
lowance to  the  master  and  warden  of  diet  for  one  mB,n  a 
piece,  with  the  number  and  wages  of  the  college  servants. 
45.  Disposition  and  division  of  the  revenues.  46.  Dis- 
position of  the  rent  of  the  Blue-house.  47.  The  poor  to 
be  admitted  out  of  other  places,  in  case  of  deficiency  in 
the  parishes  prescribed.  48.  The  disposition  of  forfeitures. 
49.  The  statutes  to  be  read  over  four  several  times  in  the 
year.  50.  The  dispositions  of  certain  tenements  \n  St 
Saviour's  parish,  Southwark. 

He  was  himself  the  first  master  of  his  college^  so  that, 
to  make  use  of  the  words  of  Mr.  Haywood,  one  of  his  con- 
temporaries, '^  he  was  so  mingled  with  humility  and 
eharity,  that  he  became  his  own  pensioner,  humbly  sub- 
mitting himself  to  that  proportion  of  diet  and  clothes  which 
be  had  bestowed  on  others.''  We  have  no  rei^son  to  think 
he  ever  repented  of  this  distribution  of  his  substance ;  but 
ofi  the  contrary,  that  he  was  entirely  satisfied,  as  appeart 
from  the  following  memorial  in  his  own  writing,  found 
amongst  his  papers:  ^^May  26,  1620,  My  wife  and  I  ac- 
knowledged tbe  fine  at  the  common  pleas  bar,  of  all  our 
lands  to  the  college :  blessed  be  God  that  he  hath  given 
us  life  to  do  it"  His  wife  died  in  1623  ;  and  about  two 
years  afterwards .  he  married  Constance  I^inchtoe,  who 
survived  him^  and  received  remarkable  proofs  of  his  affec- 
tion, if  at  least  we  may  judge  of  it  by  his  willy  wherein  he 
left  her  considerable  property.  He  died  NoVi,  25»  1626, 
in  the  sixty-first  year  of  his  age ;  and  was  buricKl  in  the 
chapel  of  bis  new  college,  where  theite  is  a  tomb-stone 
over  his. grave^  with  an  inscription.  His  original  diary  19 
still  preserved.  ^ 

>  Biog..  Brit,  origtiiany  Written  by  Mr.  OMyt ;  but  flurny  tdditionml  paitieiilart 
my  be  seen  to  Lytons't  £avjroos  of  Loadoo,  ro\.  I.  end  M^fcme'i  History  of  (ha 
jftage,  pjrefixed  to  kii»  Md  t»  Jehnfoa  nd  SiMVtBi'f  t^tmk  of  Sbak^Wh 

16  ALLlBb'N*-D. 


ALLIBOND  (John),  D.  D.  of  Magdalen  college,  Ox- 
ford, was  a  native  of  Buckinghamshire,  and  master  of  the 
free- school  adjoining  to  Magdalen  college.  He  was  after- 
wards rector  of  Bradwell  in  Gloucestershire,  where  he  died 
in  1658.  He  is  principally  known  in  the  literary  annals  of 
Oxford  by  an  exquisite  piece  of  poetical  humour,  which  he 
had  the  courage  to  publish  in  1648,  in  ridicule  of  the  par* 
Hamentary  visitors  and  their  party:  it  was  entitled  *^Rus- 
tica  academiae  Oxoniensis  nuper  reformatae  descriptio  : 
nnsL  cum  comitiis  ibidem,  1648  habitis.'^'  Notwithstanding 
the  danger  of  publishing  a  satire  of  this  description,  two 
editions  were  eagerly  bought  up,  but  it  is  now  very  rare. ' 

ALLIBOND  (Petbr),  father  of  the  preceding,  was  bom 
in  1560  at  Wardenton,  near  Banbury,  in  Oxfordshire,  of 
an  aucient  family,  and  studied  at  Magdalen-hall,  where 
he  took  his  bachelor's  and  master's  degrees,  and  then 
travelled  on  the  continent.  On  his  return  he  became 
rector  of  Cheyneys  in  Buckinghamshire,  where  he  died 
March  6,  1628-9.  His  publications,  according  to  Wood, 
were  mostly  translations  of  pious  works  by  foreign  divines* 
1.  'V Comfort  for  an  afflicted  conscience,*'  Lond.  1591, 
Svo,  from  the  French  of  John  L'Espine,  2.  *^  Confutation 
of  the  Popish  Transubstantiation,"  Lond.  1592,  8vo, 
3.  **  The  golden  chain  of  Salvation,'*  from  the  Latin  of 
Harman  Renecker,  Lond.  1604,  4to.* 

ALLI0NI  (Charles),  a  celebrated  Piedmontese  phy^ 
$ician,  and  professor,  of  Botany,  in  the  university  of  Turin, 
was  born  in  1725,  and  died  in  1804.  On  account  of  his 
high  reputation  for  learning,  he  was  elected  a  member  of 
many  scientific  societies,  such  as  the  institute  of  Bologna, 
and  th6  royal  societies  of  London,  Montpellier,  Gottingen, 
Madrid,  fee.  Of  his  numerous  medical  and  botanical  pub-- 
licatio^s,  the  following  are  the  principal :  1.  "  Pedemontii 
stirpium  rariorum  specimen  primum,"  Turin,  1755,  4to, 
containing  the  *  description  and  figures  of  thirty  plants, 
either  new  or  little  known,  ^which  grow  on  the  moun- 
tains of  Piedmont.  2.  ^*  OryctographioB  Pedemontanafc 
specimen,**  Paris,  1757,  8vo  ;  an  account  of  the  fossils 
in  Pieduiont,  3.  "  Tractatio  de  miliar!  um  origine,  pro- 
gressu,  natura,  et  curatione,"  Turin,  1758,  8vo;  a  me- 
dical treatise  much  esteeofed..  '4.  ^'  Stirpium.  prabc^mafinn 

1  W904'«FMli,  vol.  Ih|ik40^.«Awuam  voll^pp.  ^i  58)1    . 
?  Atl;i.Ox.Toi.I.  p.525^ 

A  L  L  I  O  N  1.  1» 

uUoiris  et  agri  Nicaeensis  enunieratio  xnetbodica,  cum 
elencho  aliquot  animalium  ejusdem  maris/'  Paris,  1757, 
8vo.  This  work  is  often  quoted  hy  naturalists  under  the 
abridged  title  of  "  Enumeratio  stirpium  Nicwensis.' •  The 
principal  part  of  it  was  collected  by  John  Giudice^  a  bo- 
tanist at  Nice,  and  a  friend  of  Allioni,  to  whom  he  be-^^ 
queathed  his  papefrs.  5.  "  Synopsis  methodica  horti  Tau-^ 
rinejisis,'*  Turin,  1762,  4to,  a  methodical  catalogue  of  the 
plants  in  the  botanic  garden  of  Turin,  divided  into  thir- 
teen classes.  6*  ^'  Flora  Pedemontana,  sive  enumeratio 
methodica  stirpium  indigenarum  Pedemontii,"  Turin,  1785^ 
3  vols.  foL  This  splendid  work,  which  is  illustrated  with 
ninety-two  plates,  was  the  fruit  of  long  labour  and  study^ 
and  added  greatly  to  the  author's  reputation.  In  it  he 
describes  2813  plants,  which  he  found  growing  wild  in  the 
duchy  of  Piedmont,  of  which  those  in  the  ttiird  volume 
are  new.  It  has  been,  however,  said,  that  those  already 
known  acquire  a  kind  of  novelty  by  his  descriptions,  which 
are  drawn  from  nature,  and  not  from  books ;  and  the  work 
derives  an  additional  value,  especially  on  the  spot,  from 
the  very  cautious  manner  in  which  he  speaks  of  the  me- 
dical properties  of  any  of  these  plants.  The  arrangement 
resembles  that  of  Haller  in  his  history  of  the  .Swiss  plants. 
Haller  had  a  great  regard  for  AUioni,  and  corresponded 
with  him  till  his  death,  7.  "  Auctuarium  ad  Flora  Pede- 
montana,'* Turin,  1789,  containing  some  additions  and 
corrections  to  the  former.  Besides  these  works,  he  wrote 
several  papers  in  the  memoirs  of  the  academy  of  Turin  ; 
and  from  all  his  writings  seems  to  deserve  an  honourable 
place  among  those  who  have  contributed  to  the  advance- 
ment of  the  botanical  and  medical  sciences.  Loeffling 
consecrated  a  genus  to  his  memory,  under  the  name  of 
AUionia,  which  Linnaeus  has  adopted.  It  is  a  genus  of 
the  monogynia  order  belonging  to  the  tetrandria  class  of 
plants.  ^ 

ALLIX  (Peter),  a  very  learned  and  eminent  divine  of 
the  church  of  England,  although  a  native  of  France,  and 
well  kno^^ti  by  his  numetous  and  excellent  writings,  was 
born  in  1641  at  Alen^on;  and  having  received  a  liberal 
education,  which  highly  improved  his  great  natural,  parts, 
he  became  minister  of  the  reformed  church  at  Roued.  At 
tbisplacci  before  he  was  thirty* five  yeai'sof  age,  be  distin- 

*  Blog.  Univers«llt» 

Vgt.  It  Q  ^  . 

18  ,A  L  L  I  X. 

fished  hiiriself  by  pubtishing  some  rery  able  pieees^  which 
excited  mach  notice,  and  he  was  invit€fd  to  Charenton,  theri 
the  principal  church  the  reformed  ha4  in  France,  and 
whither  the  most  considerable  persons  of  the  Protestant 
religion  constantly  resorted.  As  he  now  saw  himself  in  a 
eondition  to  promote  the  interest  of  the  ehureh,  he  applied 
himself  to  the  task  with  all  imaginable  zeal,  and  preached 
several  valuable  sermons  in  defence  of  the  faith, .  against 
the  artful  attempts  of  the  bishop  of  Meaiix,  who  was*  then 
labouring  to  overturn  the  reformed  religion,  by  Seeming 
concessions  to  its  professors.  Upon  the  revocation  of  the 
edict  of  Nantz,  Mr.  AUix  found  himself  obliged  to  quit 
France,  and  had  prepared  a  pathetic  discourse,  which  he 
intended  to  have  delivered  as  hi^^arewell  tahis  congrega- 
tion, but  was  obliged  to  omit  it,  although  it  was  afterwards 

In  1685,  when  tl^e  above  edict  was  revoked,  and  the 
Protefstant  religion  banished  from  France,  Mr.  AUix  came 
into  England,  either  in  that  or  the  following  year,  and  met 
with  a  riiost  favourable  reception,  on  account  of  his  exten- 
sive learning,  and  especially  his  knowledge  in  ecclesiastical 
history.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  his  first  object  was  to  ac- 
quire the  English  language,  which  he  attained  in  a  high 
degree  of  perfection.  In  1690,  he  was  complimented  with 
the  degree  of  D.  D.  by  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and  in 
the  same  year  he  had  the  treasurership  of  the  church  of 
Salisbury  given  to  him  ;  and  some  foreign  memoirs  say  he 
was  made  canon  of  Windsor,  but  this  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  the  case.  It  was  proposed  that  he  should  have 
Published  here  an  authentic  "  History  of  the  Councils,'*! 
for  which  laborious  and  important  work  he  was  well  quali-^ 
fied :  but  by  sOnae  accidents  intervening,  and  for  want  of 
encouragement,  this  undertaking  miscarried.  He  wrote 
^nd  published,  however,  several  treatises  relating  to  eccle- 
siastical history,  which  displayed  great  learning,  were  very 
interesting,  and  very  useful  to  the  Protestant  cause,  which 
was  then  in  considerable  danger.  These  pieces,  of  which 
we  shall  give  a  list,  were  remarkably  well  received,  and  the 
author  became  in  as  great  credit  here,  as  ever  he  had  been 
in  France,  for  his  ingenious  and  solid  defences  of  the  re- 
formed religion,  from  reason  and  authority,  and  from  the 
practice  of  early  ages,  as  well  as  the  precepts  of  the  gos- 
pel. In  1699  he  wrote  a  very  learned  treatise  in  defence 
pf  the  Trinity,  which  has  always  been  considered  bh^  an  able 

A  L  L  I  X.  19* 

MnA  arjgumentative  performance,  and  is  mentioned  with 
great  respect  by  the  late  bishop  Horsley,  in  his  letters  to 
Dr.  Priestley.  He  wrote  several  other  learned  and  inge-^ 
nious  treatises  on  curious  and  important  subjects,  and  was^ 
for  upwards  of  thirty  years,  a  strenuous  and  affectionate 
defender  of  the  established  church.  Some  of  these  pieces 
exposed  him,  however^  to  very  severe  censures ;  and  among 
the  rest,  Bayle,  who  had  formerly  complimented  him  very 
highly,  attacked  him  with  contemptuous  language;  but  the 
opinion  of  Bayle,  where  orthodoxy  is  concerned,  is  not 
deserving  of  much  respect.  One  of  his  antagonists,  Mr. 
Stephen  Nye,  rector  of  Hormead,  accuses  him  of  Tritheism ; 
and  in  Moreri's  Dictionary,  printed  in  1740,  it  is  insinuated 
that  he  was  inclined  to  Socinianism,  a  charge  the  most 
absurd  and  incredible  that  could  be  brought.  Dr.  Allix, 
however,  continued  steady  and  fixed  in  his  principles,  and 
was  so  well  known  to  be  a  zealous  defender  of  the  doctriQe 
of  the  church  of  England  on  that  subject,  that  Whiston 
thought  proper  to  consult  him,  when  he  first  proposed 
writing  in  support  of  his  own  opinions,  as  appears  by  what 
he  says  on  this  subject  in  his  "  Historical  Preface,*'  which, 
however,  Dr.  AUix  found  it  necessary  to  correct  in  a  short 
relation  of  his  interview  with  Whiston. 

Dr.  AUix  ei\joyed  a  very  uncommon  share  of  health  apd 
spirits^  afi  appears  by  his  latest  writings,  in  which  there  is 
not  only  adl  the  erudition,  but  all  the  quickness  and 
vivacity  that  appeared  in  bis  earliest  pieces.  Those  who 
knew  him,  derived  the  same  pleasure  from  bis  conversa- 
tion, that  the  learned  found  \n  his  productions ;  for,  with 
an  extensive  share  of  learning,  he  had  a  remarkable  liveli« 
hess  of  temper,  and  expressed  himself  on  the  driest  sub* 
jects  with  much  sprightliness,  and  in  a  manner  out  of  the 
common  road.  He  was  consulted  by  the  greatest  men  of 
his  age,  on  the  deepest  and  most  intricate  parts  of  learning, 
and  received  the  praise  of  the  ablest  critics  of  his  time.  It 
was  not  any  single  branch  of  literature,  or  a  few  related  to 
each  other,  that  could  occupy  his  thought^,  but  the  whole 
circle  of  sciences  which  fall,  under  the  cognizance  of  a 
general  scholar  and  sound  divine.  His  sermons  shew  him 
to  have  been  an  admirable  orator,  and  at  the  same  time  a 
profound  scholar,  and  the  several  ancient  authors  whose 
writings  he  publislxed,  testify  his  skill  in  criticism,  and  his 
perfect  acquaintance  with  antiquity.  His  treatises  on 
4ci^^iastical  l^istory  discover  a  vast  fund  of  reading,  and 

c  3 

to  ALL  IX. 

an  exact  comprehension  of  his  subject,  with  a  vrarm  zfsal 
for  the  JProtestant  religion.     He,  laboured  also  to  serve  it 
by  the  tracts  he  rescued  from  oblivion,  to  shewj  which  they 
did  effectually,  that  the  charge  of  novelty  oh  which^  the 
Papists  insisjted  so  loudly,  was  not  only  unreasonable,  but 
entirely  groundless.     His  thorough  acquaintance  with  He- 
brew and  Rabbinical  learning  was  displayed  in  his  labo- 
rious performance  in  defence  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity, 
in  which  his  sincerity  is  as  conspicuous  as  his  learnhig.     If 
in  the.  prosecution  of  those  deep  and  recondite  studies,  he 
sometimes  mistook  his  way,  and  erred  in  his  computations, 
as  when  he  fixed  the  year  of  Christ's  second  coming  at 
1720,  it  was  no  more  than  had  befallen  the  greatest  men 
who  have  travelled  this  road  before  him,  particularly  Jo- 
seph Mede  and  bishop  Lloyd  ;  neither  have  these  instance* 
conviiiced  other  eminent  men  that  the  roads  are  impassable, 
since  the  very  learned  dean  Prideaux,  and  the  sagacious 
sir  Isaac  Newton,  have  devoted  many  of  their  hours  to  the 
like  inqumes.     Dr.  AUix  continued  his  application  to  ihe 
last,   and  died  at  London,  Feb.  21,   1717,  in  the  seventy - 
sixth  year  of  his  age,  leaving  behind  him  the  reputation  of 
a  man,  equally  assiduous  in  the  right  discharge  of  all  the 
offices  of  public  and  private  life,  and  every  way  as  amiable 
for  bis  virtues  and  social  qualities,  as  venerable  from  his 
uprightness  and  integrity,  and  celebrated  for  his  various 
ind  profound  learning. 

His  works  are,  I.  "  Response  h,  la  Dissertation  sur  Ber- 
tram et  Jean  Scot,  ou  Erigene,"  printed  at  the  end  of 
Claude's  answer  to  M.  Arnaud's  Perpetuity  of  the  Faith, 
1670.  2.  "  Ratramne,  ou  Bernard,  Pretre,  dii  Corps  et 
du  Sang  du  Seigneur,"  Lat  et  Fr.  JElouen,  1672,  12mo. 
3.  ^' Dissertatio  de  Trisagii  origine,*'  Rothoma^i,  1674, 
Avo.  Maimbourg  erroneously  ascribes  this  to  another  per-' 
son,  4.  "  Dissertatio  de  Sanguine  D.  N.  J.  Christi,"  date 
uncertain.  5.  "  Dissertatio  de  Tertulliani  vita,  et  scriptis." 
6.  "  Dissertatio  de  Conciliorum  quorumvis  definitionibus 
ad  examen  revocandis,"  8vo,  circa  1680.  7.  **  Anastasii 
8inait8B  contemplationum  in  Hexahemeron  liber  xii  hac- 
t^nus  desideratus,**  Gr.  et  Lat.  cum  notis,  &c.  Lond.  1682, 
4to.  8.  "  Douze  Sermons  sur  divers  textes,"  Rotterdam, 
1685,  12mo.  9.  "  Les  Maximes  du  vrai  Chretien,'*  which 
was  printed  at  Amsterdam,  1687,  and  joined  with  "  Bonnes 
et  sahites  pens^es  pour  touts  les  jours  du  mois."  10.  **  L' A- 
4ieu  de  St.  Paul  aux  Ephesiens,  Sermon,"  Amst.  *168S^ 

A  L  L  I  X.  21 


l2mo.     Thb  was  his  int;ehded  farewell  sermon  noticed 
above.     11.  "  Reflections  upon  the  books   of  the   itolj. 
Scripture,  to  establish  the  truth  of  th^^  Christian  Religion,** 
Lond.  1688,  2  vols.     This   work   was   dedicated  to  king 
James  II.  from  whopa  the  author  had  received  some  obli- 
gations.    The  dedication,  which  is  wanting  in  some  edi- 
tions, may  be  seen  in  the  Biographia  Britahn^ca.     Bishop 
Wati^on,  in  his  late  "  Tracts,'*  republished  these  Reflec- 
tions, which  he  says  have  always  been  held  in,  great  repute 
for  the  plainness  and  erudition  with  which  they  are  written. 
12.  ^'  Determipatio  F.  Joannis  Parisiensis  demodo.  exis* 
tendi  Corpus  Cbristi  in  sacramento  Altaris,  &c.   cni  est 
prefixa    prefatio    historica    de   dogmate  Transubstantiar 
tionis,'*  Lond.  IB86,  8vo.     13.  "  Some  remarks  upon  tha 
ecclesiastical  history  of   the  ancient  Churches  of  Pied- 
nidnt,**  Lond.  1690,  4to.     This  is  a  very  elaborate  work, 
in  which  the  author  traceis  the  history  of  opinions  with 
great  acuteness  and  fidelity.     14.  "  Remarks  upon  the  ec- 
clesiastical history  of  the  ancient  Chutches  of  the  Albi-^ 
genses,**  Lond.  1692,  4to  ;  a  performance  of  a  similar  kind 
with  the  foroier,  and  throwiiig  much  light  on  the  opinions 
of  the   reformed  churches.     15.^*^  The  judgment  of  the 
ancient  Jewish  Church,  against  the  Unitarians,  in  the  con- 
troversy upon  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  the  diviiiity  of  our 
blessed  Saviour,*^  Lond.  1689,  8vo.     This  was  occasioned 
by  the  controvetsy  betweenTjishop  Bull  and  the  Unitarians, 
and  is  the  able  defence  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity  to 
which  we  have  already  alluded.     16.  "  De  Messiae  duplici 
adventu  dissehtationes  duae  adversiis  Judeos,"  Loiid.  1701, 
12mo.     It  was  in  this  treatise  our  author  fell  into  the  erro- 
neous cotnpiltation  respecting  '  Christ's  second   comings 
tf    ..}  ■    17.  **  Prefsice.  and  arguments  on  the  Psalms."  18.  "Nee- 
tarii  Patriarchse  Hierosolymitani  confutatio  Imperii  Papw 
in  Ecclfesiam,'''*/'Lond.   170^,  8yo;   a  translation  frem  the 
'  original  in  Gr^ek.     19^,'  **  Aug,  Hermanni  Franke  manur- 
ductio  ad  lectioh^iri' Scrip.  Sac.**  Lond.  1706,    6vo ;  our 
author  wrote'bniy  a  short  prefatory  riecommendation  to  this- 
book.     20.  ^  Dissertatio  de  J.  'C.  Domini  nostri  anno  et 
Aense  natali,**  Lohd.  1707  ahd'  1710. .  '21.  **  The  Prophe- 
cies which  Mr.  Whiston  applies  tb.  the  times  immediately 
following  the  appea^aqce  6f  the  Messiah,  considered  and 
examined,**   Lond.  1767^  8vo.  '  22.  **  Preparations  a  la 
Cene,'*  8 vo,  often  p|inted,^ti Geneva,  2S.  ^^  Remarks  upon 
tome  placed  of  Mr.  Whiston*s  books,  either  printed  or  ia 

aa  ALL  IX. 

'■  .  •        •  • 

mauuscripV  Loud.  1711,  .Svo.  This,  pamphlet  isiinconi* 
monly  scarce.  Besides  these,  the  late  Dr.  Flesmai;i  as-, 
slir^d  Dr.  Kippls  that  the  following  pieces  may  be  attri-i 
bnted  to  our  author,  "  Theses  Theologicae  de  ultimo  judi- 
ibio,*'  Salmur,  1660,  4tQ,  probably  academical  exercises; 
.•*A  discourse  concerning  Penance,^'  Lond.  1688,  8vo; 
**  An  historical  discourse  concerning  the  necessity  of  thet 
Ministers*  intention  in  administering  the  Sacrament,**  1688^ 
Svo ;  "  An  Examination  of  the  scruples  of  those  who  re- 
fuse to  take  the  Oaths,**  1689,  4 to;  **  Animadversions  on 
Mr.  Hill's  Vindication  of  the  primitive  Fathers,  against  th^ 
fight  rev.  Gilbert,  bishop  of  Sarum,  1695,  4to.*  .^ 

ALLOISI  (Balthazar),  called  Galanino>  ah  eminent 
painter  of  history  and  portraits,  received  hjs  ediiqatioit  in[ 
the  school  of  the  "Caracci,  aiid  iii  all  his  compositions  re- 
tained the  admirable  style  of  his  master.  He  had  naturally 
a  melancholy  turn  of  mind,  and  was  of  a  retired  and  soli- 
tary  disposition  :  this  induced  him  to  avoid  the  conve^rsar 
tion  of  his  friends,  and  devote  himself  to  the  study  o^  hi$ 
^rt;  but  by  this  plan  he  became  so  necessitous,  thatb^wai( 
compelled  to  paint  portraits  to  procure  a  subsistence..  la 
this  branch,  however,  his  success  was  astonishing  ;  and  h^ 
grew  into* the' highest  esteem,  not  only  for  the  resemblanpe 
visible  at  first  sight,  and  the  beauty  of  his  colouring,  but; 
also  for  a  new  and  unusual  boldness  of  manner,,  by  which; 
his  portraits  seemed  absplutely  to  breathe.  None  of  hi$k 
contemporiaries  could  enter irito  competition  with  him;  and 
the  Italian  writers  place  him  in  the  same  rank  of  merit  with. 
Vandyck.  He  was  born  at'Bologna  in  1578,  and  died  iri 
163S.«      •  •      j^ 

ALLORI  ( Alexander),  called  Bronzing,  an  eminent 
|>ainter,  was  born  at  Florence  in  1535,. and  was  the  ais.ciple 
of  Agnolo  Brdnzino,  likewise  a  distinguished  painter,  who 
educated  him  with  ail  the  tenderness  of  a  parent,  Allo^ri^ 
having  been  deprived  of  his  owa  f^^tber,  when  be  was  but. 
five  years  old.  He  was  very  studious,  and  applie4  hiins^tf 
diligentlj^,  not  only  to  imitate  the  manner  of  hi^  master, 
but  the  different  manners  of  those  masters  who  were  in  th^ 
greatest  reputation.  When  he  commenced  painter,  his. 
first  work  was  a  crucifixion,  intended  for  an  altar-piece, 
which  was  much  praised,  but  hi$  success  in  portrait-paint- 
ing induced  him  to  employ  a  great  de^  of  hip  tivaSe  in  that 

Blor^  Brit  »  Pincingtoii'8  Diet. 


A  L  L  O  R  L  ?S 

branch.  Michael  Angelo  waa  the  master  whose  works  be 
studied  with  the  greatest  attention^  and  he  designed  a  pig- 
ture  of  the  Last  Judgment^  after,  the  manner  of  that  great 
genius,  which  is  preserved  at  Rome,  and  will  perpetuate 
the  honour  of  Allori.  He  died  in  1607,  aged  72.  It  is 
said  that  he  wrote  some  burlesque  poems,  and  a.  dialogue 
on  Design,  The*  existence  of  this  last  is  denied  by  his 
French  biographer,  but  we  fipd  its  title  in  Haym's  Biblio- 
teca  Italiaaa^  '^  Dialogo  di  Alessandro  Allori  pittore  Flq- 
rentino  sopra  Parte  del  disegnare  le  figurie  principiando  da 
MuscoU,  Ossa^  Nervi,  Vene,  Membra,  Notomia^ .  e  figiu*a 
perfetta,**  Florence,  1590.*  .; 

ALLORI  (Chistophano),  called  also  BRONZiNPy  wa5 
the  son  and  disciple  of  the  preceding,  and  born  in  Flo- 
rence in  1577.  For  some  time  he  followed  the  manner  of 
Alexander^  but,  afterwards  studying  design  from  the  work^ 
of  Santi  di  Titi,  and  colouring  from  the  lively  and  elegant 
tints  of  Cigoli,  be  formed  to  himself  a  manner  entirely  dif- 
ferent. He  executed  several  large  designs  for  altars,  ye% 
had  a  particular  excellence  in  painting  small  pictures,  in 
which  he  introduced  a  number  of  minute  figures,  so  exqui*- 
site  for  correotness  oU  drawings  so  round  and  relieved  by 
the  colouring,  and  touched  with  so  much  delicacy,  that  it 
seemed  surprising  how  either  the  band  or.  the  eye  could 
execute  them.  His  portraits  were  also  in  high  esteem. 
His  best  pictur4&s  were  those  of  Judith,  St.  Francis,  and 
St.  Julian.  The. last  mentioned,  long  one  of  the  chief  or*> 
naments  of  the  Pitti  palace,  is  now  in  the  imperial  coUec* 
tion  at  Paris,  and  shews  him  to  have  been  one  of  the  finest 
colourists  of  the  Florentine  school.  He  died  at  the  age  of 
forty-two,  in  consequence  of  a  wound  in  his  foot,  Ampu« 
tation  Was  recommended^  but  he  refused  his  consent,  and 
ppntinu^d  delibera.tely  using  his  pencil  to  the  last  moment 
of  his  life.* 

ALMAIN  (James)^  professor  of  divinity  in  the  college 
of  Navarre,  at  Paris,  and  one  of  the  most  able  scholastie 
writers  of  bis  time,^  was  a  native  of  Sens,  and  died  young  at 
Paris  in  151$>  Buriog  his.  short  life,  he  published  a  con« 
siderable  numbeir  of  worl^^,  on  logic,  physics,  morality,  and 
divimty.  The  two  which,  procured  him  most  fame  are, 
1.  '^  De  e^ntoritate  Ecclesiee,  &c.''  Paris,  1512,  4to,  in  which 
he  defends  the  doctrine  of  the  council  of   Pisa,  against 

A  Pinmi|^*s  Dict.*^Bios^.  UDiT«r«ellr.  «  IbkU 

M  A  L  M  A  I  N.      • 

Cajetan',  who  had  raised  the  pope's  authority  above  that  of 
the  councils.  3.  "  De  potestat«  ecclesiastica  et  laicali 
contra  Ockam." — ^These  are  both  in  the  edition  of  hh 
works,  published  at  Paris,  1517,  foL;  bnt  in  that  edition 
we  do  not  meet  with  his  "  Moraha,'*  Paris,  1525,  Sro, '     ,  • 

ALMAMON,  caliph  of  Bagdat,  a  philosopher  and  astro- 
'iK)mer  in  the  beginning  of  the  ninth  century,  ascended  the 
-throne  in  the  year  814.  He  was  the  son  of  Harun-AI- 
-^Rashid,  and  the  grandson  of  Almanzor.  His  name  is 
otherwiise  written  Mamon,  Almaon,  Almamun,  Alamoun, 
or  Al-Maimori.  Having  been  educated  with  great  cate, 
and  with  a  love  for  the  liberal  sciences,  h6  applied  himsetf 
^o  cultivate  and  encourage  them  in  his  own  country.  For 
"this  purpose  he  requested  th^  Greek  emperors  to  supply 
him  with  such  books  on  philosophy  as  they  had  among 
them;  and  he  collected  skilful  interpreters  to  translate 
them  into  the  Arabic  language.  He  also  encouraged  hist 
subjects  to  study  them ;  frequenting  the  meetings  of  the 
learned,  and  assisting  in  their  exercises  and  deliberations. 
He  caused  Ptolemy's  Almagest  to  be  translated  in  the  year 
-S27 ;  and  in  his  reign,  and  doubtless  by  his  encouragement, 
an  astronomer  of  Bagdat,  named  H^bash,  composed  threi^ 
sets  of  astronomical  tables.  Almamon  himself,  however, 
made  many  astronomical  observations,  concerning  the  obli- 
quity of  the  ecliptic,  and  caused  skilful  observers  to  pro- 
cure proper  instruments  to  be  made,  and  to  exercise  them- 
selves in  such  observations.  Under  his  auspices  also  a  de- 
gree of  the  Meridian  was  measured ;  and  he  revived  the 
sciences  in  the  East  so  successfully  that  many  learned  men 
were  found,  not  only  in  his  own  time,  but  after  him,  in  a 
country  whfere  the  study  of  the  sciences  had  long  been  for- 
gotten. This  learned  king  died  near  Tarsus  irt  Cilicia,  by 
having  eaten  too  freely  of  date^,  on  his  return  from  a  mili- 
tary expedition,  in  the  year  833,  in  the  48th  or  49th  year 
of  his  age.  * 

ALMARUS  (Elmarus,  Elmbrus,  or  iELMfeRUs)^  was 
abbot  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Austin  in  Canterbtiry,  at  the 
time  that  Alphage,  the  arohbishop,  was  barbarously  mur- 
dered by  the  Danes,  in  1011,  whc|n  the  oity  was  betrayed 
to  them.  Almarus,  however,  wUs  suffered  by  those  plun« 
derers  to  go  at  liberty ;  and  in  the  year  1022,  was  made 

•  Moreri. — Du  Pin. — Cave,  vol.  II. — Biog,  Uniyerselle. 

*  yoiy.  Ilistory. — Brucker. — ^liuttOA^  Mathematical  Dictionarf .     • 

A  L  M  A  R  U  S.  25 

bishop  of  Sherborne  ih  l)orsetshire,  which  bi^boprit  wak 
afterwards  translated  to  Salisbury.  Godwin  mentions 
bim  as  a  bishop,  but  JEidds  that  he  knows  nothing  of  hiih 
bat  his  name.  Almarus  was  not  inclined  either  to  leave 
his  abbey,  or  to  become  a  bishop;  but  was 'at  last  pre- 
vailed on  to  take  upon  hiitt  that  dignity,  which  he  dis- 
charged with  great  confstafncy  and  vigour,  iiritil  he  had  thfe 
misfortune  to  lose  his  sight.  On  this  he  resigned  his  bi- 
shopric with  more  alacrity  than  he  had  accepted  it,  return- 
ing back  to  his  abbey,  where  he  lived  in  a  cell  in  the  in- 
firmary, in  great  innocence  and  devotion  to  his  last  hour. 
When  he  was  near  his  death,  he  directed  that  he  shoi^d 
be  buried  not  as  a  bishop,  but  as  a  monk,  which  was  com- 
plied with.  He  was  interred  in  the  church  of  the  monas- 
tery, before  the  altar  of  St.  John,  and  his  memory  held  in 
great  veneration.  The  chronicles  relate  some  sujserstitious 
stories  of  him,  to  which  little  credit  will  now  be  given.  * 

ALMEIDA  (Francis),  count  d'Abrantes,  a  Portu^ 
gueze,  was  the  first  governor  of  India,  to  which  place  he 
was  dispatched  in  1505,  by  king  Emanuel,  with  the  high 
character  of  viceroy.  His  fleet  had  a  dangerous  passagib 
out,  and  alnjost  continual  storms  off  the  Cape  df  Good 
Hope,  without  being  able  to  make  it,  but  at  last  reache'd 
Quiloar  The  king  of  that  place  having  given  some  cause 
to  suspect  his  conduct,  Ahneida  resolved  to  besiege  the 
city,  and  after  landing  500  men,  the  natives  fled,  &nd  the 
Portugueze  entered  and  plundered  it.  The  plunder  wais 
however  deposited  in  one  house,  and  shared  among  the 
soldiers,  Almeida"  taking  as  his  own  share,  only  one  ar- 
row. He-  then  began  to  build  a  fort,  and  offered  the  peo<« 
pie  the  protection  of  the  Portugueze,  which  they  accepted, 
aiid  received  a  king  from  them,  who  promised  to  be^  obe- 
dient to  king  Emanuel; 

From  hence  they  sailed  to  Mombassa,  and  immediately 
attacked  that  place.  A  shot  from  the  Portugueze  set  fir^ 
to  the  powder  magazine,  which  s6  terrified  the  inhabitants 
that  they  abandoned  thef  fort.  Having  caUsed  the  port  to 
be  sounded,  and. finding  water  sufficient,  he  entered  the 
harbour,  arid  theit  sent  a  ittessage  to  require  the  king  to 
submit  himself  to  the  king  of  Portugal ;  but  the  messenger 
was  refused  admittance.  — ^  Ahneida  then  endeavoured*  to 
peize  some  of  the  natives,  and  took  prisoner  a  domestic  of 

Sfi  A  L  M  £;!  D  A. 

the  kipg,  from  whom  be  had  intelligence  that  thf(  king  had 
received  into  bis  pay  4000  anxilis^ries,  afid  expected  .mpr^« 
,On  this  intelligence  he  resolved  to  (^esieg^, the  place ;  and 
set  fire  to  a  part  of  the  ci^y..  The  natives  .attacked  the 
Portugueze^  although  at  th^  .same.tiipe  emploj^ed  in  ex- 
.tinguishing  the  flames;  whic^  however  prov^^d  their  best 
.friends,  and  obliged  the  eni^my  tq  i^tire.  Nextday,  when 
the  flames  abated,  the  Portu^ueze  again  entered  the  city,  and 
were  much  annoyed  by  the  n^urro^vuess  of  the  streets,  and 
the  darts  of  the  enemy  flung  from  the  houses.  However^ 
Almeida  having  soon  secured  the  palace^  the  Portuguese 
39iu,ed  their  strength,  and  obliged  the  natives  to  ^eek  their 
^{afety  by  flight,  and  betake  themselves  to,  ^  Avood,  to 
which. the  king  had  retreated.  The  city  v^s  plundered^ 
b^t  most  of  the  valuable  efl*ects  bad  been  carried  away. 
The  Portugue^^  writers  tell  us,  they  killed  in  this  action 
1500,  and  took  2000  prisoners^  with,  the  loss  only  of  five 
men  killed,  and  several  wounded. 

From  hence  he  sailed  with  his  fleet  for  Meli^d^,  but  by 
tempestuous  weather  was  driven  three  leagues  beyond  ; 
from  thence  they  proceeded  to  the  islan4,  oC  Anchidive^ 
where  he  built  a  fortj  and  sent  some  of  his  ^  ships  out  to 
jcruize^  Here  he  received  deputies  from  tlie  king  of  Onpr, 
jto  treat  of  peace^  and  also  the  submission  of  a  piratical 
johietf  of  the  name  of  Timoia;  but  a  circ^nistance  soon 
happened  to  shew  the  former  was  not  sincere,  and  the 
▼icerpy  sailed  to.Onor,  and  burned  some  ships  in  the  har*- 
bour.  A  day  or  two  after,  he.  sent  his  son  to  burn  th^ 
.other  ships,  when  a  smart  action  ensued,  and  the  Portu« 
gueze  were  obliged  to  retreat.  Aln^eida  sailed  next  day  to 
Cananor,  where  he  found  it  nece^^ary  to  build  a  strong 
fort,  to  protect  his  countrymen  figainst  the  Arabians,  who, 
jealous  of  the  Portuguese,  did  them  every  injtiry  i^i  their 
power.  While  Almeida  remaii^ed  here^  b^  had  the  hap- 
piness to  receive  an  embassy  f^om  the  king  of  Nsgrsinga, 
pffeiring  friendship,  and  his  daughter  as  a  wifp  for  Jphn  th^ 
son  of  Emanuel.  He  had  also  a  visit  from  the  king  of 
Cananor,  from  whom  he  obtaified  libeity  to  build  his  fort; 
jFrom  this  place  he  dispatched  l^i^.sQn  on  an  ^pedition  to 

On  the  arrival  of  Cugna  witha reinfqrcement from  Por^ 
tagaij  and  on  receiving  intelligence  of  several.  Arabian 
riiips  richly  laden  being  in  the  port  of  Panama  (about  50 
niles  off)  escorted  by  a  fleet  of  ships  o£  war  of  Calicut,  be 


resolved,  to  attacl^  ^em  in  tba  harbour.  He  sailed. for  that 
purpose  with  12  ships  of  wan  On  his  passage  he  was  in* 
formed  that  the  ships  were  not  yet  afloat,  but  lay  in  tb^i 
docks,  under  cover  of  a  rampart,  and  a  strong  garrison  o^ 
4000  men.  Almeida  had  only  700,  and  with  these  he 
resolved  to  attack  the  enemy.  He  attempted  to  land  ancl 
burn  the  ships;  and  after  a  violent  conflict  succeeded.. 
This  was  a  strong  proof  of  the  superiority  of  tlie  Portu- 
gueze  at  this  time  in  war,  for  the  enemy  fought  with  des- 
perate courage,  there  being  many  among  them  who  hadj^ 
taken  an  oath  to  conquer  or  die.  These  devotees  had  all 
their  heads  shaven,  and  were  destroyed  to  a  man.  AU- 
meida,  having  made  good  his  landing,  advanced  to  the  city^ 
and  set  it  on  fire,  being  fearful  of  the  consequences  of  per-v 
mitting  his  men  to  plunder  it.  The  men  murmured  at 
being  deprived  of  such  a  rich  booty,  but  this  the  vicerpy 
disregarded ;  and  to  keep  them  employed,  dispatched  hii^ 
son  with  a  squadron  to  cruize  against  the  Arabians,  who  i];i 
an  engagement  with  the  enemy's  fleet  lost  his  life.  Al- 
meida, who  had  often  shewn  that  he  possessed  great  forti« 
tude,  now  gave  a  striking  proof  of  it;  ^nd  to  those  wha 
lamented  the  death  of  young  Almeida  with  too  much  sor«^ 
row,  he  said,  "  That  he  had  never  wished  a  long^  but  i, 

J  glorious  life  for  his  son  ;  and  for  his  part,  he  thanked  tioc^ 
or  honouring  him  with  so  glorious  a  death.^' 

While  he  commanded  in  India,  Albuquerque  was  mak*- 
ing  conquests  for  his  country  to  the  northward,  but  as  he 
did  not  act  under  Almeida's  instructions,  the  latter  was 
offended,  and  even  wrote  to  some  of  the.  enemy's  chiefsi; 
that  Albuquerque  acted  without  his  orders.  Notwitbstand«; 
ing  tliis,  the  exploits  of  the  latter  drew  Che  attentiou  of  th« 
court  of  Portugal,  and  he  was  appointed  to  supersede.  AU 
meida  in  his  viceroyship.  When  the  order  for  the  viceJ 
roy'sf  return  was  brought,  he  was  employed  in  fitting  out  ^^ 
fleet  to  revenge  the  death  of  his  son.  .  This  furnished  him* 
with  an  excuse  for  not  delivering  up  his  government ;  and 
be  sailed  on  an  expedition  to  Babul,  landed  there,  de-f 
feated  the  enemy,  and  made  a  most  dreadful  slaughter,^ 
not  sparing  even  the  infants.  The  next  day  the  city  was 
given  up  to  be  plundered,  and  afterwards  burned.  Thi^ 
was  the  fate  of  many  other  places  on  these  shores.  Hq 
then  cruized  along  the  coast  until  he  fell  in  with  the  ene-, 
my's  fleet,  and  engaged  and  totally  defeated  it,  killing 
4000  men.    Hie  sultan  had  taken  great  pains  in  fitting  out- 

«  A  L  M  E  r  D'A. 

this  fleet,  and  it  is  supposed  had  engaged .  Europeans  of 
several  nations  to  act  on  board  it,  as  books  in  the  Italian,' 
German,  French,  and  Spanish  languages  were  /ound  on 
board  the  captured  ships.     This  victory  procured  a  peace. 

In  the  mean  time  a  set  of  men,  who  had  their  own  ad- 
vantage in  view,  inflamed  the  animosity  between  Almeida, 
and  Albuq^uerque  ;  and  the  former  not  only  still  refused  to, 
deliver  up  hiii  government,  but  ordered  Albuquerque  to  be 
<jonfined.  Contigna,  however,  another  commander,  arriv- 
fng  from  Portugal,  reconciled  them  to  each  otherj  and 
Almeida  to  the  surrender  of  his  government.  The  viceroy 
immediately  embarked,  artd  soon  after  sailed  for  Portugal. 
Unfbrtunately  stopping  at  a  place  not  far  from  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  a  flight  quarrel  arose  between  the  Portiigueze 
and  natives,  and  in  an  action  with  them,  Almeida  received 
a  wound  in  his  throat  with  a  javelin,  March  1,  1509,  and 
died  immediately.  —  Thus  expirefd  this  brave,  honest,  and 
renowned  cominander  by  his  own  imprudence.  Before  he 
went  to  India,  he  had  distinguished  himself  greatly  in  the 
wars  of  Grenada.  In  India  his  exploits  haVe  been  spoken 
6f.  As  soon  as  he  fell,  the  rest  of  the  Pbrtugueze  fled. 
Two  ofiicers  who  saw  him  fall  endeavoured  to  persuade 
their  countrymen  to  recover  his  body  ;  but  finding  entrea- 
ties ineffectual,  they  rushed  upon  the  enemy,  were  soon 
overpowered  by  numbers,  and  fell.  * 

ALMElpA  (Lawrence)  was  son  of  the  former,  and 
had  he  enjoyed  longer  life,  would  probably  have  equal- 
led him  in  fame.  His  first  exploit  was  against  Caulan, 
in  India,  whithei*  he  was  dispatched  by  his  father  to 
destroy  all  the  ships  in  that  harbour ;  he  executed  his  or- 
,  ders  with  so  much 'expedition,  that  he  came  in  sight  of  the 
fown  before  they  were  apprized  of  his  arrival,  and  de- 
stroyed 27  ships.  Soon  after  he  was  sent  on  a  cruize 
dgainst  (he  Malldive  islands,  to  intercept  all  Aribian  ships. 
The  strfength  of  the  currents  in  those  seas,  drove  him  as 
far  south  as  Cape  Comorin,  and  the  island  of  Ceylon,  and 
he  put  into  ^  port  in  the  latter.  The  king  hearing  of  his 
arrival,  and  having  before  heard  of  the  fam^'of  the  Portu- 
gtieze  in  those  parts,  treated  him  with  great  respect,  and 
entered  into  a  treaty,  by  which  he  agreed  to  pay  a  yearly 
iribute  to  the  king  of  Portugal,  on  condition  of  receiving 
prbtectioR  and  defence.     The  tribute  was  to  be  250,0001b. 

*  Modem  UniT.  Hiftory. 

A  L  JM  £  I  D  A.  M 

weight  of  cinnamon  ;  and  the  first  year's  payment  "was  im-> 
mediately  put  on  hoarii.  On  his  return,  he  was  ordered 
to  tlie  Anchidiye  islands ;  when  being  informed  of  a  large 
fleet  fitting  out  a,t  Calicut,  Lawrence  immediately  sailed 
to  that  ^ap^,  engaged  it,  and  after  a  fierce  confiict,  gave 
them  a  total  defeat.  He  then  returned  to  Cananor,  whera 
he  was  i*eceived  by  the  king  of  that  place,  who  was  a 
friend  of  the  Portugueze,  with  great  honour  t  he  after* 
wards  continued  with  his  father,  i^ntil  he  sailed  on  the 
fatal  expedition  in  which  he  lost  his  life.  He  was  dis- 
patched with  eight  ships  to  annoy  the  Arabians,  and  at 
first  was  successful.  He  put  into  the  port  of  Chaul,  n 
large  and  opulent  city,  adjoining  to  the  kingdom  of  Cam- 
baya.  Here  he  received  advice  that  the  sultan  of  Egypt 
had  fitted'  out  a  considerable  force,  manned,  with  his  brav- 
est soldiers.  It  consisted  of  five  large  ships,  and  six  gal« 
leys,  to  which  the  king  of  Cambaya  joined  30  sloops  of 
war.  When  they  appeared  off"  Chaul,  the  Portugueze 
concluded  they  were  the  ships  of  Albuquerque,  and  made 
no  preparation  to  engage;  the  Egyptian  admiral  entered 
the  river,  but  his  allies  remained  out  at  sea. 

The  next  day  Lawrence  Almeida  weighed  anchor  and 
attacked  the  admiral's  ship,  but  in  the  action  he  was 
wounded.  His  officers,  finding  they  were  becalmed,  and 
could  not  come  to  close  quarters  with  the  enemy,  advised 
him  to  return.  This  he  declined^  and  soon  received  ano- 
ther desperate  wound  in  the  face  with  a  dart  The  action 
continued  at  a  distance,  Almeida  not  being  able  to  get 
near  his  enemy.  Other  captains  were  more  fortunate,  as 
they  boarded  and  took  two  ships.  The  next  day,  the  fleet 
from  sea  came  in  and  joined  the  enemy.  The  Portugueze 
held  a  council,  and  were  almost  unanimously  of  opinion, 
that  they  ought  to  put  to  sea  in  the  night,  which  they  en- 
deavoured to  effect^  but  the  enemy  pursued  and  came  up 
with  the  admiral's  ship,  in  the  rear,  a,nd  surrounded  her. 
An  unfortunate  shot  rendering  it  impossible  to  steer  her, 
she  ran  agroiuid.  The  Portugueze  captains  had  a  strong 
desire  to  assist  their  admiral,  but  the  violence  of  the  tide 
prevented  them.  However,,  they  sent  a  boat  to  bring  Al- 
meida away ;  but  he  refused  to  quit  his  fellow-soldiers  in 
this  distress,  hoping  also  that  be  should  be  able  to  defend 
himself  until  tlje  tide  returned.  The  enemy  did  not  dar^ 
to  board  his  vessel,  but  continued  a  fierce  cannonade  at  a* 
distaucei  which  was  returned  with  spirit.    Almeida  at  last 

^0  A  L  M1E  I  D  A. 

receired  another  wound^  in  his  diigh,  which  quite  diis«» 
abled  him,  and  being  placed  in  a  chair  which  was  lashed 
to  the  mast,  he  continued  to  animate  his  men,  until  a  shot 
in  the  breast  killed  him.  The  Portugueze  on  board  this 
tinfdrtuhate  ship  were  now  reduced  to  20,  who  still  con- 
tinued to  defend  themselves,  but  the  enemy  succeeded  in 
boarding  her,  and  to  their  honour,  treated  the  few  brave 
survivors  with  great  humanity.  * 

ALMEIDA  (Mangel  or  Emmanuel),  a  Portuguese  his^ 
torian,  v/as  born  at  Vizeu  in  that  kingdom,  in  1580,  and 
after  an  education  among  the  Jesuits,  was  sent  to  the  In- 
dies, where,  having  completed  his  studies,  he  became  rec- 
tor of  the  college  of  Bacaim.  In  1622,  Vitteleschi,  gene- 
ral of  the  Jesuits,  sent  him  as  ambassador  to  the  king  of 
Abyssinia,  who  received  him  with  much  respect ;  but  his 
successor  having  banished  the  Jesuits  from  his  dominions^ 
Almeida  returned  to  Goa  in  1634,  and  became  provincial 
6f  his  order  in  India,  and  inquisitor.  He  died  at  Goa  in 
1 646.  His  works'  are :  1  "  A  history  of  Upper  Ethiopia,** 
to  which  his  brother  Jesuit,  Bathazar  Tellez,  added  many 
facts  and  documents,  and  published  it  at  Coimbra,  1660, 
fol.  2.  "  Historical  letters/'  written  from  Abyssinia  to 
the  general  of  the  Jesuits,  and  published  at  Rome,  in 
Italian,  1629,  8vo.  He  left  also  some  manuscripts  on  the 
errors  of  the  Abyssinians,  and  the  misrepresentations  of 
the  dominican  Urreta  in  his  history  of  Ethiopia.  * 

ALMEIDA  (Theodore),  a  Portugueze  priest,  who  had 
the  courage  in  Portugal  to  study  and  teach  philosophy, 
tipon  more  rational  and  experimental  principles  than  had 
ever  been  known  in  that  country,  was  born  in  1722.  His 
itiost  celebrated  work,  written  in  Portuguese,  and  entitled 
^Recreaceo  Filosofica,"  5  vols.  8vo,  1751,  occasioned  a 
revolution  in  the  philosophical  studies  of  the  Portugueze* 
And  would  probably  have  involved  the  author  in  much 
danger,  had  not  the  Jesuits  been  soon  after  banished  from 
that  kingdom.  He  was  nevertheless  a  zealous  advocate 
for  the  pretensions  of  the  court  of  Rome,  at  the  time  of 
the  famous  rupture  between  Joseph  II.  and  that  court ;  and 
Ais  rendered  him  so  obnoxious  to  the  marquis  de  Pombal, 
that  he  was  obliged  to  seek  an  asylum  in  France,  during 
the  ministry  of  that  nobleman.     On  his  return  to  Portugal, 

ihe  royal  acadenty  of  sciences  of  Lisbon  was  eager  to  ad- 

'  J.  ■ 

'9  Modern  Udjt.  Histbrx*  *  Biof.  VnirorseUe.* 

A.  L  ME  IDA.  «I- 

tait  him  a  member ;  but  it  was  soon  evident  that  Almei^la 
had  not  kept  pace  with  the  progress  which  the  nation  had 
made  in  twenty*ofive  years^  and  he  was  suffered  to  eclipse 
himself,  although  without  losing  any  of  the  respect  due  to 
his  former  services  in  promoting  liberal  science.  He  pub- 
lished, after  his  return  to  Lisbdn,  a  moral  romance,  call^ 
"The  Happy  Independant,*'  which  bad  little  success; 
and  it  was  said  that  a  better  tide  would  have  been  ^*  The 
Happy  Impertinent.''  He  died  in  1805,  leading  behind 
him  several  manuscripts,  for  the  publication  of  which  he 
had  obtained  the  pennission  of  the  Censor.  His  works 
altogether  are  said  to  amount  to  forty  volumes,  besidi^s 
five  of  translations;  but  we  have  not  been  able  to  obtain  a 
list  of  their  titles  or  subjects.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Lisbon,  and  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  London.  * 

ALMELOVEEN  (Theodore  Jansson  Van),  an  emi- 
nent Dutch  physician,  but  more  eminent  as  a  general  scho-- 
lar  and  editor,  was  born  July  24,  1657,  at  Midrecht,  or 
Mydregt,  near  Utrecht,  where  his-  father  was  a  Protestant 
clergyman.  His  grandfather  was  Cornelius  Almelbveen^ 
a  senator  of  Utrecht,  who  di^d  in  16  58.  His  mother  wa» 
Mary  Janson,  daughter  of  the  celebrated  Amsterdam  prin- 
ter, so  well  known  for  his  many  fine  editions,  and  for  the 
atlas  which  he  published  -  in  six  folio  volumes.  As  the 
printer  had  no  male  is&ue,  the  nsmie  of  Janson  was  ^dded 
to  Almeloveen,  probably  by  our  autbor^s  father.  He 
studied  fii'st  at  Utrecht,  and  then  at  Goude  or  Tergou, 
where  James  Totiius  was  at  the  head  of  the  schools  of  that 
place,  and  when  Tollius  removed  to  Noortwick,  near  Ley- 
den,  Almelbveeo  followed  him,  and  it  appears  by  his 
writings  that  he  always  acknowledged  him  as  his  master.  In 
1676,  he  rieturned  to  Utrecht,  and  studied  the  belles  let- 
tres  in  that  city  under  the  celebrated  Orsevius,  and  as  hiiL 
lather  intended  him  for  the  church,  he  also  studied  He* 
bre#  tlnd^  Leusden,  and  philosophy  under  De  Uries ; 
but,  taking  disgust  at  the  violence  and  illiberality  with, 
which  theological  disputes  were  sometimes  conducted,  he 
gave  a  preference  to  medicine,  and  attended  the  instruc- 
tions of  Vkllan'and  Munniks,  In  1680,  he  maintained  a 
thesis  bti  S'leep^  and  the  following  year,  one  on  the  asthma, 
and' was  th^n  admitted -to  his  doctor's  degree  in  that  fa^ 

1  Bk%,  ywT€4ricU#.--<3erit4  Mag.  1^.  LUV.  p.€7t. 


€ulty>  In'1687,  he  went  to  reside  at  Goude,  wher6  he 
mi»Ti/ed.  In  1697,  he  was  invited  to  Harderwic  to  be-^ 
come  professor  of  Greek  and  history  ;  and  in  1702,  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  medicine,  and  remained  in  both 
offices  until  his  death  in  1712.  He  bequeathed  to  the 
public  library  at  Utrecht  his  curious  collection  of  the  edi- 
tions of  Quintilia^,  which  he  had  made  at  a  great  expence, 
and  of  which  there  is  a  catalogue  in  Masson's  critical  his<* 
tory  of  the  Republic  of  Letters,  vol.  V*  BibUography 
was  J:iis  favourite  study,  in  which  he  was  My  assisted  by 
bis  grandfather  Jansson  ;  and  to  this  we  probably  owe  the 
number  of  editions,  with  commentaries,  which  he  pub- 
lished. Among  these  are:  1.  '^  Hippocratis  Aphorismi, 
Gr.  Lat."  Amsterdam.,  1685,  12mo.  2.  "  Aurelii  Ceisi  de 
medicina,^'  with  his  own  additions  and  those  of  Constan- 
tine  and  Casaubon,  Amsterdam,  16S7,  12mo;  1713,  8vo; 
Padua^  1722,  8vo ;  with  "  Serini  Sammonici  de  medicina 
preecepta  saluberrima.''  3.  Apicii  Caelii  de  obsoniis  et 
condimentis,  sive  de  arte  coquinaria  libri  X/'  with  the 
notes  of  Martin  Lister,  Hamelbergii(s,  Vander  Linden,  &c« 
Amsterdam,  1709,  Svo.  4.  ^^  Aurelianus  de  Morbis  acutis 
et  chronicis,"  Amsterdam,  1709,  4to.  5,  "  Bibliotbeca 
promissa  efc  latens,^*  or  an  account  of  books  promised,  and 
never  published,  with  the  epistle^  of  Velschius  pn  such 
medical  writings  as  have  not  been  edited,  Goude,  1688, 
1698,  Svo;  1692,  12mo;  Nuremberg,  1699,  Svo;  with 
the  additions  of  Martin  Melsuhrerus.  6.  "The  anatomy 
qf  the  Muscle,'^  in  Flemish,  with  observations  anatomical^ 
medical,  and  chirurgical,  Amst.  1684,  Svo:  7.  "  Ono- 
masticon  rerum  inventarum  et  Inventa  nov-antiqua,  id 
est,  brevis  enarratio  ortus  et  progressus  artis  medicse,'* 
ibid.  1684,  Svo;  a  history  of  the  discoveries  in  medicine, 
with  a  marked  preference  to  the  merit  of  the  ancients. 
8.  "Opuscula  sive  antiquitatum  e  sacris  profauarum  spe- 
cimen conjectans  veterum  poetarum  fragmenta  et  plagia-* 
rprum  syllabus,"  ibid.  1686,  Svo..  9.  A  new  edition  of 
pecker's  work,  "  De  scriptis  adespotis,  pseudepigraphis, 
et  supposititiis,  conjectur^e,"  ibid.  1686,  12mo.  10.  An 
edition  of  "  C.  Rutilius  Numantianus,"  ibid.  1687,  i2mo« 
11.  ^^  Amoenitates  theologico-pkilologicse,"  ibid.  1694,  Svo.. 
Besides  some  critical  pieces,  this  volume  contains  several 
letters  of  Bochart,  Erasmus,  Baudius,  Scriverius,  and  others^ 
and  an  attempt  to  prove  that  Erasmus  v^s  a  native  of 
Goude,  and  not  of  Rotterdam ;  because,  acc9rding  to  t^ 

A  L  M  E  L  O  V  E  E  N.  SS 

^  * 

lawS)  the  place  where  children  are  born  accidentally,  is 
not  accounted  their  country.  12.  "  Dissertationes  quatuor 
de  mensisy  lecticis,  et  poculis  veterum,"  Harwick,  170l, 
4to.  These  are  theses  composed  by  Alstorf^  and  maitl- 
tained  during  the  presidency  of  Almeloveen.  13.  "Fasti 
Consuiares/'  Amst.  1705,  Svp.  14.  A  beautiful,  but  not 
very  correct  edition  of  "  Strabo,"  ibid.  2  vols.  fol.  15. 
"  De  vitis  Stephanorum,'*  16B2,  8vo.  Besides  sqme  other 
contributions  of  notes,  &c.  to  editions  of  the  classics,  he 
assisted  Drakestein  in  the  publication  of  the  sixth  volume 
of  the  *'  Horius  Malabaticus.'*  *   . 

ALMICI  (Peter  CamIlle),  a  priest  of  the  oratory,  was 
born  at  Brescia,  of  a  noble  family,  Nov.  2,  1714,  and 
studied  theology,  And  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  languages^ 
in  both  which  he  became  an  excellent  scholar.  He  ap- 
plied himself  chiefly  to  an  iiivestigation  of  thie  text  of  the 
sacred  scriptures,  and  read  with  great  care  the  Greek  and 
Latin  fathers.  His  studies  were  also  diversified  by  an  ac- 
quaintance with  chronology,  history  both  sacred  and  pro- 
fane, antiquities,  criticism,  and  whatever  belongs  to  the 
character  of  a  general  scholar.  In  his  own  country,  he 
obtained  such  fame  that  his  advice  was  thought  to  be  ora- 
cular. He  died  Dec.  30,  1779,  in  his  sixty-fifth  year.  He 
published  "  Critical  Reflexions'*  on  Febronius*s  Work,  en- 
titled **  De  Statu  Ecclesise,  et  legitime  potestate  Romani 
Pontificis  ;*'  some  dissertations  and  other  works,  particu* 
larly  one  on  the  "  manner  of  writing  the  lives  of  illustrious 
characters,'*  with  an  appendix  oti  that  peculiar  species  of 
biography,  writing  one's  own  life.  He  left  also  some  un- 
published  works,  ahd  among  them  '^  a  comparison  between 
the  Italians  and  French,"  and  "  Thoughts  on  the  life  and 
writings  of  father  Paul  Sarpi.''  * 

ALMODOVAR  (Duke  d'),  a  diplomatic  character,  de- 
serves some  notice  here,  as  a  man  of  literature,  although 
we  know  but  little  of  his  personal  history.  After  having 
been  ambassador  from  the  court  of  Spain  to  the  courts  of 
Petersburgh,.  Lisbon,  and  St.  James's,  he  filled  an  honour- 
able station  at  Madrid,  where  he  employed  his  leisure 
hours  in  literary  pursuits.  In  1781,  ht  published  a  kind 
of  journal,  entitled  "  Decada  Epistolen,"  where  he  gave 
periodical  accounts  of  French  works,  &c.     He  then,  un« 

^   1  Moreri.-*-Bidg.UBlTerselU^  The  latter  makes  him  nephew,  iastead  of  gratis* 
iCMi,  to  Jansson. 
.*Biog.  yiiiverselle.—MaadeUJ's  Collection  d' opuscles,  vol.  XXXV ill.  art.  S. 

Vol.  II.  D 

34  A  L  M  6  D  O  V  A  R. 

der  the  name  of  M alode  Luque,  undertook  a  translation 
of  the  abbe  Rayna^s  celeT)rated  philosophical  and  political 
history  of  the  two  Indies,  a  work  proscribed  in  Spain,  and 
j[:onse,quenlly  almost  unknown,  and  he  made  such  altera- 
tions as  satisfied  the  inquisition  itself  that  it  would  not  be  a 
dangerous  publication.     He  died  at  Madrid  in  1794.  * 

ALMON   (John),  a  bookseller,  author,  and  editor,  was 
born  at  Liverpool,  about  the  year  1738,  and  was  educated 
at  Warrington.     About  1748  he  was  put  apprentice  to  a 
bookseller  at  Liverpool,  hut  in  1756  he  went  to  sea,  as  a 
common  seaman.     In  1758  or  1759,  he  returned  to  Eng- 
land, and  came  to  London^  where,  it  is  said,  he  soon  lie- 
came  known  to  several  wits  of  the  day,  as  Dr.  Goldsmith, 
'Churchill,  Lloyd,  apd  Wilkes.     His   turn,   however,  was 
foi:  political  writing;   and   in  1759  he  published    "The 
conduct  of  a  late  noole  commander  (lord  George  Sackville) 
examined."     This  was  followed  ^y  a  compilation,  in  six- 
penny numbers,  of  "  A  Military  Dictionary,''    or  an  ac- 
count of  the  most  remarkable  battles  and  siegts  from  the 
reign  of  Charlemagne  to  the  year  1760.     Soon  after,  hjB 
wrote  various  political  letters  in  the  Gazetteer  newspaper, 
which  he  collected  and  published  under  the  title  of  "  A 
collection  of  init resting  letters  from  the  public  papers.'* 
About  the  same  time  he  published  **  A  Review  of  his  Ma- 
jesty (George  iVs)  reign  ;"  arid  when  Mr.  Pitt  resigned  iii 
1761,  he  wrote  *^  A  Review  of  his  Administration."     Hfs 
ptlier  publications   were,  ^^  A   Letter  to  the   right   honl. 
George  Grenville ;"    "An  history  of    the  Parliament  of 
Great  Britain,  from  the  death  of  queen  Anne  to  the  death 
of  George  11.;^'  "  An  impartial  history  of  the  late  War 
from  1749  to  1763  ;"   "A  Review  of  lord  Bute's  adminis- 
tration."    When  Wilkes's  infamous  essay  on  woman  was 
brought  to  light,  Mr.  Almon  wrote  an  answer  to  Kidgell,^ 
Ihe  informer's,  narrative.     In  1763,  he  commenced  book- 
seller in  Piccadilly,  and  published  "A  Letter  concerning 
libels,  warrants,  and  seizure  of  papers,  &c.  j"  **.  A  history 
of  the   Minority  during  the  years  17i52 — 1765  j*'   "The 
Political  Register,",  a  periodical  work,  and  the  general  re- 
ceptacle of  all  the  scurrility  of  the  writers  in  opposition  to 
government;  "  The  New  Foundling  Hospital  for  Wit,"  a 
collection  of  fugitive  pieces,  in  prose  and  verse,  mostly  of 
the  party  kind  :  <^  An  Asylum,"  a  publication  of  a  «imiluc 

A  L  M  O  N.  35 

«ort ;  "  CoUection  of  all  the  Treaties  of  Peace,  AUhiiicey 
and  Commerce,  between  Great  Britain  and  otl^ier  powers, 
.from  the  revolution  in  1688  to  the  present  time  ;"  "  The 
Parliamentary  Register/'  an  account  of  the  delf^t^.  in  par- 
liament; "  The  Hemembrancer,''  another  mpntbly  collec- 
tion of  papers  in  favour  of  the  American  cause  ;  "A  col- 
lection of  the  Protests  of  the  House  of  Lords ;"  "  Letter  to 
tlie  earl  of  Bjate,"  1772.; ."  Free  ParUam/ents,  or  a  vin- 
dication of  the  p^rliamentar}'  constitution  of  Englaqd,  in 
answer  to  certain  visionary  plans ,  of  modern,  reformers  ;'* 
'^  A  parallel  between  the  siege  of  Berwick  and  the  siegtt 
of  Aquilea,"  in  ridicule  of  Hqcne's  tragedy,  the  Siege  of 
Aquilea ;  ^'  A  Letter  to  the  right  hon.  Charles  Jenkinson," 
1732.  These  were  mostly,  if  not  all,  anonymous,  and 
they  ^re  enumerated  here  for  the  information  of  ^bo^  who 
form  coUectipns  of  political  pamphlets.  .      . 

The  works  which  be  more,  publicly  avowed  ^re^  "Ai>€C- 
dotes  of  the  Life  pf  the  Earl  of  Cha,thafn/'  2  ^pU^fto,  ^nd 
3  V0I&  8vo ;  ^^  Biographical,  Literary,  and  Political  Anec- 
dotes of  several  of  the  most  eniin^nt  persons, of  .^^.piT^ent 
age,  never  before  priuted,"'  3  vojis.  8vo,  1797.  ^q^-pontain 
many  curious  particulars  of  ti}e  political  char^Qt^^  s^i^d  con* 
teats  of  his  day,  picked, up  from  the  varipus  ipenfib^s  pf  par- 
liament who  frequented  bis  shop,  aivd  confided. ;4n  him.  His 
last  publication,  ;vajs  a  cpllect^on  of  Mn  \yi|k^!s>pan:^phlets 
and  tetters,  with  a. life,  in  w^hipb  he  praises  tj^at.g^iUJemW 
in  the  mp^t, extravagant  manner,  while  h^  K;el,$rtef  f^o%» 
concerning  his  character  ,that  el^where  might  ^^y^  b§ea 
accounted  ^ef^matipn.  In  .  al|  biis  polijtical  ^are^r  he  was 
attache4.  ta  ^he  party  which  supported  Wilkes,  and  opposed 
the  measures  of  government  in  the  early  part  of  tjie  present 
feign.  At  that  time  it. was  not  surprising  th^t  inai)y  of  bis 
pamphlets  were,  popular,  or  that  he  should  be  ab]e  to  boa,st 
pf  an  intiniacy  with  n^en  of  rank  in  the  politipa}  w;prld.  lE]# 
had  the  hardihood  to  publish  writings  which  bopk^djerspf 
established  reputation  would  hiave  rejected,,  f^pd,  he  r^an 
Ijittle  risk,  a^.the  expence  of  pmiting  was  d^ffs^ed  by  hi9 
^ployers,,|,firhile  he  had  the  profits  of  thesale,  l^ven  pf 
^se  which,  upon  his  own  a\ithprity,  we  h^ve  giv^QifSiS  bis 
productions,  it  is  highly  probable  be  was  rather  this  ^u^x 
dan  the  aut^9rn  In  those  wbi^h  mprp  rec^tly  appeiired 
under  his  name,  there  is  very  little  of  the  ability,  either 
argumentative  or  narrative,  which  could  give  con$eau#nce 
to  a  political  effusion. 

I»  2 

^  A  L  M  O  N, 

About  the  year  1782,  he  retired  from  brrsiness  as  a  boot- 
seller;  but  in  a  few  years  he  married  the  wrdow  of  Mr, 
Parkfer,  printer  of  a  newspaper  called  the  General  AJver* 
tiser,  of  which  he  then  was  proprietor  and  editor :  the  spe- 
culation however  injured  his  fortune,  and  he  became  a  pri- 
soner in  the  king^s  bench  for  a  libel,  and  was  afterwardg 
an  outlaw.  Extricated  at  length  from  lus  difficulties,  he 
retired  stgain  into  Hertford»lnfe,  where  he  died  December 
12,  1805,  leaving  hrs  widow  in  great  distress.  * 

ALPHERY  (Mekepher,  so  pronounced,  though  pra- 
perly  spelt,  Nikepwok,  Nicephorus)  was  born  in  Russia,  of 
the  imperial  line.  When  thart:  country  was  disturbed  by 
intestine  quarrels,  in  the  latter  end  of  the  1 6th  century, 
and  the  royal  house  particularly  was  severely  persecuted 
-by  impostors,  this  gentleman  and  his  two  brothers  were 
sent  over  to  England,  and  recommended  ta  the  care  of 
Mr.  Joseph  Bidell,  a  Russia  merchant.  Mr.  Bidell,  when 
they  were  of  age  fit  for  the  university, .  sent  them  all  three 
to  Oxford,  where  the  small-pox  unhappily  prevailing,  two 
of  them  'died  of  it.  We  know  not  whether  this  surviving 
brother  took  any  degree,  but  it  is  very  probable  he  did, 
siuce  he  entered  into  holy  or<iers;  and,  in  the  year  1618, 
bad  the  rectory  of  Wooley  in  Huntingdonshii'e,  a  living  of 
na  very  consideriEible  value,  being  rated  ait  tinder  10/.  irf 
the  king^s  books^  Here  he  did  his  duty  with  great  cheer- 
fulness imd  dlacrity  ;.  and  notwithstanding  fae«  was  twice 
invited  ba<;k  to  his  native  cJoiintry,  by  some  who  would 
have  ventured  their  utcnost  to  have  set  him  on  the  throne 
of  his  ancestors,  he  chose  rather  to  remain  with  his  flock, 
and  to  serve  God  in  the  hun>ble  station  of  a  parish 
priest.  Yet  in  1643  he  underwent  the  severest  trials  from 
the  rage  of 'the  fanatic  sojdiery,  who,  not  satisfied  witb 
depriving  hitn  of  hia  living,  insulted  him  in  tlie  most  bar- 
barous manner;  for,  having  procured  a  file  of  nrasqueteers 
to  pull  him  ont  of  bis  pulpit,  as  he  was  preaching  on  a 
Sunday,  they  turned  his  wife  and  young  children  out  inta 
the  street,  into  which  also  they  threw  his  goods.  The  poor 
inan  in  this  distress  raised  a  tent  under  some  trees  in 
the  church-yard,  over  against  his  house,  where  he  and  hisr 
family  lived  for  a  week.  One  day  having  gotten  a  feur 
eggs,  be  picked  up  some  rotten  wood  and  dry  sticks,  and 

^  G«pt  Mag.  vol.  LXXV.— Public  Characters  f0f  180S-4»  where  is  » 
iatiering  life>  cficdtotly  CQntribiited  by  himstlf. 

A  L  P  H  E  R  Y.  37 

with  these  mack  a  fire  in  the  church  porch,  iii  order  ta 
boil  them ;  but  some  of  his  adversaries,  to  show  how  far 
they  could  carry  their  rage  against  the  church  (for  this 
poor  man  was  so  harmless,  they  could  have  none  against 
him),  came  and  kicked  about  his  fire,  threw  down  his 
skillet,  and  broke  his  eggs.  After  this,  having  still  a  little 
money,  he  made  a  small  purchase  in  that  ueiglibourhoody 
built  a  house,  and  lived  there  some  years.  He  was  en- 
couraged to  this  by  a  presbyterian  minister  who  came  in 
bis  room,  and  honeytly  paid  him  a  fifth  part  of  the  annual , 
income  of  the  living,  which  was  the  allowance  made  by 
parliament  to  ejected  ministers,  treated  him  with  great 
humanity,  and  did  him  all  the  services  in  his  power.  It  is 
a  great  misfortune  that  this  gentleman^s  name  is  not  pre- 
served, his  conduct  in  this  respect  being  the  more  laudable, 
because  it  was  not  a  little  singular.  Walker  calls  him  Mr., 
B— ,  and  the  living  is  not  mentioned  by  Calamy.  .  Afters- 
wards,  probably  on  the  death  or  removal  of  this  gentleman,, 
Mr.  Alphery  left  Huntingdonshire,  and  came  and  resided  at 
Hammersmith,  till  the  Restoration  put  him  in  possession  o^ 
his  Kving  again.  He  returned  on  this  occasion  to,  Hun<* 
tingdonshire,  where  he  did  not  stay  long ;  for,  being  up- 
wards of  80,  and  very  infirm,  he  could  not  perform  the 
duties  of  his  function.  Having  therefore  settled  a  curate,, 
he  retired  to  his  eldest  son's  house  at  Hammersmith,  where 
shortly  after  he  died,  full  of  years  and  of  honour.  It  must 
be  owned  that  this  article  is  very  imperfect ;  but  the  sin- 
gularity of  a  Russian  prince's  being  a  country  minister  in. 
England  is  a  mattei'  of  too  much  curiosity  to  be  wholly, 

Mrs.  Alphery,  the  last  descendant  of  the  family,  married 
one  Mr.  Johnson  a  cutler  at  Huntingdon.  She  was  Uving 
in  1764,  and  had  eight  children.  By  her  the  facts  con-> 
tained  in  the  preceding  article,  first  related  by  Walker,  were 
confirmed  to  lord  Sandwich^  and  were  likewise  known  to 
be  true  by  old  people  in  the  neighbourhood.  His  lordship 
informed  Dr.  Campbell,  tliat  such  was  the  respect  paid  this 
woman  on  account  of  her  illustrious  descent,  that  no  per- 
sons, of  whatever  station,  chose  to  be  seated  in  her  pre-. 
sence :  on  the  contrary  they  rose,  i^nd  remained  so  till  she 
bad  taken  her  chair.  *  . 

»  Biog.  Brit.— Walkers  Sufferings  of  tke  Clrrgf, 


ALPHOlSrSUS  X.  kiitg  of  Leon  and  Castile,  who  hni 
been  surnamed  The  Wise,  on  account  of  his  attachment 
to  literature,  is  how  more  celebrated  fot  having  b6en  art 
astronomer  than  a  king.    He  was  born  in  1203,  succ6efded 
his  father  Ferdinand  III.  in  1252,  and  died  in  1284,  con- 
sequently at  the  age  of  81.     The  affairs  of  the  reign  of 
Alphonsus  were  very  extraordinary  and  unfortunate,  but 
we  shall   here    only  consider    him   in    that  part    oif  his 
character,  on  account  of   which  he  has  a  place  in   this 
i^orky  namely,  as  an  astronomer  and  a  man  of  letters.    He 
acquired  a  profound  knowledge  of  astronomy,  philosophy, 
and  history,  and  composed  books  upon  the  motions  of  the 
heavens,  and  on  the  history  of  Spain,  which  are  highly 
commended.     **  What  can  be  more  surprising,"  says  Ma- 
riana,   "  than  that  a  prince,  educated   in   a  camp,  and 
handling  arms  from   his  childhood,    should   have    silch   a 
iuowledge  of  the  stars,  of  philosophy,  and  the  transafctiohjl 
of  the  wbrld,  aV  men   of  leisure  can  scarcely  acquire  in 
their  retirements  ?  There  are  extant  some  books  of  Alphon- 
fTus  on  the  motions  of  the  stars,  and  the  histoty  of  Spain, 
written  with  great  skill  and  incredible  care."    In  his  astro- 
nbmical  pursuits  be  discovered  that  the  tables  of  Ptoleiily 
were  full  of  errors,  and  was  thfe  first  to  undertake  the  task 
of  cdrrecting  them.    For  this  purpose,  about  the  yeaf  1240, 
afid  during  the  life  of  his  father,  he  assembled  at  Toledo 
the  most  skilful  astronomers  of  his  time.  Christians,  Moors, 
or  Jews,  v^hen  a  plan  was   formed  for  constructing  hew 
tables.     This  task  was  accomplished  about  1252,  the  first 
yciar  of  his  reign  ;  the  tables  being  drawn  up  chiefly  by  the 
skill  and  pains  of  Rabbi  Isaac  Hazan,  a  learned  Jew,  and 
'  the  Work  fcalled  the  Alphonsine  Tables^  in  honour  of  the 
prinee,  who  was  at  vast  expences  concerning  them.     He 
fiied  the  epoch  of  the  tables  to  the  30th  of  May  1252, 
being  the  day  of  hi6  accessicDn  to  the  throne.     They  were 
printed  for  the  first  time  irt  1483,  at  Venice,  by  Radtolt, 
i^ho  excelled  in  printing  at  th^t  time ;  an  edition  extremely 
jrarer  thei'e  are  others  of  1492,  1521,  1545,  &c. 

We  must  not  omit  a  memorable  saying  of  Alphonsus, 
which  has  been  recorded  for  its  boldness  and  impiety; 
namely,  ^*  That  if  he  had  been  of  God's  ptivy  council  when 
he  made  the  wbrld,  he  could  have  advised  him  better.** 
His  biographers  have  endeavoured  to  vindicate  him  in  this 
instance,  by  assuring  us  that  he  meant  only  to  reflect  on 


the  absurd  pfailosopby  by  wbicb  the  hv^s  of  nature  were 
then  ei^pUined.  Perhaps  their  wUer  course  would  have 
beqn  to  consigq  .^t  to  obUvioo,  as  there  it  no  direct  proo|^ 
of  his  not  having  used  this  irreverent  language.  ^ 

ALPHONSUS  (Pj^ter),  a  Spanish  Jew  of  the  I2tb 
century,  was  converted  to  the  Christiaii  religion  in  1106^ 
in  the  44th  year  of  bis  age.  Being  severely  censured  by. 
bis  coun.trymen,  be  published  a -^^  Dialogue  between  a 
Jew  and  a  Christian,"  which  seems  to  have  been  no  coc^-» 
temptible defence  of  Christianity  against  his  countryonen. 
He  wrote  also  ^.On  science  and  philosophy/'  and  was 
eminent  for  sacred  and  profane  literature.  The  time  of 
his  death  is  not  known.  The  first  menti9ned  work  is  i^ 
the  "Bibl.  Patruro."* 


ALPINI  (Prospeuo),  a  celebrated  physician  and  bo^ 
tanist^  was  born  the  23d  of  November  1553,  at  Marostica,. 
in  tlie  republic  of  Venice.  In  his  early  years  he  was  in-* 
ciined  to  the  profession  of  arms,  and  accordingly  served 
in  the  Milanese;  b^ut  being  at  length  persuaded  by  his 
father,  who  was  a  physician,  to  apply  himself  to  learning, 
he  went  to  Padua,  where-  in  a  little  time  he  was  chosen 
deputy  to  the  rector,  and  syndic  to  the  students,  which 
offices  lie  discharged  with  great  prudence  and  address. 
This,  however,  did  not  hinder, him  from  pursuing  his.stud^if 
of  physic,  in  which  faculty  he  was  created  doctor  in  1578. 
Nor  did  he  remain  long  without  practice,  being  soon  after 
invited  to  Campo  San  Pietro,  a  little  town  in  the  territories 
of  Padua.  But  such  a  situation,  was  too  confined  for  one  of 
bis  extensive  views ;  he  was  desirous  of  gaining  a  know-^ 
ledge  of  exotic  plants,  and  thought  {be  best  way  to  succeed 
in  his  inquiries,  was,  after  Galen's  example,  to  visit  the 
countries  where ^they  grow.  He  s.pon  had  an  opportunity 
of  gratifying  his  curiosity,  as  George Emo,  or  Hemij  being 
appointed  consul  for  the  republic  of  Venice  in  Egypt, 
chose  him  for  his  physician.  They  left  Venice  the  12th 
of  September  1580;  and,  after  a  tedious  and  dangerous 
Toyage,  arrived  at  Grand  Cairo  the  beginning  of  July  the 
year  following.  Alpini  continued  three  years  in  this  coun » 
try,  where  he  omitted  no  ppportunity  of  impjcoving  hi;^ 

'  Univ.  History.-^Moreri. — SiEixu  Onomasticon.— Gen,  Diet,  in  art.  Castille. 
•  XJaTe  vol.  ll-^Fabricii  Bibl.  Lat.  Med.— JDupin. 

40  A  L  P  I  N  I. 

knowledge  in  botany,  travelling  along  the  banks  of  the 
river  Nile,  and  as  far  as  Alexandria,  and  other  parts  of 
Egypt  Updfi  his  return  to  Venice,  'in  1584,  Andrea 
Doria,  prince  of  Melfi,  appointed  him  his  physician  ;  and 
he  distinguished  himself  so  much  in  this  capacity,  that  he 
was  esteemed  the  first  physician  of  his  age.  The  republic 
of  Venice,  displeased  that  a  subjeet  of  theirs,  of  so  much 
merit  as*  Alpini^  should  continue  at  Genoa,  when  he^ might 
be  of  very  gfeat  service  and  honour  to  their  state,  recalled 
him  in  1593,  to  fill  the  professorship  of  botany  at  Padua, 
where  he  had  a  salary  of  200  florins,  afterwards  raised  to 
750.  |le  discharged  this  office  with  great  reputation  ;  but 
liis  health  became  very  precarious,  having  been  much  in^ 
jured  by  the  voyages  he  bad  madb.  According  to  the 
registers  of  the  university  of  Padua,  he  died  the  5th  of 
Feoruary  1617,  in  the  64th  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried 
the  day  after,  without  any  funeral  pomp,  in  the  church  of 
St.  Anthpny>, 

His  works,  some  of  which  are  still  held  in  esteem,  wercj^ 
1.  **  De  Medicina  Egyptiorum,  libri  IV."  Venice,  1591, 
4to,  Paris,  1645,  and  Leyden,  1735,  4to.  2.  ^^DeBalsamq 
dialogus,"  Venice,  1591,  Padua,  1640,  4to.  In  this  he 
describes  the  plant  in  Asia  Minor  which  produces  the  white 
balsam.  3.  **  De  Plantis  Egyptii  liber,"  Venice,  1592, 
Padua,  1640,  4to.  4.  **De  Plantis  exoticis,  libri  II.''  Ve- 
nice, 1627,  1656,  4to.  5.  **  Historic  naturalis  Egypti,  li- 
Jbti  IV."  Leyden,  1735,  2  vols.  4to.  6.  ^*  De  praesagienda 
yita  etmorte  aegrotantium,  libri  VII.''  Padua,  4io,  Leyden, 
1710,  edited  by  Boerhaave;  the  most  oqnsiderable  of  aH 
]^is  works,  of  which  there  have  been  various  editions,  and 
an  English  translation  by  Dr.  James,  2  vols.  8vo.  1746.  7. 
f^De  Medicina  methodica,  libri  XIII."  Padua,  foi.  1611, 
Leyden,  1719,  4to,  a  work  in  which  he  evinces  his  pre- 
dilection for  the  n^etbodists.  8.  ^^  Dissertatio  de  Rbapon- 
tico,'-  Padua,  1612,  4to.  AH  these  works  have  been  firer 
fluently  repriiited.  Towards  the  end  of  his  life  Alpini  be- 
came deaf,  and  in  consequence  turned  his  thoughts  to- 
wards the  causes  of  that  privation,  and  the  possibility  of 
cure.  The  result  of  his  researches  he  communicated  in  a 
treatise  on  the  subji^t,  whicb,  with  some  other  works,  still 
remain  in  manuscript.  He  left  four  sons,  one  of  whom 
was  a  lawyer,  and  another^  phy^ici^u,  and. the  publisher 
of  his  father's  posthumous  works.     The  Alpinia,  s^  gejQu^ 

A  L  P  I  N  I.  41 

ef  the  monogynia  order,  of  which  there  is  but  one  species, 
derives  its  name  from  him.  * 

ALREDUS,  Alfredus,  of  Aluredus,  an  ancient  Eng-* 
lish  historian,  was  born  at  Beverley  in  Yorkshire,  and  re-' 
ceived  his  education  at  Cambridge.  He  returned  after* 
wards  to  the  place  of  his  nativity,  where  he  became  a  secu« 
lar  priest,  one  of  the  canons,  and  treasurer  to  the  church  of 
St.  John,  at  Beverley.  Tanner,  in  a  note^  inf&rms  us,  that 
he  travelled  for  improvement  through  France  and  Italy, 
and  that  at  Rome  he  became  domestic  chaplain  to  cardinal 
Othoboni.  According  to  Bale  and  Pits,  he  flourished  under, 
king  Stephen,  and  continued  his  annals  to  the  year  113G. 
Vossius  is  supposed  to  come  nearer  the  truth,  who  tells  us 
that  he  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Henry  I.  and  died  in  1 126^ 
in  which  same  year  ended  his  annals.  His  history,  how* 
ever,  agrees  with  none  of  these  authors,  and  it  seems  pro* 
bable  from  thence  that  he  died  in  1123  or  1129.  He  in- 
tended at  first  no  more  than  an  abridgment  of  the  history 
of  the  ancient  Bfitons  ;  but  a  desire  of  pursuing  the  thread 
of  bis  story  led  him  to  add  the  Saxon,  and  then  the  Nor* 
man  history,  and  at  length  he  brought  it  down  to  his  own 
times.  This  epitome  of  our  history  from  Brutus  to  Henry  I. 
is  esteemed  a  valuable  performance ;  it  is  written  in  Latin, 
in  a  concise  and  elegant  style,  with  great  perspicuity,  and 
a  strict  attention  to  dates  and  authorities  :  the  author  has 
been  not  improperly  styled  our  English  Florus,  his  plan 
and  execution  very  much  resembling  that  of  the  Roman 
historian.  It  is  somewhat  surprising  that  Leland  has  not 
given  him  a  place  amongst  the  British  writers  :  the  reason 
seeips  to  have  been  that  Leland,  through  a  mistake,  con^ 
siders  him  only  as  the  author  of  an  abridgment  of  Geoffrey 
of  Monmouth's  history ;  but  most  of  the  ancient  writers 
having  placed  Geoffrey's  history  later  in  point  of  time  than 
that  of  Alredus,  we  Iiave  reason  to  conclude  that  Alredus 
composed  his  compendium  before  he  ever  saw  the  history 
of  Geoffrey.  We  have  also  the  authority  of  John  With* 
amsted,  an  ancient  writer  of  the  fifteenth  century,  who, 
speaking  of  our  author,  says,  that  he  wrote  a  chronicle  of 
what  happened  from  the  settlen^ent  of  Brutus  to  the  time 
of  the  Normans,  in  which  be  also  treated  of  the  cities  an* 
cieotly  founded  in  this  kingdom,  and  mentioned  the  names 

»  Gen.  Diet— MorerL^Haller  Bibh  Med.— Manget.   Bibl.— Freyeri  Tkea? 
^auL^^SaxU  pnomast. 

M  A  L  R  E  D  U  S. 

by.  which  LondoD,  Canterbury,  and  York  were  called  in.  old 
times,  when  the  Britons  inhabited  them ;  and  this  tes>,ti- 
Qiony  agrees  with  the  book,  as  we  now  have  iu  Some  other 
pieces  have  been  ascribed  to  Alredus;  but  this  history, 
and  that  of  St.  John  of  Beverley,  seem  to  have  been  all  that 
be  wrote.  This  last  perforoiance  was  never  printed,  but  it 
is  to  be  found  in  the  Cotton  library  ;  though  not  set  down 
in  the  catalogues,  as  being  contseined  in  a  volume  of  tracts : 
it  is  entitled  ^^  X/ibertates  ecclesise  S.  Johannis  de  Bever- 
lik,  cum  privilegiis  apostolicis  et  episcopalibus,  quas  ma- 
giater  Alueredus  sacrista  ejusdem  ecclesiap.  de  An^^lico  in 
Ls^inum  transtulit :  in  hoc  tractatulo  dantur  cartae  Saxonicao 
R,  R.  Adelstani,  Eadwardi  Confessoris,  et  Willelmi,  quas 
feceruQt  eidem  ecclesise,  sed  imperito  exscriptore  mendose 
scriptse.  The  liberties  of  the  church  of  St.  John  of  Be- 
Terley,  with  the  privileges  granted  by  the  .apostolic  see, 
or  by  bishops,  translated  out  of  Saxon  into  Latin,  by  master 
Alared,  sacrist  of  the  said  church.  In  this  treatise  are 
contained  the  Saxon  charters  of  the  kings  Adelstan,  Ed* 
ward  tKe  Confessor,  and  William  the  Conqueror,  granted 
by  them  to  this  church  ;  but,  through  want  of  skill  in  the 
transcriber,  full  of  mistakes.'^  Mr.  Hearne  published  an 
edition  of  Alredusf  s  annals  of  the  British  History,  at  Ox- 
ford, in  171$,  with  a  preface  of  his  own.  This  was  taken 
from  a  Boanqscript  belonging  to  Thomas  Rawtinson,  esq. 
which  Hearne  says  is  tlte  only  one  he  ever  saw.^ 


ALSOP  (Anthony),  a  poetical  and  miscelUtneous  Eng- 
lish writer,  was  educated  at  Westminster  school,  and  thence 
elected  to  Christ-church,  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree 
of  M.  A.  March  23,  1696,  and  of  B.  D.  Dec;  12,  1706.  On 
his  coming  to  the  university,  he  was  very  soon  distinguished 
by  dean  Aldricb,  and  published  *^  Fabularum  iEsopicarurn 
delectus,'*  Oxon,  1698,  8\t>,  witli  a  poetical  dedication  to* 
lord  viscount  Scudamore,  and  a  preiiace  in  which  he  took 
part  against  Dr.  Bentley  in  the  famous  dispuce  with  Mr* 
Boyle.  This  book.  Dr.  Warton  observes,  is  not  suffix 
ciently  known.  It  was  better  known  at  one  time,  how- 
ever, if  we  may  credit  bishop  Warburton,  who,  in  one  of 
his  letters  to  Dr.  Hurd,  says  that  ^^  ^  powerful  cabal  gave 
it  a  surprising  turn.**  Alsop  passed  through  the  usu^l 
offices  in  his  college  to  that  of  censor,  with  considerable 

^  Biog.  Brit. 'from  Bale,  Pits,  Tanner,  &c.  • 

A  L  S  O  p. 

.refutation  ;  and  for  ^ome  years  had  the  principal  ndble* 
men  and  gentlemen  belonging  to  the  society  committed  tof- 
bis  care.  In  this  useful  employment  be  continued  till  bia 
merit  recommended  him  to  sir  Jonathan  Trelawny^  bishopi 
of  Winchester^  who  appointed  him  his  chaplain,  and  sooti 
after  gave  him  a  prebend  in  his  own  cathedrali  together 
with  the  rectory  of  Brightwell,  in  the  county  of  Besks^ 
which  afTbrdod  him  ample  provision  fbr  a  learned  retira^ 
ment,  frOm  which  he  coald  not  be  drawn  by  the  repeated 
solicitations  of  those  who  thought  him  qualified  for  a  more 
public  character  and  a  higher  station.  In  17  i  7  an  action 
was  brought  against  him  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Astrey  of  Ox- 
ford, for  a  breach  of  a  marriage  contract ;  and  a  verdict 
obtained  against  him  for  2,000/.  which  probably  <^ccasioned 
him  to  leave  the  kingdom  for  some  time.  How  long  this 
exile  lasted  is  unknown ;  but  his  death  happened,  June  10, 
1726,  and  was  occasioned  by  his  falling  into  a  ditch  that 
led  to  his  garden-door,  the  path  being  narrow,  and  part  of 
it  giving  way.  A  quarto  volume  of  his  was  published  in 
1752,  by  the  late^  sir  Francis  Bernard,  under  the  title  of 
^^  Antonii  ALsopi,  sedis  Christi  olim  ainmni,  Odarum  libri 
duo.*'  Four  English  poems  of  his  are  in  Dodsley's  collec- 
tion, one  in  Pearch*s,  several  in  the  <?arly  volumes  of  the 
GeUtleman^s  Magazine,  and  some  in  the  ^*  Student."  He 
seem§  to  have  been  a  pleasant  and  facetious  companion^ 
not  rigidly  bound  by  the  trammels  of  his  profession,  and 
does  not  appear  to  have  published  any  sermons.  Mr.  AU 
sop  is  respectfully  mentioned  by  the  facetious  Dr.  King  of 
the  Commons  (vol.  I.  p.  236.)  as  having  enrichied  the  com- 
monwealth of  learning,  by  *^  Translations  of  fables  from^ 
Greek,  Hebrew,  and  Arabic  ;"  and  not  less  detractingly  bjr 
Dr.  Bentley,  under  the  name  of  "  Tpny  Alsop,  a  late  edi- 
tor of  the  ^sopean  Fables.*'  Sir  Francis  Bernard,  bis 
editor,  says,  that  among  the  various  branches  of  philological 
learning  for  which  he  was  eminent,  bis  singularly  delicate 
t^te  for  the  classic  poets  was  the  chief.  This  induced  him 
to  make  use  of  the  Sapphic  numbers  in  his  familiar  corre- 
spondence with  his  most  intimate  friends,  in  which  be 
shewed  a  facility  so  uncommon,  and  a  style  sk>  natural  and 
easy,  that  he  has  been,  not  unjustly,  esteemed  not  inferior 
to  his  master  Horace.  ^ 

>  Beroatd'fl  Proporals  for  printing  tbe  Oief  j  issued  July  27, 17^8. — ^Nidiela's 
£Uf  pS  Bowy  er,  toI.  1 1,  p.  )»3. 

44  A  L  S  O  P- 

ALSOP  (Vincent),  an  English  nonconformist  of  con* 
siderable  note,  was  a  native  of  Northamptonshire,  and  edu- 
cated at  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the 
degree  of  master  of  arts.    He  afterwards  received  deacon's 
orders  from  a  bishop,  and  settled  at  Oakham  in  Rutland* 
shire,  as  assistant  to  the  master  of  the  free  school.     Being 
a  man  who  possessed  a  lively  pleasant  wit,  he  fell  into  gay 
company,  but  was  reclaimed  by  the  admonition  of  the  rev. 
^Mr.  King,  a  Puritan  minister  at  or  near  Oakham,  whose- 
daughter  be  afterwards  married ;  and  becoming  a  convert 
to  his  principles,  he  received  ordination  in  the  presbyterian 
way,  not  being  satisfied  with  tliat  of  the  bishop,  which  ex- 
tended only  to  deaeon^s  orders,  and  he  was  no  longer  wiUing 
to  conform  to  the  church  by  applying  for  those  of  a  priest., 
He   settled   at  Wilby,    in  the   county  of  Northampton, 
whence  he  was^ejecjted  in  1662,  for  nonconformity.     After 
which  he  ventured  to  preach  sometimes  at  Oakham  and  at 
Wellingborough,  Where  he  lived  ;  ^nd  was  once  committed 
to  prison  for  six  months,  for  praying  with  a  sick  person. 
The  hook  he  wrote  against  Dr.  Sherlock,  in  a  humorous 
style,  made  him  first  known  to  the  world,  and  induced  Mr. 
Cawton,   an  eminent  nonconformist  in   Westniinster,   to 
recommend  him  to  his  congregation,  as  his  successor.     Oji 
receiving  this  invitation,  he  quitted  Northampton,  and  came 
to  London,  where  he  preached  cunstan):ly,  and  wrote  seve- 
ral pieces,  which  werp  extremely  well  received  by  the  pub- 
lic.    His  living  jn  the  neighbourhood  of  the  court  exposed 
him  to  many  incou>ift3ni^nces,  but  he  had  the  good  fortune, 
to  escape  imprisonment  9,nd  fines,  by  the  ignorance  of  the 
informers,  wlijo  did  npt  know  his  Christian  name,  which  he 
studiously  concealed;  and  even  Anthony  Wood,  who  c^lls. 
him  Benjamin,  did  not  know,  it.     His  sufFerings,  however, 
ended  with  the  reign  of  Charles  H.  at  least  in  the  beginning 
of  the  next  reign,  when  his  son,  engaging  in  treasonable, 
practices,  was  frequently  pardoned  by  king  James.  Afterthis, 
Mr.  Alsop  went  frequently  to  court,  and  is  generally  sup- 
posed to  have  been  the  person  who  drew  up  the  Presbyterians* 
very  fulsome  address  to  that  prince,  for  his  general  indul* 
g^nce }  a  measure,  however,  which  waj>  condemned  by  the 
majority  of  nonconformists.     Affer   the  revolution,    Mr. 
Alsop  gave  very  public  testimonies  of  his  affection  fof  the^ 
government,  but  on  all  occasions  spoke  in  the  highest  terms 
of  i'espect  and  gratitude  of  kingJamc*,  and  retained  a  vfeiy 
high  sense  of  hi^  clemency,  in  sj^ajring  his  6n}y  son.     ^The 

A  L  S  O  p.  45 

remainder  of  his  life  he  spent  in  the  exercise  of  the  minis- 
try, preaching  once  every  Lord^s  day  ;  besides  which  he 
bad  a  Thursday  lecture,  and  was  one  of  the  lecturers  at 
Pinner's  hall.  He  lived  to  be  a  very  old  man,  preserved 
his  spiritft  to  the  last,  and  died  May  8,  1 703.  On  grave 
subjects  be  wrote  with  a  becoming  seriousness ;  but  where 
wit  might  be  shewn,  he  displayed  it  to  considerable  advan- 
tage. His  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Mr.  Slater,  atid 
his  memory  will  always  be  remembered  by  his  own  learned 
and  elegant  writings ;  the  most  remarkable  of  which  are  : 
1.  "  Antisozzo,*'  in  vindication  of  some  great  truths  op- 
posed by  Dr.  Sherlock,  in  whose  treatise  "  Con<;erning 
:the  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ,"  he  thought  be  discovered 
a  tendency  towards  Socinianism,  and  therefore  entitled  this 
♦work,  which  was  published  in  1675,  '*  Antisozzo,"  from 
the  Italian  name  of  Socinus.  Sherlock  and  he  had  been 
pupils  under  the  same  tutor  in  the  university.  Dr.  South 
allowed  Alsop*s  merit  in  this  contest  of  wit,  but  Wood 
undervalues  his  talent.  2.  "  Melius  Inquirendum,"  in 
answer  to  Djr.  Goodman's  Compassionate  Inquiry,  1679, 
«vo.  3.  "  The  Mischief  of  Impositions ;"  in  answer  to 
Dr.  Stillingfleet's  Mischief  of  Separation,  1680.  4.  **  Duty 
and  interest  united  in  praise  and  prayer  for  Kings,'* 
5.  "  Practical  godliness  the  ornament  of  Religion,"  1696  ; 
and  several  sermons. ' 

ALSTEDIUS  (John  Henry),  a  German  protestant  di- 
vine, and  a  voluminous  writer,  was  some  time  professor  of 
philosophy  and  divinity  at  Herbom  in  the  county  of  Nas- 
sau ;  afterwards  professor  at  Alba  Julia  in  Transylvania, 
yrhere  he  continued  till  bis  death,  which  happened  in  1633, 
in  his  50tb  yean  Of  bis  public  character,  we  only  know 
that  be  assisted  at  the  synod  of  Dort.  He  applied  himself 
chiefly  to  reduce  the  several  branches  of  arts  and  sciences 
into  systems.  His  "  Encyclbpaedia"  has  been  much  es- 
teemed even  by  Roman  catholics  :  it  was  printed  at  Her- 
born,  1610,  4to,  ibid.  1630,  2  vols.  foL  and  at  Lyons,  1649, 
and  sold  very  well  throughout  all  Frapc^e.  Vossius  men- 
tions the  Encyclopdedia  in  general,  but  speaks  of  his  trea- 
tise of  Arithmetic  more  particalarly,  and  allows  the  author 
to  hs^ve  been  a  man  of  great  reading  and  universal  learning. 
Baillet  has  the  following  qiiotation  from  a  German  author  : 
¥AlstedittS'bas  indeed  many  good  things,  but  he  is  not  suf^ 


ficiently  accurate ;  yet  his  Encyclopcedia  was  received  with 
general  applause,  when  it  first  appeared,  and  may  be  of 
use  to  tliose  who,  being  destitute  of  other  helps,  and  not 
having  the  original  authors,  are  desirous  of  acquiring  some 
knowledge  of  the  terms  of  ^ch  profession  ^nd  science. 
Nor  can  we  praij^e  too  much  his  patience  >and  labour,  his 
judgment,  and  his  choice  of  good  airtfaors :  and  the  abstracts 
.he  has4»iade  are  not  mere  scraps  and  unconnectiad  rliapso- 
dies,  since  he  digests  the  principles  of  arts  and  sciences 
into  a  regular  a.nd  uniform  order.  Some  parts  are  indeed 
better  than  others,  some  being  insignificant  and  of  little 
tralue,  as  his  history  and  chronology.  Jc  must  be  allowed 
.too,  that  be  is  often  confused  by  endeavoufing  to  be  clear ; 
>bat  he  is  too  full  of  divisions  aod  subdiymons ;  and  that . 
he  affects  too  constrained  a  method.'^  Lorenzo  Brasso 
says,  ^^  that  thotigh  there  is  moreJlabour  than  .genius  in  AU 
stedius's  works,  yet  they  are  etileemed ;  and  his  in^iustry 
being  admired,  has  gained  him  admittance  into  the  temple 
of  feme.'*  Als^edius,  in  bis  **  Triumphax  BibliocumiSa* 
x:rovum,  seu  Encyclof)a5dia  Bihlica,"  Francfort,  1620,  1625, 
.1642,  12mo,  endeavours  to  prove,  that  the  materials  .and 
principles  of  all  the  arts  and^  sciences  niay  be  found  in  the 
scriptures,  an  op^inion  which  has  been  since  adopted  by 
others.  Jolvn.Himmelius  wrote  a. piece  against  his  "The- 
ologia  Polemica,"  which  was  one  of  the  best  performances 
of  Alstedius.  He  also  published  in  1627,  a  treatise  entitled 
'^  De  Mille  Annis,'^  whereip  be  asserts  that  the  faithful 
sliall  reign  with  Jesus  Christ  upon  earth  a  thousand  yeairs^ 
alter  which  will  be  the  general  resurrection  and  the  last 
judgment.  In  this  opinion,  he  would,  not  have  been  singular, 
as  it  lias  more  or  less,  prevailed  in  all  ages  of  the  churchy 
had  he  not  ventured  to  predict. that  it  would  take  place  in 
the  year  1694.  Niceron  has  given  a  more  copious  list  of 
his  works,  which  are  now  little  known  or  consulted.  * 

ALSTON  (Charles)^  an  ingenious  physician  and:  bo^ 
tanist,  was  the  son  q(  Mr.  Alston,  of  Eddlewood,  >.a  .gen- 
jtleman  of  small  estate  in  the  west  of  Scotland,  and  allied 
to  the  noble  family  of  Hamilton,  who,  aftevJiaving  studied 
physic,  and  travelled  with  several  gentlepien,  declined 
the  practice  of  his  profession^  and  reared  to  his  patri- 
mony. His  son  CJiarles  was  bom  in  1683,  and  at  the 
tixue  uf  his  father^s  death  was  studying  at  th$  oniveriity.  o^ 

ALSTON.  41 

Glasgow.  On  this  event,  the  duchess  of  Hamilton  took 
him  under  her  patronage;  and  recoimnended  to  him  thfe 
profession  of  the  law,  but'  his  inclination  for  botany  and 
the  study  of  medicine  siij^erseded  aU  other  schemes;  and 
from  the  year  17J16,  he  ehtirely  devoted  himself  to  medi^- 
cine.  In  that  year  he  went  over  to  Leyden^  and  studied 
wnder  Boerhaave  for  three  years ;  and  having  here  formed 
nn  acquaintance  with  tiie  celebrated  Dr.  Alexander  Monro, 
the  first  of  that  name,  on  their  return  they  projected  the 
revival  of  medical  lectures  and  studies  at  Edinburgh.  For 
this  purpose  they  associated  themselves  with  Drs.  RuthcJr-  . 
ford,  Sinclair,  and  Plummer,  and  laid  the  foundation  of 
that  high  character,  as  a  medical  scrhool,  which  Edinburgh 
has  so  long  enjoj-ed.  Dr.  Alston's  department  was  botany 
and  the  miateria  medica,  which  he  continued  to  teach  with 
unwearied  assiduity  until  his  death,  Nov.  22,  1760,  in  the 
seventy-seventh  year  of  his  age. 

In  1740,  he  published  for  the  iise  of  his  pupils  :  1.  **  In- 
dex Plantarum  pr&cipue  officinali^m,  quas  in  horto  medico 
Edinburgensi,  studibsis  detnonstrantu^,'*  Svo.  2.  ^  Index: 
Medicamentbruoi  simplicium  triplex,"  1752,  8vo.  3.  "Ti- 
rocinium Botanicum  Edinburgense,'*  1753;  his  principal 
work,  containing  a  republication  of  his  "  Index'*  with  the 
"  Fundamenta  Botanica**  of  Linnaeus ;  in  this,  however, 
he  made  an  uftavailing  attempt  to  overthrow  Linnoeus^s 
system ;  doubtless  from  ii  fond  attachment  to  his  early  in- 
structors, Tournefort,  Ray,  ^and  Boerhaave.  Be^ades 
these,  he  published  in  the  Edinburgh  medical  essay^^ 
three  papers  on  Tin  as*  an  anthelmintic,  on  Opium,  and 
on  a  case  of  extravasared  blood  in  the  pericardium ;  and 
separately  in  1752,  1754,  and  1757,  a  *•  Dissertation  on 
Quick-lime  and  Lime-water.**  His  "  Lectures  on  -the 
Materia^  Medica'*  were  published  after  his  death  by  Dr. 
Hope,  2  vols.  4to,  1770,  which  did  not  contribute  much 
to  his  fame,  being,  as  Dr..  Pukeney  justly  observes,  rather  , 
aii  account  of  the  state  of  the  materia  medica,  as  it  was, 
thana;$  it  is,  in  the  worlds  of  Lewis,  Bergius,  'Murray,  and 
Cullen. ' 

ALSTROEMER  (Jonas),  the  reviver  of  Industry  and 
commerce  in  Sweden,  was  born  in  1685;  in  the  small  town 
of  Alingsa's  in  West  Gothland,'  of  poor  parents.     After 

struggling  fpr  a  Ibng.  time  with  the  evils  of  want,  he  ean^e 

..J.I        "        .''■'.''..  ,      '•,"'. 

48  A  L  S  T  R  O  E  M  E  R/ 

ta  London^  where  he  paid  particular  attention  ro  conuner- 
cial  speculations ;  and  from  his  inquiries  into  thci  pros* 
perity  of  England^  be  deduced  the  importance  of  manu* 
&ctures  and .  commerce.     His  native  country^  for  several 
centuries  engaged  in  war,  bad  made  little  progress  in  the 
arts  of  industry,  but  was  now  endeavouring  to  promote 
them ;  and  Alstroemei^  having  formed  bis  plan,  returned 
to  Sweden  to  assist  his  fellow-citizens  in  this  undertaking. 
In  1723,  he  requested  of  the  states  a  licence  to  establish 
manufactures  in  the  town  in  which  he  was  born,  and  it 
soon  became  the  seat  of  activity  and  industry,  which  spread 
over  other  parts  of  the  kingdom.     In  the  mean  time  he 
travelled  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the  inventions  and  the 
methods  practised  in   Germany,    Holland,  and  Flanders, 
collected  able  workmen,  and  the  best  models,  and  pub- 
lished several  instructive  papers.     At  the  same  time  he 
cari'ied  on  trade,  in  partnership  with  Nicholas  Sahlgren, 
at  Gottenburgh.      Here-  he    established   a    sugar-house, 
traded  to  the  Indies  and  the  Levant,  and  bestowed  so  much 
attention  on  rural  oeconomy,  as  to  introduce  some  very- 
essential    improvements,    cultivating    plants    proper    for 
dying,  and  extending  the  culture  of  potatoes,  then  a  no- 
.i?elty  in   Sweden.     He  also  improved  the  wool- trade  by 
miporting  tlie  sheep  of  Spain  and,  England,  and  even  the 
Angora  goat.     The  manufacture  of  cloth,  and  other  ar- 
ticles from  wool,  was  now  much  encouraged,   and  gave 
employment  to  a  great  number  of  hands,  who  manufac- 
tured to  the  value  of  three  millions  of  livr^s  tournois  per 
annuviy   and  relieved  the  country  from  the  necessity  of 
baying  recourse  to  foreign  markets ;  but  in  other  rnanu^ 
factures,  as  the  siljj,  they  did  not  succeed  so  well.     AI- 
stroemer  has  been  accused  of  not  paying  sufficient  atten- 
tion to  local  circumstances  in  some  of  his  schemes,  and  of 
having  encouraged  notions  that  were  more  showy  than 
solid ;  but  hisdesign  was  truly  patriotic,  and  his  country 
readily  acknowledged  the  benefit  it  has  derived  from  his 
labours.     The  king  Frederic  bestowed  on  him  the  title  of 
counsellor  of  commerce,  and  the  order  of  the  polar  star; 
Adolphus  Frederic  granted  hin^  letters  of  nobility ;  and  the 
academy  of  sciences  chose  him  a  member,  while  the  States 
decreed  that  his  statue  should  be  placed  on  the  exchange 
at  Stockholm,  with  this  inscription :  ^^  Jonas  Alstroemer, 
artium  fabrilium  in  patria  instaurator.'*     "  J.  A.-tbe  reviveij 
of  manufactures."     He  died  in  176 1>  leaving  a  consider- 

A  L  S  T  R  O  E  M  E  R.  *9 


Cible  fortune.  His  four  sons,  Claude,  Patrick,  John,  and 
Augustus,  were  distinguished  for  talents  and  patriotism, 
and  the  first  three  were  members  of  the  apademy  of  Stpck«> 
holm.  * 

ALSTROEMER  (Clauj>e)|  son  of  the  preceding^  was 
born  in  1736,  studied  natural  history,  and  was  a  pupil  of 
Linnaeus.  He  travelled  over  a  considerable  part  of  Eu- 
rope, beginning  with  Spain,  whence  he  sent  some  plants 
to  Linnaeus,  who  mentions  him  in  his  ^^  Species  plantaruft^.'^ 
On  landing  at  Cadiz,  he  saw  in  the  house  of  the  Swedish 
consul  the  flowers  of  a  plant,  a  native  of  PerUi  Struck 
with  their  beauty,  he  asked  and  obtained  some  seeds,  which 
he  immediately  dispatched  to  Linnaeus,  with  whom  they 
succeeded,  and  became  generally  cultivated  under  the 
name  of  the  lily  of  Alstroemer,  or  of  the  Incas.  Linnaeus 
perpetuated  the  name  by  calling  the  genus  Alstroemeria« 
Alstroemer  communicated  with  several  societies  for  agri* 
culture  and  natural  history^  but  one  paper  only  is  men*, 
tioned  of  his  in  the  memoirs  of  the  academy  of  Stockholm  \ 
giving  a  description  of  the  Simla  Mammon,  a  species  of 
ape*     He  died  in  1794** 

ALT  (Francis  Joseph  Nicholas  Baron  d'),  the  de- 
scendant of  an  ancient  patrician  family  of  Fribourg  in 
Swisserlaod,  was  born  there  in  1689,  and  died  Feb.  17, 
1771.  In  1718  he  was  a  captain  in  the  Austrian  service, 
but  returned  to  hi$.  country,  over  which  he  long  presided 
as  avoyef,  or  magistrate,  an  appointnient  conferred  upon 
him  in  1737.  He  published  e  "  Histoire  de  la  Suisse'* 
Fribourg,  L750  to  1753,  10  vols.  8vo,  of  which  baron 
^urlauben,  a  competent  and  impartial  judge,  says,  that 
it  would  have  deserved  more  praise,  if  besides  the  many 
faults  of  the  language  (French),  he  had  supported  his 
facts  by  proofs ;  if  he  had  omitted  matters  foreign  to  the 
history  of  Swisserland,  which  occupy  a  great,  deal  of  the 
work ;  if  he  had  made  his  readers  better  acquainted  with 
the  Swiss  government;  and  had  described  some  of  the 
cantons  with  more  accuracy ;  if  he  had  passed  over  in  si- 
lence events  not  compatible  with  the  plan  of  a  general 
history,  and  if  he  had  not  espoused  with  too  much  warmth 
the  cause  of  the  catholic  cantons^  ^ 

ALTER  (Francis  Charles),  a  German  clii.s3ical  scholar 
and  critic,  was  born  at  Englesberg,  in  Silesia,  in  1749, 

^  1  Biog«t7niTenelt«»  <  IbkU  »  Ibid. 

Vol.  IL  E 

50  A  L  T  E  R. 

and  dijsd  at  Vienna  M^rch  29,  1S04.  He  entered  the  so- 
ciety of  the  JefeuitS",  arid  was  Greek  teacher  in  the  school 
of  St.  Anne,  and  the  academy  of  Vienna,  until  his  death. 
He  has  published  two  hundred  and  fifty  volumes  and  dis- 
sertations, the'  titles  of  which  are  given  in  J.  G.  Meusel's 
\  Allemagrie  Savante*  One  of  his  principal  publications  was 
<<  Novum  'Testamentum,  ad  codicem  Vindobonensem' 
^Grdece  expressum  :  varietatem  lectionis  addidit  Franc. 
C.  Alter."  vol.1.  1786,  vol.  H.  1787,  8vo.  The  ground^ 
work  of  this  edition  is  the  codex  Lambecii  in  the  imperial 
library  at  Vienna,  with  which  the  author  has  collated  other 
manuscripts  in  that  library,  and  the  Coptic,  Sclavonic,  and 
Latin  versions ;  the  latter  froto  the  valuable  fragments  of 
the  Vulgate,  anterior  to  that  of  Jerome.  It  is  thought 
that  he  would  have  succeeded  better,  if  he  had  adopted 
as  a  basis  the  text  of  Wetstein  or  Griesbiaich,  and  if  he  blad 
been  more  fortunate  in  arranging  his  iriaterials.  The 
merits  of  this  edition  are  examinefl,  with  his  usual  acute-' 
iiess,  by  Dr.  Herbert  Marsh  in  his  supplement  to  MichaeHs's 
introduction  to  the  New  Testament.  Of  Alter's  other 
works,  those  in  most  esteem  abroad  are:  1.  A  German 
translation  of  Harwood's  View  of  the  various  editions  of 
the  Glassies,  with  notes,  Vienna,  1778,  8vo.  2.  Various 
readings  from  the  manuscripts  in  the  imperial  library,  which 
be  used  in  the  editions  printed  at  Vienna,  of  Lysias,  1785  ; 
Ciceroni's  Quaest.  Acad.-  Tusc  1780,  8vo  ;  Lucretius, 
1787,  8vo;  Homeri  Ilias,  1789 — 1790,  2  vols.  ;* also  with 
various  readings  from  the  Palatine  library ;  Homeri  Odys- 
sea  and  min.  poem.  1794.  3.  Some  of  Plato's  Dialogues, 
1784,,  8vo.  4.  Thucydides,  178S,  8vo.  5.  The  Greek 
Chronicle  of  George  Phranza  or  Phranzes,  not  before 
printed,  Vienna,  1796,  fol.  6.  Notices  on  the  Literary 
history  of  Georgia,  in  German,  1798,  8vo.  His  nunyerous 
essays  and  dissertations,  which  are  upon  curious  and  re- 
condite subjects,  illustrations  of  Oriental  and  Greek  ma- 
nuscripts, &c.  have  appeared  in  the  German  literary 
journals  at  various  periods,  particularly  in  the  Memora- 
bilien  of  M.  Paulus,  and  the  AUg.  Litt.  Anzei^er  d« 
Leipzig.  * 

ALTHAMERUS  (Andrew),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  mi- 
Ulster  at  Nuremberg,  published  in  the  sixteenth  century 
•everal  works  in  Divinity,   as  *^  Gonoilifitiones  locontm 

1  Biog.  UnivcrMlltt. 


scriptarse,*'  1528,  8vo,  Latin  and  Geirman;  ^'  Annota- 
tiones  in  Jacobi  Epistolam  ;**  **  De  Peccato  Originali  ;'*.: 
and  '^  De  Sacramento  altaris."  He  likewise  published 
**  Sylva  Biblicorum  nominum,"  Basil,  1535  ;  and  "  Notes 
upon  Tacitus  de  situ,  moribus,  et  populis  Germaniae>^' 
Nuremberg,  1529,  1536,  and  at  Amberg,  1609, '8vo. 
He  was  at  the  conferences  at  Berne  in  1528,  which  paved 
the  way  to  the  reformation  of  that  canton.  His  principle 
appear  to  have  inclined  to  Antinomianism,  and  he  attacked 
the  authority  of  the  Epistle  of  St.  J&mes  with  great  inde- 
cency :  this  afterwards  was  introduced  in  the  dispute  be*, 
tween  Grotius  and  Rivet,  of  which  an  account  may  be  seen 
in  Bayle.  Althaiuerus,  who  died  about  1 540,  was  some-t 
times  called  Andrew  Brentius  from  the  place  of  his  na- 
tivity, Brentz,  near  Gundeliingen,  in  Swabia ;  and  some? 
times  he  assumed  the  fictitious  name  of  Palaeo  Sph}nra; 
L  Arnold  Ballenstad  published  a  life  of  him  in  1740.  * 

ALTHUSEN,  or  ALTHUSIUS  (John),  a  German  Pro- 
testant lawyer,  was  bom  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  became  law-profess(Hr  at  Herborn,  and 
syndic  at  Bremen.  He  wrote  some  treatises  in  the  way  of 
his  profes;iiion,  *^  De  Jurisprudentia  Romana,"  and  *^  1)% 
civili  conversatione ;"  but  what  made  him  principally 
known,  was  his  ^^  Politica  methodice  digesta,*'  1603;  ia 
which  he  maintained  the  sovereignty  of  the  people,  and 
their  right  to  put  kings  to  death,  and  those  other  doctrines, 
the  efiects  of  which  were  so  extensively  displayed  in  Eng- 
land iii  the  seventeenth,  and  in  France  in  the  eighteenth 
century.  A  recent  French  biographer,  Michaud,  observes 
that  **  these  strange  opinions  produced  by  the  revolu- 
tionary spirit  which  prevailed  in  the  sixteenth  centuryj^ 
have  been  revived  in  ours  by  the  demagogues,  who  fancy 
that  they  are  advancing  something  new*"  Althusen  died 
in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century.  * 

ALTICOZZI  (Laurence),  of  an  illustrious  family  at 
Cortona,  was  born  there,  March  25,  1689.  He  entered 
the  society  of  the  Jesuits  in  1706,  and  died  m  1777,  ajt 
Ron^,  where  he  had  lived  many  years.  He  was  esteemed 
a  man  of  great  learning,  piety,  and  amiable  manners.  Hia 
principal  work  is  his  ^^Sum  of  St.  Augustine/'  Rome^ 
1761,  6  vols.  4to,  in  which  he  gives*  a  history  of  Pelagi« 

^  G«n.  Diet— SockendorPs  Hist,  of  LutheraDisni.— Sasii  Onomattieoik 
t  O4M1.  Diot.— Michaud,  ia  Bj^g,  .Uoiverscile.    . 

B   2 

bt  A  L  T  I  C  O  Z  Z  1 

anism,  drsLwn  from  the  best  authorities  in  the  ancient 
ecclesiastical  writers.  He  wrote  against  Beausobre's  his- 
tory of  Manicheism,  and  other  works  against  the  modern 
philosophers  and  adherents  of  the  doctrine  of  mate- 
rialism. * 

ALTILIO    (Gabriel),    one    of  the  Latin  poets   who 
flourished  in  Italy  in  the  fifteenth  century,  was  born  at 
l^silicata,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  or  as  some  think,  at 
Mantua.     He  studied,  however,  at  Naples,  whtch  he  made 
his  residence,  and  associated  with  Pontanus,  Sannazarius, 
and  the  other  literati  of  that  time  and  place,  and  acted  as 
preceptor  to  pjince  Ferdinand,  who  came  to  the  throne  in 
1495,  by  the  resignation  of  his  father  Alphonsus  II.     Ac* 
cording  to   UghelH   in  his    "  Italia   sacra,'*    Altilio   was 
appointed  bishop  of  Policastro  in  147 1,  and  died  in  1484  ; 
but  according  to  Mazzuchelli,  whose  authority  in  this  in- 
stance appears  preferable,  he  was  not  bishop  until  1489^ 
and  died  about  1501.     He  has  left  but  few  specimens  of^ 
his  poetry,    but  they  are  of  acknowledged  merit.     The 
most  celebrated  is  the  epithalamium  he  wrote  on  the  mar- 
riage of  Isabella  of  Arragon,  daughter  of  Alphonsus  IL 
with  John  Galeas  Sforca,  duke  pf  Milan.     This  is  published 
'in  the  Carm.  Illust.  Poet.  Ital.  and  with  a  few  of  his  other 
pieces,  at  the  close  of  the  works  of  Sanhazarius,  byComimv 
1731,  4to,  where  numerous  testimonies  are  collected  of 
the  merits  of  Altilio.     Some  of  these  pieces  had,  however, 
been  before  printed  with  the  works  of  Sannazarius,  Daniel 
Cereti,  and  the  brothers  of  the  Amalthei,  illustrated  by 
the  notes  of  Peter  Vlamingii,  Amst.  172^,  8vo,  which  may 
be  united  with  the  variorum  cliassics.     Notwithstanding  the 
praises   generally  bestowed  on   Altilio,    there   are    some 
critics  who  have  undervalued  his  talents.     In  particular, 
Julius  Scaligier  think^  there  is  too  great  a  profusion  of 
thought   and  expression  in  this  performance :  "  Gabriel 
Altilius,'^  says  he,  *^  composed  an  excellent  epithalamium, 
which*  would  have  been  still  better,  had  he  restrained  his 
genius ;  but,  by  endeavouring  to  say  every  thing  &pon  the 
subject,  he  disgusts  the  reader  as  much  in  some  places,  as 
he  gives  him  pleasure  in  others  :  he  says  too  much,  which 
Li  a  fault  peculiar  to  his  nation,  for  in  all  that  tract  of  Italy 
Ihey  have  a  continual  desire  of  talking.*'     It  may  appeac 
iSingular  that  hi^  Latin  poetry  should  have  raised  him  t«r 

*miof.  Uahr6rt«llei 


A  L  t  I  L  I  O.  M 

the  dignity  of  a  prelate ;  yet  it  certainly  did,  in  a  great 
measure,  to  the  bishopric  of  Policastro.  Some  have  also 
reproached  him  for  neglecting  the  muses  after  his  prefer- 
ment, though  they  had  proved  so  serviceable  to*  him  in 
acquiring  it :  **  When  he  was  made  bishop,"  says  Paulus 
^ovius,  *^  he  soon  and  impudently  left  the  muses,  by  whose 
means  he  had  been  promoted  :  a  chost  heinous  ingratitude, 
unless  we  excuse  him  from  the  consideration  of  shis  order, 
which  obliged  him  to  apply  to  the  study  of  the  holy 
scriptures."  * 

AL'FING  (Henry),  an  eminent  German  divine,  was 
born  at  Embden,  Feb.  17,  1583,  of  a  family  of  considerable 
Bote  in  Friesland.  His  father,  Menso  Alting,  was  one  of 
the  first  who  preached  the  doctrines  of  the  reiPormation  in 
the  territory  of  Groningen,  about  the  year  1566,  and  under 
the  tyrannical  government  of  the  duke  of  Alva.  He  faith- 
fully served  the  church  of  Embden  during  the  space  of 
thirty -eight  years,  and  died  Oct.  7th,  1612,  His  son  was 
from  a  child  designed  for  the  ministry,  and  sent  very  early 
to  school,  and  afterwards  into  Germany  in  1602.  At  Her-^ 
born  he  made  such  uncommon  progress  under  the  cele- 
brated Piscator,  Matthias,  Martinius,  &c.  that  he  was 
allowed  to  teach  philosophy  and  divinity.  While  prepar-* 
ing  for  his  travels  into  Switzerland  and  France,  he  was 
chosen  preceptor  to  three  young  counts,  who  studied  at 
Sedan  with  the  electoral  prince  Palatine,  and  took  posses- 
sion of  that  employment  about  September  1605;  but  the 
stornn  which  the  duke  of  Bouillon  was  threatened  with  by 
Henry  IV.  obliging  the  electoral  prince  to  retire  from  Se-' 
dan  with  the  three  young  noblemen,  Alting  accompanied 
them  to  Heidelberg.  Here  he  continued  to  instruct  his 
noble  pupils,  and  was  admitted  to  read  lectures  in  geogra* 
phy  and  history  to  the  electoral  prihce  till  1608,  when  he 
was  declared  his  preceptor.  In  this  character  he  accompa- 
nied him  to  Sedan,  and  was  afterwards  one  of  those  who 
were  appointed  to  attend  the  young  elector  on  his  journey 
into  England  in  1612,  where  he  became  acquainted  with 
Dr.  Abbot,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Dr.  King,  bishop  of 
London,  Dr*  Hackwell,  preceptor  to  the  prince  of  Wales ; 
and  also  had  the  honour  of  an  audience  of  king  James. 
The  marriage  between  the  elector  and  the  princess  of  Eng- 
land being  solemnized  at  London  in  Feb.  1613,  Alting  left 

1  Biog.  Cmverselle.^Roscoe's  Life  of  Lea-^en.  Diet. 

54  A  L  T  I  N  G. 

England,  and  arrived  at  Heidelberg.  In  the  ensuing 
August  he  was  Appointed  professor  of  the  common  places 
of  divinity,  and  to  qualify  himself  for  presiding  in  theolo- 
gical contests,  he  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  In  1616  be 
had  a  troublesome  office  conferred  upon  hini,  that  of  direc* 
tor  ol  the  collegium  sapienfia  of  Heidelberg.  In  1618  h^ 
was  offered  the  second  professorship  of  divinity,  vacant  by 
the  death  of  Coppenius,  which  he  refused,  but  procured .  it 
for  Scultetus. 

He  distinguished  himself  by  his  learning,  at  the  synod 
of  Dort,  wliither  he  was  sent  with  two  other  dej>uties^  of 
the  Palatinate,  Scultetus  and  Tossanus.  He  appears  to 
have  conceived  great  hopes  soon  after  his  return  to  Hei-» 
del  berg,  the  elector  Palatine  having  gained  a  crown  by  the 
troubles  of  Bohemia,  but  he  met  with  a  dreadful  dlsap« 
pointment.  Count  Tilli  took  Heidelberg  by  storm  iti 
Sept.  1622,  and  allowed  his  soldiers  to  commit  every  spe-* 
cies  of  outrage  and  violence.  Alting  escaped  almost  by  a 
miracle,  which  is  thus  related :  He  was  in  his  study,  wheh 
news  was  brought  that  the  enemy  was  master  of  the  towo^ 
and  ready  to  plunder  it.  Upon  bis  bolting  his  door  he  bad 
I  recourse  to  prayer.  One  of  his  friends,  accompanied  by 
two  soldiers,  advised  him  to  retire  by  the  back  door  into 
the  chancellor^^  house,  which  was  protected  by  a  strong 
guard,  biecause  count  Tilli  designed  the  papers  that  were 
lodged  ther^  should  cotne  entire  into  his  hands.  The  lieii«> 
tenatit-colonel  of  the  regiment  of  HohenzoUen  ^as  upon 
tills  guard)  and  addressing  himself  to  Alting,  said,  ^^  With 
this  axe  I  have  killed  to- day  ten  men,  and  Dr.  Altitig  shaU 
be  the  eleventh,  if  I  can  dricover  where  he  has  hid  him* 
Relf,"  and  concluded  this  barbarous  speech  by  asking  Al* 
ting,  "  who  are  you?"  Alting,  with  great  presence  of 
Inind,  answered,  **  I  have  been  regent  in  the  collie  of 
Sapience."  This  expression  the  savage  miirderet  did  not 
tmderrstand,  and  >  permitted  him  to  escape.  On  thi^  he 
contrived  to  retire  to  his  family,  which  be  had;  sent  some 
•time  before  to  Heilbrun.  He  rejoined  it  at  Schorfidori^ 
but  was  uot  allowed  to  coiitintie  there  more  thto  a  few 
toonths,  owing  to  the  illiberal  cqnduct  of  some  Luthemb 
ministers.  In  1623  he  retired  with  his  fexnily  tb  £mbdeo^ 
aiid  afterwards  to  the  Hague,  where  the  king  of  BcJoieiHia 
'engaged  him  to  instruct  his  eldest  son,  but  permitted  hjfli 
at  the  same  time  to  accept  a  professorship  of  divinity  at 

A  L  T  I  N  G.  Si 

GroningeDy  which  he  entered  upon,  June  16,  1627|  and 
kept  to  the  day  of  his  death. 

The  last  years  of  his  life  were  embittered  by  domestic 
affli<;tions,  and  by  bodily  disease.  The  loss  of  an  affection- 
ate d^ug^ter,  and  ^fterward$  of  his  wife,  preyed  upon  a 
coQstitutiop  that  had  been  shaken  by  the  ricissitudes  of  his 
former  life,  and  brought  on  a  lethargic  disorder,  of  which 
he  died)  Aug.  25,  1644,  leaving  behind  him  the  character 
of  a  man  of  gneat  piety  and  learning ;  and  it  appears  that 
few  men  of  his  time  were  more  highly  honoured  for  their 
personal  worth.  He  went.yearly  to  wait  upon  the  king  of 
Bohemia,  and  to  insipect  the  studies  of  the  royal  family. 
He  contributed  very  lyiuch  to  the  collfs^ctions  that  were 
made  throughout  all  the  Protestant  countries  for  the 
churches  of  Germany.  He  was  also  employed  in  two  other 
important  comqaissiQns :  one  was  the  revisal  made  at  Leyden 
of  the  pew  Dutcb  translation  of  the  Bible.;  ^nd  the  other  the 
visitation  of  the  county  of  Steinfurt.  In  the  first  he  had 
^ome*coUe|igAie8»  but  in  the  second  he  was  the  only  gene- 
ral iofipector,  the  count  of  Bentheim  haying  sent  him  to 
regulate  t^e  churches,  and  particularly  to  counteract  the 
progress, qf  Spcinianiam,  which  had.  crept  in.  Alting,  by 
his  temperatj^  character  and  his  abilities  as  a  reasoner, 
taking  all  his  .a^rguments  from  scripture,  appears  to  have 
been  well  Ratified  for  these  and  other  important  trusts  as- 
signed to  him.  He  married  at  Heidelberg  in  1614,  and 
bad  seven  pbiildreh,  of  whom  a  daughter  ^nd  two  sons  sur- 
vived hiiP'  The  eldest  son  was  professor  of  civil  law  at 
Djavf  Qtef ;  tbe.Qth^r  is  the  subject  of  the  next  article. 

H^LS  works  ai^}    1.  ^^  Notae  iii  Decadem  Problematum 

Joai^ni^.  BfdhJB  de  glorioso  Dei  et  beatorum  ccelo,'*  Heidel- 

b^fgt   |618.     2.  ^^  JLqci  compiunes,''  Amst.  1646,  3  vols. 

.3.    <^  Exege^s   Augustanse   Confessionis,''    Amst.    1647. 

4.  ^^  Meth^d^s  Theologise,''   Amst   1650,  or   1654,   4to. 

5*  *^  ExpjAc^tip  catacheseos  PalatinsB,^'    ibid.    1646,  4t0c 

,ji.  '^  Hisjtoria  ecoles^astica  Palatina,''  ibid.  1644,  4to.^ 

.   ALTING  (Jaj4^6),  son  of  the  above  Henry,   was  bom 

fit  Ijieid^erg  th^  27th  of  September  1618|  at  which  time 

bis  father  \tras  de^puty  at  the  synod  of  Dort.     He  went 

through  hya  ^t^4i®3  ^t  Groningen  wit;^  great  success;  aod 

Jbieing  cjesjki^PU^  to  aqquir^ .  knowledge,  in  the  Oriental  Ian- 

\^uage^,  j|'^uK>ved  to  ^mbden  in  1633,  to  improve  himself 

1  O^n.  Wei*  itt  wbidi  Bayle  has  given  an  erroneous  list  of  hh  wOrks.<^Ma- 

56  A  L  T  I  N  G. 

under  the  rabbi  Gamprecht  Ben  Abraham.  He  came  over 
to  England  in  1640,  where  he  became  acquainted  with 
many  persons  of  the  greatejst  note ;  he  preached  here,  and 
was  ordained  a  priest  of  the  church  of  England  by  Dn 
Prideauxi  bisihop  of  Worcester.     He  liad  once  resolved  to 

Eass  his  life  in  England,  but  afterwards  accepted  the  Heb- 
rew prdfessorship  at  Grohingeh,  offered  him  upoa  the 
death  of  Gomarus.  He  entered  upon  this  office  the  I3th 
of  January  1643,  the  very  day  that  Samuel  des  Marets  was 
installed  in  the  professorship  of  divinity,  which  nad  been 
held  by  the  si^me  Gomarus.  Alting  was  admitted  doctor 
of  philosophy  the  2 1st  of  October  ^645,  preacher  to  the 
academy  in  1647,  and  doctor  and  professor  of  divinity  in 
1667.  He  had  visited  Heidelberg  in  1662,  where  he  re- 
ceived many  marks  of  esteem  from,  the  elector  Palatine, 
Charles  Lewis,  who  often  solicited  him  to  accept  of  the^ 
professorship  of  divinity,  but  he  declined  this  ofler.  In  a 
little  time  a  misunderstanding  arose  betwixt  him  and  Sa- 
muel des  Marets,  his  colleague,  owing  to  a  difference  in 
theiir  method  of  teaching,  and  in  many  points  in  their  prin- 
ciples. Alting  kept  to  the  scriptures,  without  meddling 
with  scholastic  divinity:  the  first 'lectures  which  he  read  at 
his  house  upon  the  catechism,  drew  such  vast  crowds  of 
hearers,  that,  for  want  of  room  in  bis  own  chamber,  be  wasi 
obliged  to  make  use  of  the  university  hall.  Hrs  colleague 
was  accustomed  to  the  method  and  logical  distinctions  of 
the  schoolmen,  had  been  a  long  time  in  great  fei^teem,  had 
published  several  books,  and  to  a  sprightly  genius  had  added 
a  good  stock  of  learning  :  the  students*  who  were  of  that 
country  adhered  to  him,  as  the  surest  way  to  obtain  church- 
preferment,  for  the  parishes  were  generally  supplied  with 
•^iuch  as  had  studied  according  to  his  method.  This  was 
■  sufficietit  to  raise  and  keep  up  a  misunderstatiding  betwixt 
the  two  professors.  A  Iting  had  great  obstacles  to  surmount : 
a  majority  of  voices  and  the  authority  of  age  were  on  his 
adversary's  side.  Des  Marets  gave  out  that  Alting  was  ah 
:  innovator,  and  one  who  endeavoured  to  root  up  the  boun- 
daries which  our  wise  forefathers  had  made  between  truth 
and  falsehood ;  he  accordingly  became  bis  accuseF,  and 
chai'ged  him  with  one-and^-tbirty  erroneous  propositions* 
The  curator^  of  the  university,  without  acquainting  the 
parties,  sent  the  inlbrmatida  aind  the  answers  to  the  divineis 
of  Leyden,  de^ring  their  opjnion.  The  judgment,  they 
gave  is  rei{iark^bl^ :  Alting  was  ac(]uitte4  of  all  heresy,  but- 

A  L  T  I  N  a  67 

his  itnprudence  was  blamed  in  broaching  new  hypotheses ; 
on  tne  other  hand,  Des  Marets  was  censured  foi*  acting 
contrary  to  the  laws  of  charity  and  moderation.  The  latter 
woiiiQ  not  submit  to  this  judgment,  nor  accept  of  the  si* 
lencf  wuich  was  proposed.  He  insisted  on  the  cause  being 
heard  before  the  consistories,  the  classes,  and  the  synods; 
but  the  heads  Wuiild  not  consent  ^  to  this,  forbidding  all 
writings,  either  for  or  against  the  judgment  of  the  divines 
of  Leyden ;  and  thus  the  work  of  Des  Marets,  entitled 
**  Audi  et  alteram  partem,"  was  suppressed.  This  contest 
excited  much  attention,  and  might  have  been  attended  with 
bad  consequences,  when  Des  Marets  was  called  to  Leyden, 
but  he  died  at  Groningen  before  he  could  take  possession  oif 
that  enipioy  ment.  There  was  a  kind  of  reconciliation  effecteii 
betvvixt  him  and  Alting  before  his  death :  a  clergyman  of 
<7roningen,  seeing  Des  Marets  past  all  hopes  of  recovery^ 
proposed  it  to  him ;  and  having  bis  consent,  made  the  same 
proposal  to  Alting,  who  answered,  that  the  silence  lie  had 
observed,  notwithstanding  the  clamours  and  writings  of  his 
adversary,  shewed  his  .peaceable  disposition ;  that  he  was 
ready  to  come  to  an  agreement  upon  reasonable  terms,  but 
that  he  required  sadsfection  for  the  injurious  reports  disse* 
roinated  agaiqst  his  honour  and  reputation ;.  and  that  be 
could  not  conceive  how  any. one  should  desire  hiS'  friecid* 
ship,,  whilst  be  thought  him  such  a  man  as  he  had  repre* 
sented  him  to  be.  The  person,  who  acted  as  mediator, 
some  tifiie  after  returned,  with  another  ^lersyman,  to.  Al- 
ting, and  obtiiined  from  him  a  formulary  of  the  satisfaction 
he  desired*  This  formulary  was.  not  liked  by  Des  Marets, 
who  drew  up  another,  but  this  did  not  please  Alting :.  at 
last,  however,  after  .some  alterations,  the;  reconciliation  was 
effected ;  the  parties  only  retracted  the  personal /injuries^ 
and  as  to  the  accusations  in  point  of  doctrine,  the  accuser 
left  them  to  the  judgment  of  the  church^  Alting,  however; 
thought  he  had  reason  to  complain,  even  after  he  :was  de« 
livered  from  so  formidable  an  adversary.  His  complaint 
was  occasioned  by  the  last' edition  of  Des.Marets's  system^ 
in  which  he  was  very  ill  treated:  he. said,  bis  adversary 
should  have  left  no  mbnuments  of  tbe  ^piarrel ;  and  that 
his  reconciliation  had  not  been  sincere,-  since  he  had  not- 
suppressed  such  an  injurious  book.  The  clergy  were  .coa<i 
tinually  murmuring  against  what  they  called  innovations ; 
bi^t  the  secular  power  wisely  calmed  those  storms,  which 
the  convocations  and  synods  would  hift'e  raised,  threaten- 

A  L.T  I  N  G. 

ing  to  interdict  those  who  should  revive  whait  hsd  obtained 
the  name  of  die  Maresio^Altingian  cooti'oversy.  Alting 
enjoyed  but  Iktle  health  the  last  thi^ee  years  of  his  life ; 
and  being  at  length  seieed  tvitb  a  violent  fever,  was  carried 
off  in  nine  days^  at-Groningen,  August  20,  1679.  His 
yvCHrks^  which  consist  of  dissertations  on  variqus  points  of 
Hebrew < and  Oriental  antiquities;  commentaries  on  many 
of •  the  books  of  the  Bible;  a  Syro-Ghaldaic  Grammar;  a 
treatise  on  Hebrew  punctuation,  &c.  &c.  were  collected  in 
5  vols.  foL  and. published  by  Balthasau:  Qoeker,  Amst.  1687, 
mth  ^  life  by  the  same  editor. ' 

.  ALTING  (Menso),  the  father  of  Henry  and  grandfa- 
ther of  James  Alting,  was  boraat  Fleda  in  West-Friesland 
in  1541,  and  died,  first  pastor  and  president  of  the  consis- 
tory at  £mbden,.in  1617,  The  study  of  St.  Paul's  epistle 
io  the  .Romans  is  said  to  have  brought  him  from  the  opi<k 
pions  of  Luther  to  those  of  Calvin^  in  whose  derfence  he 
wrote  against  Ligorius  and  Hunosus^  His  life  was  written 
by  Ubbo  Emmius.  ^  .      j  ^    :       . 

ALTING  (M'EHSO),  probably  of  ^he  same  family^  was  a 
learned  burgomaster  of  Groningen^  celebrated  for  his  to- 
pographical skill  and  writings*  Heiwasborn  in  k^'6^f  and 
died  in  1713..  His  principal  woricis  are,i  1.  .^^  Notiiia  Ger** 
maaiflB  inferioris/'  Amst.  L697,  foL  2.  ^^  Descriptio  Fri- 
stflB  inter  Scaldis  pcurtum  velerem  et  Amiaiamj''  ibid.  1701, 

ALTISSIMO,  an  Italian  poet  of  the  fifteenth  century, 
wiiose  writings  do  not  justify  that  honouirable  name,  was 
accoirding  to  Crescimbini,  a  native  of  Florence,'  his  name 
Christopher;  but  on  account  of  his  .merit,  he  received  a 
poetic  crown,  and  the  surname  lofAltissimo.  .  LeQuadrio, 
however,  thinks  that  this  wasi  bis  family. name,  that  his 
Christian  name  was  Angel,  and  that  he  was  a  priest,  lie 
was  one  iof  the*  inost  admired  improvimtbri  of  his  time,  and 
his  verses  are  ^aid  to^have  been  often  coUacted,  and  pub- 
lished. '  He  Jv^as. living  in  1514..  Of  his  poems  we  have 
pnlya  tranriatioii  of > the  firat  book  of  tiie  famous  romance^ 
V.i.Riali.di  Frahnia,"  Venice,  153il,  4to,  enough  to  prove 
that  he  was  a  very  indifferent  poeti'^ 

iALTMANN  :(Jaim  Geobo^)^  a  Swiss  historian  and  dir 
vive,  was  born  in  ld97^  and^  accordifig  (to  one  anthority,  at 

'.  I  Gen.  Diet, — Foppep  Bibl.  ^elg^rrMoreri.  '  Biog.  UniTcvselle. 

A  L  T  M  A  N  N.  ^» 

Berne,  where  his  father  had  been  rector ;  or.  accoi^ditig  to 
another  at  Zofinguen,  and  died  in  1758)  curate  of  Inns,  i^ 
village  in  the  canton  of  Berne.     In  1735  he  was  appointedT 
moral  and  Greek  professor  at  Berne,  and  afterwards  piub^ 
lished  some  valuable  works  on  the  geography,  history,  an4 
antiquities  of  Swisserland.    In  conjunction  with  Breitinger, 
he  compiled  the  collection  entitled  **  Tempe  Helvetica," 
Zurich,    1735 — ^43,   6  vols.   8vo.     His  other  works  are, 
2.  <^  Metelemata  philologico-critica,  quibus  difHcilioribu» 
N.  Test,   locis  ex  antiquitate  lux  aflPunditur,"   Utreehti 
1753,  3  vols.  4to.     3.   «^  A  Description  of  the  Glaciersi"  In 
German,  Zurich,  1751—53,  8vo.     4.   **^  Principia  Etbica, 
ex  monttis  legis  natursD  et  prseceptis  religionis  Christianoi 
deducta,'*  Zurich,  second  edition,  1753,  2  vols.  8va  *    ;    j 
ALTOMARI  {DonatoAktonio  ab),.  an  eminent  Ne* 
apolitan  philosopher,  physician,  and  professor  of  ^medicine 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Naples^  was  dme  of 
the  most  learned  medical  writers  of  liis  tiAae, .  and  et^o^ed 
very  high  reputation,  it  being  only  objected  to  him: that  he 
was  too  servile  a  copyist  of  Galen.     We  know  little  else  ef 
his  history,  unless  that  he  had  certain  etiemies  who  obliged 
him  to  take  refuge  in  Rome,  and  that  be  did  not  venture  /b«» 
return  to  NapW  until,  be  had  obtained  the  protiection  of 
pope  Paul  IV^  to  whom  he  had  dedicated  one  of  his  woi*ksf 
Most  of  them  were  published  separately,  as  appears  by.  a 
catalogue  in  Manget  slnd  Hailer;  but  the  whole  were  col- 
lected and  published  in  folio  at  Lyons,  1565  at)d  1597;  lA 
Naples' in  1573  ;  Venice,  1561,  1574^,  and  IJSOO.    So  ma»y 
editions  of  so  large 'a  volume  are  no  inconsiderable  testi* 
mony  of  the  esteem  in  which  this  writbr  was  held.     He  is 
said  to  havfe  died  in  1 5  56.  ^ 

ALTORFER  or  Altdorfer  (Albrecht  or  Ai^bbut),  4 
very  eminent  artist,  was  born  in  1488,  at  Altdorff  in  Bava* 
ria,  and  rose  to  be  a  member  of  the  senate  of  Ratisben,  and 
architect  to  the  town,  where  he  died  in  1578.  His  merit  as 
a  painter  appears  to  have^een  very  considerable>  but  much 
more  as  a  designer  and  engraver.  His  works  in  wood  and 
metal  are  as  numerous  as,  in  general,  remarkable  for  dimi* 
native  size,  though  neither  his  conceptions  nor  forms  werl$ 
puny,  The«cBts  of  *^  The  Passion,"  "  Jael  and  Sisemb,!* 
"  Pyi^attius  and  Thisbe,"  "  Judah  and  Thamar,'*  if  we  >a)U 
low  for  the  ignorance  of  costume  in  the  three  last,  show  a 

>  Biog.  UniverseM^i — Diet.  Hist.<^Saxii  Onomastic«ii.. 
'  Ibid.— Hailer  Bibi.  Med.— MaD^^t  BibU 

«0  A  L  T  O  R  F  E  R. 

sensibility  of  mind,  and  a  boldness  of  design,  which  per* 
haps  none  of  his  German  contemporaries  can  boast.  HoU 
hein  is  said  to  have  drawn  great  assistance  from  him, 
evident  traces  of  the  style  of  Aitorfer  appearing  in  the 
prints  of  that  inimitable  artist,  although  certainly  much 
improved.  * 

ALUNNO  (Francis),  an  Italian  scholar  and  mathema* 
tician,  was  a  native  of  Ferrara,  and  lived  in  the  fifteenth 
century.  The  three  vvorics  on  which  his  fame  rests  are, 
1.  "  Observations  on  Petrarch,"  which  are  inserted  in  the 
edition  of  that  poet,  Venice,  1339,  Svo.  2.  **  Le  Richesse 
della  Lingua  Volgare,"  Venice,  1545,  fol.  in  which  he  has 
collected,  alphabetically,  the  most  elegant  words  and 
phrases  used  by  Boccaccio.  3.  **  Delia  Fabbrica  del 
Mohdo,"  Venice,  1526,  1556,  1557,  1558,  1562,  consist- 
'  ing  of  ten  books,  in  which  are  enumerated  all  the  words 
used  by  the  earliest  Italian  writers,  but  with  no  very  happy^ 
arrangement.  Alunno  was  likewise  distinguished  for  a  ta* 
lent  perhaps  more  curious  than  useful,  tha(  of  being  able 
to  write  an  exceeding  small  hand.  We  are  told,  that 
when  at  Bologna  he  presented  Charles  V.  with  the  belief 
and  the  first  chiapter  of  the  gospel  of  St.  John,  in  the  size 
of  a  denier,  or  farthing ;  and  Aretine  adds,  that  the  empe* 
ror  employed  a  whole  day  in  decyphering  this  wonderful 
manuscript.  ^ 

ALVAREZ  (Diego),  a  Spanish  dominican,  was  born  at 
Rio  Seco  in  Old  Castille.  He  was  professor  of  theology  in 
Spain  and  at  Rome,  and  afterwards  archbishop  of  Trani  in 
tne  kingdom  of  Naples.  In  concert  with  Lemos,  his  bro- 
ther in  profession,  he  supported  the  cause  of  the  Thomists 
against  the  Molinists,'  in  the  congregation  De  Auxiiiis, 
held  in  1596.  He  died  in  1635,  after  publishing  several 
treatises  on  the  doctrines  which  he  defended ;  among  these 
are,  "  De  anxiliis  divinae  gratia^,"  -  Lyons,  1611,  folio; 
^*  Concordia  liberi  arbitrii  cum  predestinatione,'*  Lyons^ 
1622,  8vo;  **  A  commentary  on  Isaiah,"  1615,  foK  &c.^ 

ALVAREZ  (Emanuel),  a  celebrated  Portuguese  gram- 
marian, was  bom  in  the  island  of  Madeira  on  the  4th  of 
June  1 526.  Having  entered  into  the  society  of  the  Jesuits, 
he  distinguished  himself  by  his  probity  and  his  prudence, 
and  became  rector  of  the  colleges  of  Coimbrai  Evora,  and 

*  Strutt  and  Pilkington's  Dictionaries.— Bioj;.  Universelle. 
^  Bio^.  UoiTcrselie.,  ^  lbi<).— Moreri.'--Dict  Hist. 


Lisbon.  He  was  well  acquainted  with  polite  literatare^ 
and  for  many  years  applied  himself  to  the  instruction  of 
youth  in  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew.  He  died  at  the  coU 
lege  of  Evora  on  the  30th  of  December  1582.  His  Latin 
grammar  is  much  esteemed ;  it  is  entitled,  '^  De  Institu- 
tione  Grammatici,"  and  has  had  many  editions;  the  first, 
Lisbon,  1572,  4to.  Kess,  Kicardi,  and  Tursellinus  have 
published  abridgments  of  it.  His  work  ^^  Demensuris, 
ponderibus  et  numeris,"  is  in  less  esteem.  * 

ALVARES  (Francis),  a  Portuguese  priest,  born  at  Co- 
imbra,  about  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  chaplain 
to  Emanuel  king  of  Portugal,  and  ambassador  from  that 
prince  to  David  king  of  i£thiopia  or  Abyssinia.  David  had 
sent  an  ambassador  to  Emanuel,  who  in  return  thought 
proper  to  send  Alvares  and  Galvanus  to  David,  but  the  lat« 
ter  died  before  he  arrived  in  i£tbiopia.  Alvares  continued 
six  years  i#  this  country;  and,  when  be  returned,  brought 
letters  to  king  John,  who  succeeded  Emanuel,  and  to  popa 
Clement  VII.  to  whom  he  gave  an  account  of  his  embassy 
at  Bologna  in  January  1533,  in  the  presence  of  the  empe* 
ror  Charles  V.  Alvares  died  in,  1540;  and  left  behind 
him,  in  Portuguese,  an  account  of  bis  embassy,  with  a 
description  of  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  i£thiopi-> 
ans.  It  was  printed  at  Lisbon  the  same  year  in  which 
the  author  died,  and  was  translated  into  French,  and  pub'* 
lishc^  at  Antwerp  in  1558.  The  work  was  abridged  by 
Ramusius.  Bodinus  savs,  that  Alvares  was  the  first  who 
gave  a  true  and  accurate  account  of  ^Ethiopia,  and  that  it 
was  appi-oved  by  the  best  writers,  and  read  with  the  great*^ 
est  satisfaction.  ^ 

ALVARES  DE  ORIENTE  (Ferdinand),  one  of  the 
most  esteemed  Portuguese  poets,  was  born  at  Goa  in  the 
Indies,  in  the  fifteenth  century,  about  the  commencement 
of  the  reign  of  king  Sebastian.  We  have  few  particulars 
of  his  life.  It  is  said  that  he  served  in  the  royal  navy,  and 
was  captain  of  one  of  the  vessels  belonging  to  the  squadron 
which  admiral  Tellez  commanded  in  India,  during  the 
viceroyalty  of  Moniz-Barreto.  His  principal  work,  •*  Lu- 
titania  Transformada,''  is  on  the  plan  of  the  Diana  of 
JVIontemajor.  The  language  is  pure  and  harmonious,  and 
tbe  descriptions  striking  and  naturaL     It  was  printed,  for 

'  BiQg.  Uaivertelie.-^Moreri.— Diet.  Hist,  ojid  GtD.  Diet.  >  IbMt 

ea^  .  A  L  V  A  R  E  s. 

the  iirat  timei  at  Lisbon,  1 607,  8vo.  A  few  years  after,  a 
more  correct  edition  was  published  by  father  Foyos,  of  the 
oratory.  Our  poet  also  wrote  an  elegy,  which  has  been 
highly  praised,  and  the  fifth  Stnd  sixth  parts  of  the  romance 
of  PaJmerin  of  England.  * 

ALVAROTTO  (Jamks),  a  celebrated  lawyer  of  Padua, 
flourished  in  the  fifteenth  century.  His  family  was  origi- 
pally  of  Hungary,  and  allied  to  the  Speroni,  both  of  which 
have  produced  very  eminent  men.  The  subject  of  this 
short  article  was  very  learned  both  in  the  civil  and  canon 
law,,  which  he  bad  studied  under  Barthelemi  Saliceti  and 
Francis  Zabarella,  who  was  afterwards  cardinal.  .  He  then 
became  professor  at  Padua,  where  he  wrote  several  trea- 
tises, and  among  them  '^  Commentaria  in  Libros  Feudo- 
rum,"  a  work  long  held  in  estimation,  and  frequently 
Quoted  by  the  Italian  lawyers.  He  died  June  27,  1452, 
and  was  interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Anthony.  ^ 

ALVENSLEBEN  (Philip  Charles  Count  d*)  a  Prus- 
sian statesman,  knight  of  the  orders  of  the  red  and  black 
eagle,  lord  of  Hundisburgh,  &c.  was  born  Dec.  12,  1745, 
at  Hanover,  where  his  father  was  counsellor  of  war.  Du- 
ring the  seven  years  war  he  was  brqught  up  at  Magdebourg 
with  the  prince,  afterwards  Frederic- William  II.  He  then 
studied  law  at  the  university  of  Halle^  and  was  appointed 
referendary  in  the  court  of  accounts  at  Berlin,  and  in  1775, 
was  sent  as  envoy  extraordinary  to  the  elector  of  Saxony, 
with  the  title  of  king's  chamberlain.  This  proved  the 
commencement  of  a  diplomatic  career,  for  which  he  was 
thought  qualified  by  his  extensive  knowledge  and  accom- 
plishments, and  the  address  with  which  he  retained  the 
good  opinion  of  Frederic  II.  During  the  war  for  the  suc- 
cession of  Bavaria,  he  acted  as  intermediate  agent^between 
the  king  of  Prussia  and  the  old  electorate  court,  and  be-« 
tween  the  army  of  Frederic  and  that  of  Prince  Henry. 
After  having  been  engaged  in  this  office  for  twelve  years, 
be  was  sent  as  ambassador,  in  1787,  to  the  court  of  France. 
In  1788  he  was  sent,  in  the  same  capacity,  to  Holland ;  and 
in  1789  to  England.  In  1790  he  was  recalled  from  the 
latter,  and  appointed  minister  for  foreign  affairs,  and  his 
zeai  and  activity  rendered  him  highly  acceptable  in  the 
court  of  Berlin.     During  his  administration  he  founded 

.  *  ^  Biog.  Universelle.  \  Morari.— DicU  Hiit. 

A  L  V  EN  S  L  EB  1  IC.  j6t 

several  benevolent  establishments.  He  died  at  Berlin  hit 
1 802.  As  a  writer  he  is  known  by  a  historical  work  en*-^ 
titled  <<  Essai  d^un  tableau  chronologiqae  des  evenements 
de  ia  guerre,  depuis  la  paiic  de  Mun'iter,  jusqu^a  celle  de 
Hubertsbourg,"  Berlin,  1792,  8 vo.  * 

ALXINGER  (John  Baptist  d*)  a  modern  German 
poet,  was  born  at  Vienna,  Jan.  24,  17S5;  his  father  was  al 
civilian,  and  consistory  counsellor  to  the  bishop  of  Passau. 
He  studied  the  classics  under  the  celebrated  antiquary 
Eckbel,  keeper  of  the  medals  at  Vienna,  and  while  with 
him,  imbibed  such  a  taste  for  reading  the  ancient  poets^ 
that  he  knew  most  of  their  writings  by  heart,  and  was  al* 
ways  so  fond  of  this  study,  that  he  remembered  with  grati-* 
tude,  to  the  last  hour  of  his  life,  the  master  who  had  ini-> 
tiated  him  in  it,  nor  did  he  neglect  his  favourite  authors, 
even  when  obliged  to  attend  the  courts  of  law.  When  the 
death  of  }fis  parents  had  put  him  in  possession  of  a  consider- 
able patrimony,  he  made  no  other  use  of  his  doctor's  and  ad- 
vocate's titles,  than  in  reconciling  the  differences  of  such 
clients  as  addressed  themselves  to  him  for  advice.  His  first 
poetical  attempts  appeared  in  the  Muses*  Almanack,  and 
other  periodical  publicatious  at  Vienna,  and  o'f  these  he 
published  a  collection  at  Leipsic  in  1784,  and  at  Klagen- 
furth  in  1788,  vtdiich  procured  him  the  honour  of  being 
ranked  among  the  best  poets  of  his  country  for  elegance^ 
energy,  and  fertility  of  imagination.  In  the  ^^  New  Col- 
lection of  Poetry,"  printed  at  Vienna  in  1794,  he  contri- 
buted some  pieces  not  so  favourable  to  his  character  ;  but 
he  completely  re-established  his  fame  by  the  publication 
of  **  Doolin  of  Mentz,'*  and  **  Bliomberis,"  two  poems  of 
the  romantic  cast,  in  imitation  of  Wieland,  to  whom  the 
last  was  Cledicated.  In  1791,  he  published  a  German  trans* 
lation  of  Florian's  "  Niima  Pompilius,"  which  some  have 
thought  equal  to  the  original,  but  in  many  parts  it  is  defi- 
cient in  elegan'ce.  It  was,  however,  his  last  performance, 
except  the  assistance  he  gave  to  some  literary  contempo- 
raries in  translating  the  foreign  journals.  During  the  three 
last  years  of  his  life,  he  was  secretary  artd  inspector  of  thd 
court  theatre,  and  died  May  1,  1^797,  of  a  nervous  fever. 
He  was  a  man  of  warm  affections  and  gaiety  of  temper,  and 
of  his  liberality  he  afforded  a  striking  instance  in  the  case 
of  Haschka  the  poet,  whom  he  regarded  as  one  of  the  prin- 

f  Biog.  Uaiverielle.— Oeot.  Mag.-  toI.  LXXtl. 

ci{>al  supporters  of  Germaii  literature.  He  not  only  kc^ 
commodated  him  with  apartments  in  his  house,  bu^  made 
bim  a  pifesent  of  10,000  florins.  Of  his  faults,  it  is  only 
recorded  that  he  was  a  little  vain,  and  a  little  given  to  the 
pleasures  of  the  table. ' 

ALYPIUS,  of  Antiocb,  of  the  fourth  century,  was  an 
architect  in  the  service  of  Julian  the  apostate5  who  com- 
mitted to  his  care  the  rebuilding  the  temple  of  Jerusalem^ 
which  he  was  forced  to  abandon,  by  fires  which  issueU  from 
under  the  earth,  and  rendered  the  place  inaccessible^ 
Eight  years  after>  he  found  himself  involved  in  an  accusa- 
tion of  magic,  and  with  a  great  many^others  condemned 
without  proof  and  banished,  after  his  goods  had  been  con- 
fiscated. His  son  Hierocles^  *cond^mned  to  death  on  the 
same  accusation,  made  his  escape  when  they  were  leadingf 
bim  to  execution ;  and  the  news  of  this  happy  circumstaiied 
softened  the  affliction  of  Alypius  in  his  banishment.  He  is 
the  reputed  author  of  a  geographical  work  published  by 
Godefroy,  at  Geneva,  in  Gr.  and  Lat.  1628^  4to,  but  there 
is  no  good  authority  for  attributing  it  to  him.* 

ALYPIUS,  a  philosopher  of  Alexandria,  flourished  in 
the  fifth  c^  ntury,  and  was  contemporary  with  Jamblicus^ 
He  was  one  of  the  most  subtle  dialecticians  of  his  time, 
was  much  followed,  and  drew  away  the  hearers  of  Jagabli-^ 
cus.  This  occasioned  some  conferences  between  them^  bu^ 
no  animosity,  as  Jamblicus  wrote  bis  life,  in  which  he 
praised  his  virtue  and  steadiness  of  mind.  Alypius  died 
very  old,  in  the  city  of  Alexandria*  In  stature  he  was  so 
remarkably  diminutii^e  as  to  be  called  a  dwarf.  * 

ALYPIUS,  bishop  «f  Tagasta,  a  city  in  Africa,  of  which 
he  was  probably  a  native,  was  the  friend  of  St.  Augustine^ 
and  baptized  with  him  at  Milan  in  388.-  He  was  promoted 
to  the  bishopric  of  Tagasta  in  the  year  394,  and  in  the 
year  403  was  present  at  the  council  of  Ciarthage,  where  it 
Was  endeavoured  to  bring  the  Donatists  to  \inity.  In  the 
year  4 1 1  he  was  the  only  one  of  the  seven  Catholic  pre- 
lates who  disputed  with  seven  Catholic  bishops,  in  the 
famous  conference  held  at  the  same  place.  In  the  yeaif 
419  he  was  deputed  by  the  African  churches  to  Ho- 
norius,  and  pope  Boniface  received  him  with  great  friend* 
ship,  and  employed  him  in  confuting  the  Pelagians,  in  which 
he  was  not  a  little  assisted  by  the  secular  arm.     St.  Augus- 

*  Biog.  Uaiverseller  »  Gen,  Diet..  •  Ibid. 

A  L  Y  P  I  U  S.  €5 

tine  bestows  very  high  praise  on  this  bishop,  ud  seems  to> 
have  intended  to  write  his  life.  The  tinfie  of  his  death  i$ 
generally  fixed  at  430.  ^ 

AMAIA  (Francis),  a  Spanish  lawyer  of  great  reputa- 
tion in  his  country,  was  a  native  of  Antequera,  and  after- 
wards professor  of  law  at  Ossuna  and  Salamanca.  He  was 
lastly  a  counsellor  at  Valladolid,  where  he  died  in  1640  or 
1645.  He  wrote  '^  Observationes  juris/'  Salamanca,  1626, 
and  '^  Commentaria  in  posteriores  libros  codicis  Justini- 
ani,"  Lyons,  1639,  Geneva,  1655.* 

AMALARIUS  FORTUNATUS,  from  being  a  monk  of 
liladeloc,  rose  to  be  archbishop  of  Treves,  in  the  year  810^ 
and  the  following  year  re-established  the  Christian  religion 
in  that  part  of  Saxony  which  is  beyond  the  Ebro,  conse-' 
crated  the  first  church  in  Hamburgh,  and  in  the  year  813' 
went  as  ambassador  to  Constantinople  to  ratify  the  peace* 
"l^hicii  Charlemagne  had  concluded  with  Michael,  the  emi- 
peror  of  the  east.  He  died  the  year  following  in  his  dio- 
cese. His  only  work  is  a  '^  Treatise  on  Baptism,'*  which 
is  )[>rinted  among  the  works  and  under  the  name  of  Alcui'* 
nus.  It  is  the  answer  to  a  circular  letter  in  which  Charle- 
magne had  consulted  the  bishops  of  his  empire  respecting 
that  sacrament.  From  a  similarity  of  names  this  writer  has 
sometimes,  particularly  by  Trithemius,  Possevin,  and  Bel- 
larmine,  been  confounded  with  the  subject  of  the  next 
article  ^ 

AMALARIUS  SYMPHOSIUS,  was  successively  dea- 
con and  priest  vof  the  church  of  Metz,  director  of  the  school 
in  the  palace  of  Louis  de  Debonnaire,  abbot  of  Hombac, 
coadjutor  -to  the  bishop  of  Lyons,  and  then  to  that  of 
Treves,  and  according  to  some  was  made  bishop ;  but  this 
seems  doubtful.  Some  authors  likewise  attribute  to  him  a 
work  which  appeared  in  the  year  847,  in  favour  of  the 
opinions  ci  Hincmar,  archbishop  of  Rheims,  on  predesti- 
nation ;  but  it  is  probable  that  Amalarius  was  dead  ten  years 
before  that.  He  was,  however,  esteemed  a  man  of  great 
learning  in  liturgical  matters;  and  his  acknowledged  works 
procured  him  much  reputation  in  the  Romiah  church. 
The  first  meutioned  is  a  *^  Treatise  on  the  Offices,*^  written 
in  the  year.  920,  but  re*written  with  many  improvements  in 
the  year  827,  in  coni^quence  of  a  visit  to  Rome  for  the 

1  0«p.  Diet  *  Moreri.— Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp. 

9  IToreri.— ^CttV«f  t«1. 1.— Saxii  Onomasticoh. 

Vol.  II.  F    .     . 

es  A  M  A  L  A  HI  US. 

purpose  oi^.hccpming  better  acquainted  with  the  rites  of- 
t^t  cbureb^  The  most  correct  editioa  of  this  work  is  in 
the  Bibl.  Patrum  of  Lyons.  His  object  is  to  give  the  ra- 
tiiQ>9i9ie  pf  the  pr«Lyers  andcerenionies  which  compose  the 
s^ryice^  mixed,  however,  with  what  is  less  reconcileahle  to 
r^eason^.the  use  of  tbem,  and  some  scruples  about 
tfifles  wbif^b  oow  Afi^iU  hardly  bear  repetition.  2.  "  The 
qrder*  of  ^be>  Antiphonal,"  in  which  he  endeayooini>  to  re- 
cx^npil^  j;l)^  irlti^S  o^  ithe  Roman  wkh  the  Gallican  church. 
This  is  usually  printed  with  the  preceding.  3.  "  The  Of* 
ftce  of  theJVU^iV  4.  "  Letters,"  whidb  are  in  the  Spiei- 
I^giciQi  of  d- Aicbery,  and  Msurtenne's  Anecdotes.  His 
iiforks  met  with^cohsiderable  opposition,  and  Agobdrd,  arch-* 
fai^hctp^Qf  .L]^(m$i  wrote  against  the  ti^  first-mentioned 
works^  Fkwrasi  deacorn  of  Lyons,  accused  him  of  heresy 
iN^fore  tb^  council  of  Thionville,  where  he  was  acquitted, 
aadtW /council  at  Quierci,  where  some  expressions  of  his 
resp^PUng'  the  a^ucrament  were  adjudged  to  be  dangerous^ 
but  his  f^putatiou  did  not  suffer  much  bythe  decision.  *  * 
AMAiiRIC  AU'GtRIj  a  historian,  or  rather  biogra- 
pher,  of  .the.  fourteenth  ceoiary,  wrote  and  dedicated  to 
pop^  UrbAU.V.  a  history  of  the  popes,  ending  at  pope  John 
XXI|.  ivbi&h  be  entitled  ^*  Chronicum  Pontificale,"  and 
which,  he  says,  he  compiled  from  above  two  hundred 
authors.  ^  Crom  the  pre&ce  he  appears  to  havi^  been  of 
the  order  of  St.  Augiifetine,  but  his  work  has  not  beeft 
pointed;*    .    , 

:  AMALTHEI  (Jerome,  John  Baptist,  imd  Cqhnelius) 
%vere  brotheiss.who  flourished  in  the  early  part  of  the  dx^ 
teentb  ceti^ury,  and  distinguished  themselves  as  men  of  iet-^ 
ters.  The  pteeof  .their  birthfwas  Oderztr,  a  oity  of  the  Ve- 
n^etiah  terriljoty.  rHieronymns,  the  elder,  united  in  his  owrf 
p^r^oii  the  <^hliracters  of-a  skilful  physician  aikl  a  pkasin^ 
poet.  His  Latii^ipoeiBs  are  ip  general  written  in  a  style  of  sin-** 
gujlar  dj^^nce^aftd  purity.  The  celebrated  Frenoh  critic  and 
©oEftm^ftta^Qr,.  Marc-Antoine  Muret,  in  his  correspondence 
with  LtoJbin,  .classes  them,  among  the  best  prodtictidns  of 
the  It^Uann^uin  that  species  of  compositi<m.  In  poems  of 
th^  light  ^id  epigrammatic  kind,  he  particularly  excelled. 
This.  Jes^rited  mat!  is  also  much  conmiended  for  his  ur]>ariity 
^f  nH^uners,  and  the  suavity  of  his  dispositioa^  He  cultii 
vated  his  talent  for  poetry  at  an  advanced  age  with  undi- 
minished spirit,   as  appears  in   his  vers^^  to*  bis  frieod 

•  Biog.  Universelle.— Dupin. — CaTet«»Moreri. 
t  Moreri.-— Vogfiius  d«  liisU  LaU 

A  M  A  L  T  H  E  t.  i67 


IMcUor,  notmibstanding  the  complaint  tbey  .breathe  of 
decaying  powers.  He  died  at  the  place  of  his  nativity,  in 
Id74>  in  his  sixty-eighth  year.  His  felloW-citizens  are  said 
to  hare  inscribed  an  epitaph  on  his  tomb,  in  iivhich  they  re- 
present hioi  as  another  Aptdio,  equally  skilled  in  poesy  and 
the  belling  art.  His  poem^,  together  with  those  of  his 
brothers,  were  first  collected  iand  published  entire  by  Hie- 
ronymus  Aleander,  at  Venice,  in  the  year  1627,  and  after- 
wards  by  Grsevius  with  those  of  Ssluiiazarius  at  Amster* 
dam  in  i689;    .         ..  <. 

The  poetical  talent*  of  Joannes  or  Giotanni  Battista, 
the  Second  brothei',  were  flot  inferior  to  those  -of  Hiero- 
oymns.  We  remark  in  »hfis  compO}^tions  equal  harmony, 
combdtied  with  equal  spirit;  and  critics  have  u,nited  thenl 
under  the  flattering  title  of  "  Musarum  Delici^e."  Be- 
f»ide9  the  poems  writteii  in  Latin,  others  by  Giovanni  Bat- 
tista. occur  in  his^  native  kingnage,  which  rank  him  among 
ike  best  Italian /p6ets.  Some  unfinished  pieces  of  his.  are 
said  to  hiareb^en  discovered  at"Hdme,  in  the  library  of  car- 
dinal Ottoboni.  Eminentty  didtinguished  for  his  accurate 
knowledge  of  ikie  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  he  passed 
the  gresitefr  part  of  his  life  at  thel.courtbf  Rome,  and  stood 
kTghih  the  favoiit  of  three*  statrcesrive  pontiffe.  He  dis- 
eharged  the  office  of-  sefcifetttry  tkH  the  cardinals  who  were 
deputed  to  <he  cfifuntil  bf  Tient.  We  hate  his  own  evi- 
dence to  prove  that  he.Waii  thcrs^ff^bled  to  attain,  if  not  to 
the  most  spl^dtd  .and'ittrposing  affluence,  at  least  to  that 
moderate  degree  of  it,  which,-  Combined  with  temperance 
and  integrity,  conduces  most-to'real  happiness.^  He  died 
at  Bdme  at?  the -eaily  age  of  forty-seven  years. 

CoRNMLius,  the  youngest  of  the  Amalthei,  has  left  a 
few  Latin  poems,  whiclv  serve  to  manifest  t:he  conformity  of 
hi*  taste  aird  talents  wiAr those  of  hi^  karned  brothers.  He 
probably  dii^d  in  the  pririfje'<)f  lifey^atid  some  accounts  fix 
the  debase  of  ja\\  thte  tfetee  brothers  in  the  same  year., 
Bfit  thesc^^  according  to  the- editor  of  the  General  Diction- 
ary, itiusft  hotbe^coiifbdhded'whh'Araaltheus  Attilius,  arch- 
Mshop  of  Atb^Tite,  whb  was  born  of  a!  family  in  Italy  eminent 
for  producing  men  of  the  gfeate^  itie^it  and  learnhig.  He 
Hired  ifi  the  sixteenth  centary,-  and  made  a  considerabte 
progress  in  the.  study  6f  the  civil' and  canon  law,  and  iil 
that  of  divinity.  He  W2^§  a  man  of  a  noble,  generous,  and 
Asinterested  spirit,  was  raised  to  the  see  of  'Athens  by  pope 
Paul  V.  and  sent  to  Cologne  in  the  character  of  nuncio, 

F  2 

6&  A  M  A  L  T  H  £  I. 

which  office  he  discharged  with  mu^  applause ;  tod  diid 
about  1 600.  *  , 

AMAMA  (SiXTiKUs)^  profesAor  of  the  Hebrew  tongue 
in  the  university  of  Franeker,  was  born  in  Frieskud  in  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth  century  (according  to  Saxius  in  1593)^ 
and  studied  under  Drusius.  The  university  of  Leyden  en« 
deavoured,  by  offering  him  a  larger  salary,  to  draw  him 
from  the  university  of  Franeker,  in  ordefr  to  succeed  £rpe« 
nius :  Amama,  without  absolutely  refusing  ibis  ofier,  yet 
would  not  accept  of  it  unless  he  obtained  jpermission  from 
his  superiors  of  Friesland,  which  they  refused^  and  perhaps 
^ave  him  such  additional  encouragement^  that  he  had  nd 
reason  to  repent  of  not  going  lx>  Leydi»n.  The  first  book 
he  published  was  a  specimen  of  a  great  design  he  intended^ 
viz.  to  censure  the  Vulgate  translation)  which  the  counoii 
of  Trent  had  declared  authentic  i  but  before  he  had  fi- 
nished this  work,  he  publisheda  criticisQ»  upon  the  transA 
lation  of  the  Pentateuch,  entitled  <^  Censura  Vulgates 
XatinsB  editiqnis  Pentateuchi/*  ^to,  1620»  FraudKr,  as  «< 
specimen  of  his  more  elaborate  work.  Whilst  he  was  car« 
tying  on  this,  he  was  obliged  to  eng^;e  in  another  work, 
which  was,  to  collate  ^he  Dutch  translation  of  the  4icripture 
with  the  originals  and  the  exactest  translations :  this  Dutch 
translation  had  been  taken  firom  Luther's  versioRw  He  gave 
the  public  an  account  of  this  labour,  in  a  work  which  ap* 
peared  at  Amsterdam,  entided,  *^  Bybekche  eonlerencie>" 
Amsterdam,  1623.  I'his  emplovment  of  collating  so  much, 
engaged  Amama,  that  he  was  hmdered  for  a  considerable 
time  from  applying  to  his  intended  general  censure  of  the: 
Vulgate.  However,  be  resumed  his  undertaking  upon: 
hearing  that  father  Mersennns  had  endeavoured  to  refute 
his  critical  remarks  on  the  first  six  chapters  of  Genesis; 
and  he  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  vindicate  his  criticisms 
against  that  author.  His  answer  is  one  of  the  pieces  con- 
tained, in  the  ^^  Anti-barbarus  Biblicus,"  which  be  pub- 
lished in  1628 ;  the  other  pieces  are,  his  Censure,  of  thet 
Vulgate  on  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament,  on 
Job,  the  Psalms,  and  the  bopks  of  Solomon^  with  some 
particular  dissertations,  one-of  which  is  on  the  famous  pas« 
sage  in  the  Proverbs,  <^  The  Lord  created  me  in  the  he^. 
ginning  of  all  his  ways/*  wherein  he  sbew&ikhat  those  who, 

»  6re«8weU*s  Memoirs  «f  Polttianui>  l6C.«^Moren.-^Chaufrjiic.— Gen;  D^cK 
— -Kryttirsei  P^acotheca.—- Saxii  Onomastioaiu 

A  M  A  MA.  <» 

mceused  Drusius  of  favouring  Arianism  irere  notorious  ca« 
lumniators.     The  *'  Anti-barbarus  Biblicus''  was  to  have 
consisted  of  two  parts,  each  containing  three  books ;   the 
author,  however,  onlj  published  the  first  part.     It  was  re* 
pr'mted  after  his  death  in  1656,  and  a  fourth  book  was 
added,  containing  the  criticism  of  the  Vulgate  upon  Isaiah 
and  Jeremiah.     It  is  ilnpossible  to  answer  Ae  reasons,  bj 
which  he  shews  the  necessity  of  consulting  the  originals. 
Tbisbe  recommended  so  earnestly,  that  some  synods,  being 
influenced   by  his  reasons,   decreed  that  none  should  be  n 
admitted  into  the  ministry,  but  such  as  had  a  competent 
knowledge  of  the  Hebrew  atid  Greek  text  of  the  scripture. 
He  published  also  another  dissertation,  entitled  ^^  De  No- 
«  mine  Tetragrammiato,*^  Fisaneker,  1620,  ^vo.    When  Sixti* 
nas  came  to  Fran^ker^  drunkenness  and  debauchery  reigned 
in  that  univertity  to  a  very  great  degree ;  he  tells  us,  that 
all  the  new  stoaents  were  immediately  enrolled  in  the  s^r* 
vice  of  Baocstius,  and  obliged  to  swear,  with  certain  cere* 
monies,  ky  a  wpoden  statue  of  St»  Stephen^^  that  the3r 
would  ^spend  all  their  money :  if  any  one  had  more  regard 
to  the  oath  be  had  taken  to  the  rector  of  the  university 
than  to  this  bacchanalian  oath,  he  was  so  persecuted  by  the 
other  studet\ts,  that  he  was  obliged  either  to  leave  tl)ie. 
university,  or  comply  with  the  rest.     Sixtinus  contributed 
greatly  to  root  out  this  vice,  and  he  inveighed  against  it 
with  great  energy  in  a  public  speech  made  in  1621.     He 
was  so  much  beloved  by  the  people  of  Friesland,  that  after 
his  deaths  ihey  shewed  theo^selves  very  generous  to  his 
children ;  as  Nicholas  Amama,  who  was  one  of  them,  ac- 
knowledges in  the  epistle  dedicatory  to  his  ^^  Dissertatio-^ 
num  Marinarum  decas,*'  1651.     For  one  circumstance  in 
the  life  of  Amama,  we  are  indebted  to  Anthony  Wood,  who 
informs  us  that  about  the  year  1613,  he  came  over  to  Eng- 
land, and  resided  for  some  years  at  Oxford,  in  Exeter  col- 
lege, under  the  patronage  of  Dr.  Prideaux,  the  rector  of 
that  college,    after warcis  bishop  of  Worcester.     Amama 
died  in  1629,  in*  the  thirty-sixth  year  of  his  age^  if  the  date 
of  the  birth  above  assigned,  be  correct.  * 

AM  AND.     SeeST.  AMAND. 

ASMARA- SING  HA,  a  learned  Hindoo,  and  counsellor  to 
the  celebrated  rajah  Vikramaditeya^  lived  in  the  first  cen- 

1  Gsd.  Diet.— Moveri.— Foppen  Bibl.  B«lg.  wfa«f«  there  it  ft  mcMTt  eumjpleto 
^Btalofue  of  lus  work«.^Weod'«  AUmmt*  toU  U'  ^ 

TO,,  A  M  A  R  A-  S  I  N  G  H  A. 

tury  B:  C.  He  is  the  author  of  a  Dictionary  of  the  Saw-^ 
scrit,  which  is  esteemed  very  correct  and  complete.  It 
i&  called  ^^  Amara-Kocha/'  or  the  treasure  of  Amara,  and 
is  not  in  the  alphabetical  order^  but  divided  iota  sectiopfl^ 
as  the  names  of  the  gods,  the  surs^  the  element^,  .&c.  in 
the  manner  of  some  vocabularies*  It  is  written  in  a  species 
of  verse,  ai>d  the  ey plan^tions  are  given  in  .  the  different 
Indian  languages.  Father  Paulin,  of  St^  Bartholomiew^ 
published  at  Rome  in  1798,  the  first  part  of  this  dictionary 
under  the  title  '^  Aniara-Singha,  sectio  prima,  de  cseloy  ex, 
tribus  ineditis  codicibus  manuscriptis,''  4to«  There  is  a 
manuscript  of  the  whole  in  the  imperial  library  of  Paris.  ^ 

AMASEO  (HoMULUs),  the  son  of  Gregory  Amaseo^  La-» 
tin  professor  at  Venice,  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
Italian  scholars  of  the  sixteenth  century.     He  was  born  at 
Udina  In  1489,   and  educated  at  first  by  bis  father  and 
uncle,  but  finished  bis  studies  at  Padua,  and  in  1 50S  had 
begun  to  teach  the  belles  iettres  there,  when  the  war,  oc- 
casioned by  the  league  at  Cambray,  obliged  himr  to  leave 
the  place.     He  then  went  to  Bologna,  continued  to  teachy 
and  married,  and  had  children,  and  was^  so  much  respected 
that  the  city  admitted  him  as  a  citizen,  an  honour  which 
his  ancestors  had  alsp  enjoyed.     In  1 530,  he  was  appointed 
first  secretary  to  the  senate,  and  was  chosen  by  pope  Cle« 
ment  VII.  to  pronounce  before  him  and  Charles  V.  a  Latin 
harangue  on  the  subject  of  the  peace  concluded  at  Bo^ 
logna  between  the  two  sovereigns.     This  he  accordingly 
performed,  with  great  applause,  in  the  church  ofStPe- 
troua,  before  a  numerous  audience  of  the  first  rajik.     He 
continued  to  teach  at  Bologna,  with  increasing  popularity, 
until  1543,  when  he  was  invited  to  Rome  by  pope  Paul  IIL 
and  his  nephew  cardinal  Alexander  Farnese.  The  pope  em-, 
ployed  him  in  many  political  missions  to  the  court  of  the 
emperor,  those  of  the  German  princes,  and  that  of  the  king( 
of  Poland ;  and  in  1550,  after  the  death  of  bis  wife,  pope 
Julius  III.  appointed  him  secretary  of  the  briefs,  a  place 
which  he  did  not  long  enjoy,  as  he  died  in  1552.  He  wrote> 
Latin  translations  of  ^^Xenophon's  Cyrus,"  Bologna,  1533> 
fol.  and  of  '<  Fausanias,*'  Rome,  1547,  4to ;  and  a  volume 
entitled  *^  Orationes,''  consisting  of  eighteen  Latin  speeches 
on  various  occasions,  BoApn.  1590,.  .4to.    His  contempo-. 
raries  bestow  the  highest  praises  on  his  learning  and  elo- 

A  M  A  S  fi  cy.  11 

^nence*  His  soii  Pompilio  had'  perhaps  lebs  reputations 
but  he  too  distioguished  himself  as  4Slre*ek  professor  at  Bo-* 
}ogiia,  where  he  died  in  1584.  He'transkted  two  frag- 
ments of  Polybios,  Bologna^  164SV  ^nd  wrote  a  history  of 
his  own  time  in  Latin,  which  has' not  bebn'pubiished.^ 

AMATUS  (John  BoDBRiao  Amato)^  a  Portuguese  phy- 
sician, and  medical  writer,  of  Jewish  origin,  was  born  in 
1511  at  Castel-lManco.  He  studied  ifnedicine  at  Salamaiica, 
and  afterwards  travelled  through  France,  the  Netherlands, 
Germany,  and  Italy,  and  taught  medicine  with  success  in 
Ferrara  and  Ancona.     His  attachment  to  the  Jewish  per- 
suasion having  I'endered  him  suspected  by  the  catholics,,  he 
narrowly  escaped  the  inquisition,  by  retiring  to  Pesaro  in 
1555,  from  which  he  removed  to  llagusa,  and  afterwards  to  ^ 
Thessalonica.     From  the  year  1561  ^e  hear  no  more  of 
him,  nor  has  the  time  or  place  of  his  death  been  ascertained,  , 
but  it  is  said  that  when  he  went  to  Thessalonica,  he  avowed 
Judaism  openly.     His  works,  although  few,  give  proofs  of 
extensive  learning  in  his  profession.     1.  "  Exegemata  in 
priores  duos  Dioscoridis  de  materia  medica  libros,"   An- 
twerp, 1536,  4to.     The  second  edition  greatly  enlarged, 
with  learned  notes  by  Constantin,  was  published  under  the 
title  **  Enfirrationes  in  Dioscopidem,''  Veriide,  1553,  8vo, 
Strasburgh,  1554,  and  Lyons,  1557.     There  is  tnuch  in- 
formation  in  this  work  respecting  exotics  used  in'medicine, 
and  some  plants  described  for  the  first  time,  but  it  is  not 
free  from  errors;  and  the  author-having  imprudently  at- 
tacked Mathiol^s,  the  latter  retorted  on  him  in  his  "  Apo- 
logia advevsus  Amatum,"  Venice,  1557,  fol.  declaring  hini 
an  apostate  atid  a  Christian  'only  in  aj)pearance;  but  what 
coniiexion  this  hud  with  the  errors  in  his  book,  is  not  sd 
easy  to  discover.     Anvatus,  ln>Wever,  intended  to  have  an- 
swered him  in  the  notes  pi^pared  for  a  cotnplete  edition  of 
Dioscorides,  which  be  did  not  live  to  publish.  '  2.  "  Cura- 
tionnm  mediekialium  centuriee  septem,"  published  sepa- 
rately^ and' f»ptifated,at*Florence,' Venice,  Ancona,  Rome, 
Ragttsa,  Thessalonica,  &o.     In  this^  work,  are  many  useful 
facts  and^obsfervAtibns,  but  not  entirely' uninixed  with  cases 
whieb  ^t>&  •thought''  to  hav^  been'  fictitious.     Few   books, 
howev»r^*weref  atonetime  more  popular, '  for  besides  the 
separate  eiiliioni^  of  the  CetHuries;  tliey  were  collected  and 
published  at  Lyons,  1580,    12p[io,  Paris,   1613,   1620,  4to, 

»  t 

I  Jilorerl."—Blog»  UniyerseHe*— Oeii<  Diet.— Saxii  Onomasticoii* 

la  A  IVf  A  T  U  S. 


and  Francfort,  1646,  foL  Amatus  had  also  made  some 
progress  in  a  commentafy  oii-Avicenna,  but  lost  his  manu«» 
soripts  in  the  hurry  of  his  escape  from  Ancona,  where  pope 
Paul  IV.  had  ordered  him  to  be  apprehended.  Antonio  in 
his  BibL  Hisp.  attributes  to  him  a  Spanish  translation  of 
f^utropiusy  but  it  does  not  appear  to  bare  been  ever  pub-* 
lished.  * 

AMAURI,  or  more  commonly  AMALRIC  or  ALMERIC 
(!>£  Chaetres),  professor  of  logic  and  theology  at  Paris, 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  was  a  native  of  Bene  in  the  dio-^ 
cese  of  Chartres,  and  rendered  himself  famous  for  the  sin^ 

fularity  of  his  opiQiona,  and  the  multitudes  who  became 
is  followers^  and  suffered  for  their  adherence.  Adopting 
the  metaphysics  of  Aristotle,  he  formed  to  himself  a  new 
system  of  religion,  which  has  been  thus  explained.  Aris* 
totle  supposes '  that  all  beings  are  composed  of  matter, 
which  has  in  itself  neither  form  nor  idiape :  this  he  calls  the 
first  matter^  This,  Amauri  called  God,  because  it  is  a  ne-- 
cessary  and  infinite  being.  He  acknowledged  in  God, 
three  persons.  Father,  8on,  and  Holy  Ghost,  to  whom  be 
attributed  the  empire  of  the  world,  and  whom  be  regarded 
as  the  object  of  religious  worship.  But  as  this  matter  was 
endowed  with  a  property  of  continual  motion,  it  necessarily 
followed  that  this  world  must  some  time  have  an  end,  and 
that  all  the  beings  therein  must  return  to  that  first  matter, 
which  was  the  supreme  of  all  beinga^ — th^  first  existing, 
and  the  only  one  eternal.  Religion,  according  to  Amauri^s 
opinion,  had  three  epochas,  which  bore  a  laimilitude  to  the 
reign  of  the  three  persons  in  the  Trinity,  ^be  reign  of 
God  had  existed  as  long  as  the  law  of  MosesJ^  The  reign 
of  the  Son  would  not  always  last ;  the  ceremonies  and  sa* 
crifi.ces,  which  according,  to  Amauri  constituted  the  essence 
of  it,  would  not  be  eternal.  .  A  time  would  ccJme  when  the 
sacraments  should  cease,  and  then  |be  religion  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  would  begin,  in  which  men  would  have  no  need  of 
sacraments,  and  would  render  a  spiritual  worship  to  i^ie 
Supreme  Beingi  This  epocha  was  the  reigia  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  which  according  to  Anmuri  was  foretold  by  the  scrips 
ture,  ar)d  which  would  succeed  to  the  Christian  religion,  as 
the  Christian  religion  had  succeeded  to  that  ^MtHiea^  Tb^ 
Christian  religion  therefore  was  the  reign  o£  Jesus  Christ 

1  Biof .  UniTerselle.— Astriio  oo  tb«  Venereal  disea8e.-<p>Maiiset.  ^ibt^— Ha^ 
ier  Bibl.  Med.<— Moireri. 

A  M  A  0  R  I.  T9 

io  the  world,  and  every  man  under  that  hiw  ought  to  look 
on  himself  as  one  of  the  members  of  Jesus  Christ.  Amauci 
had  many  proselytes,  but  his  opinions  were  condemned  by 
pope  Innocent  III.  His  disciples  added  that  the  sacra* 
ments  were  useless^  and  that  no  action  dictated  by  charity 
couid  be  bad.  They  were  condemned  by  the  council  of 
Paris  in*  1209^  and  many  of  them  burned.  Amauri  ap- 
pealed to  the  pope,  who  also  condemned  his  doctrines ;  but; 
for  fear  of  a*  rigorous  punishment  he  retracted  his  opinions^ 
retired  to  St.  Martin  des  Champs,  and  died  there  of  chagria 
and  disappointment.  His  bones  were  afterwards  dug  up 
*  and  burnt  by  order  of  the  council  of  Par^.  As  there  is 
much  confusion  in  the  accounts  given  of  Amauri*s  system, 
it  may  be  necessary  to  add,  that  Spanheim,  Fleurv,  and 
others,  are  of  opinion  that  most  of  the  heresies  iinputed  to 
him,,  are  without'foundation,  and  represent  him  aa  having 
only  taught  that  every  Christian  ought  to  believe  himsteif  m 
member  of  Jesus  Christ,  otherwise  tbey  cannot  be  saved, 
and  that  Binatit  and  bis  other  disciples  fell  into  those  er« 
rors  which  he  was  accused  of  having  taught.  It  seems  not 
improbable  that  his  inveighing  against  the  worship  of  saints 
and  images  would  in  that  age  form  the  principal  article 
against  him;  and  it  is  certain  that  many  of  his  disciples^wera' 
m&n  of  distinguished  piety,  remarkable  for  the  gravity  and 
austerity  of  their  lives,  and  for  suffering  death,  in  all  its 
dreadful  forms,  with  the  utmost  resolution. ' 

AMBERGER  (Christopher),  a  painter  of  Nuremberg, 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  the  disciple  of  the  younger 
Holbein,  and  a  successful  imitator  of  his  manner.  His  de* 
signs  were  correct,  the  disposition  of  the  figures  admirable^ 
itnd  the  perspective  excellent,  nor  was  he  deficient  in  co* 
louring.  His  chief  reputation  rests  on.  a  composition  of  the 
history  of  Joseph,  whidi  he  described  in  twelve  picture. 
He  also  painted  ji  portrait  of  the  empefor  Charles  V.  which 
that  monarch,  according  to  the  testimony  of  Sandrart,  ac- 
counted equal  to  any  of  the  portraits  of  him  painted  by 
Titian ;  and  to  eicpress  his  hi^  approbation  of  that  per- 
formance, be  not  only  paid  the  artist  three  times  as  much 
as  he  expected,  with  a  liberality  truly  royal^  but  he  bo- 
soured  hua  also  W9th  a  rich  diain  of  gold  and  a  medal. 
There  ar«  several  of  his  pictures  in  the  royal  gallery  of 
Munich.     The  abbe  MaroUes,  ai»d,  after  him,  rlorent  le 

^  Moshtim't  Eeel.  m^twTg^^finuu 

74  A  M  B  E  R  G  E  R. 

Coitite  mentioii;  Amberger,.  as  an  cngfai'cr,  without  spe- 
cifying his  works  ;  but  Basan  tells  us,  t^t  be  engraved  in 
wood  several  prints^  from  his  own  compositions*     He  died, 
ia  1550/  :       ^ 

AMBOISE  (Feancis  i>')  lived  ia  the  latter  «id  of  th«5 
sixteeutb,  and  begiutiing  of  the  seventeenth  centuries,  and 
acquired  in  his,  own  time  considerable  fame,  upon  account 
^f  his  leariiicig,  and  some  portion  of  the  spirit  of  literary 
research.     He  was  the  sou  of  a  surgeon,  bifb  became  a 
great  favourite  in  the  courts  of  Charles  IX.  of  France,  and 
his  brother  Henry  III.,  and  was  gradually  advanced  to  of* 
fices  of  high  trust  in  the  state.     From  bis  childhood,  he  * 
said,. he  had  been  always  fond  of  looking  into  old  libraries^ 
end  turning  over  dusty  manuscripts.     lu  some  of  these  te«- 
iiearches  he  laid  his  hands  on  the  letters  of  Abeiard  and 
Heloise,  which  he  read  with  much  pleasure,  and  was  in<« 
duced  to  pursue  his  inquiries.     He  found  other  works  of 
the  same  author ;  but  they  were  ill-written,  and  not  to  be 
unravelled  without  great  labour,  yet  nothing  can  withstand 
the  indefatigable  toil  of  a  true  antiquaay.     Amboise  pro^ 
cured  other- manuscripts ;    collated  them  together,   and 
finally  produced  one  fair  copy,  which  m»de  ample  com- 
pensation, he  sayis,  for  all  the  labour  he  had   endured* 
Even  posterity,  he  thinks,   will  be  grateful  tx>  him^  and 
know  how  to  value  tlie  pleasure  and  the  profit,  tliey  will 
derive  from  his  researches.     Not  satisfied,  however,  with 
the  copy  he  possessed,  he  still  wished  to  enlarge  it.     He 
a|>plied  to  differeost  monasteries,  and  he  again  searched  the 
libraries-  in  Paris,  and  not  without  success*     His  friends 
applauded  hm  zeal,  and  gave  him  their  assistance^     His 
manuscripts  swelled  to  a  large  bulk,  and  he  ready  arranged^ 
and  selected  what  pleased  him  best.     The  risibg  sun,  he 
says,  often  found,  him  .at. his  task.     So  far  fbrtune  bad 
smiled  upon  his  Ikbours,  but  soosewhat  was  iwantdng  to  give 
them  the  last  finish^  He  went  over  to  the  Pairaclet,  where  the 
abbess,  Madam«  de  Rochefoucsuuld,  received  •  bi|n  with  the 
greatest  politeness. '  He  deolaxed  the  motive  of  his  journey*; 
Retook  him  by  the  hand,  >  and  r  led  him  to  the  tomb  of 
Abeiard  and  ^i^oise.^    Together  they  examinedthe library 
of   the  abbey,    and) she-  shevued . hsm.  many^  hymns,  and 
pitayers,  and  homfilies^.wEittini  by  Iheif  fotinden^wdiich  were 
still  used  in  their,  ^urch*'  A^^^^^^^-^I^^^^  *®^^^^d  ^  Pavis^ 

A  M  B  O  I  S  E,  W 

.and  prepared  bis  work  for  the  press.'    As  the  repiitalaon  of 
his  author,  he  knew,  had  been  muph  aspersed  by  isdmo 
contemporary  writers,  he  wished  to  remove  the  undeserved 
stigma,  and  to  present  him  as  immaculate  as  might  be,  be^ 
fore  the  eyes  of  a  more  discerning  age.     Witli  this  view 
he  wrote  a  long  *^  Apologetic  preface,"  which  he  meant 
should  be  prefixed  to  the  work.     In  this  preface,  an  indew 
gant  and  affected  composition,  be  labours  much  to  shew 
iJiat  Abelara  was  the  greatest  and  best  man,  and  Heloise 
the  greatest  and  best  woman,  whom  the  annals  of  humaa 
kind  had  recorded.     He  first,  very  fairly,  brings  the  testi- 
mony of  those,  who  had  spoken  evil  of  them,  whom  he  en-> 
deavours  to  combat  and  refute.     To  these  succeeds  a  list 
of  their  admirers.     He  dwells  on.  their  every  word,  and 
gives  more  weight  to  their  expressions,  and  the  result  is 
what  we  might  expect  from  the  pen  of  Ainboise.  The  com-* 
pilation,  however,  although  unsuccessful  in  its  main  de- 
sign, contains  some  curious  matter,  and  may  be  read  with 
pleasure.    But  he  did  not  live  to  see  it  published,  for  it  was 
not  printed  till  the  year  1616.     He  died  before  this,  but 
the>  exact  time  is  not  known.     The  editor  of  the  Diction- 
naire  Historique  places  his  death  in  1620,  which  must  be  a 
mistake.     His  works  are^   1.  ^^  Notable  Discours,  en  forme 
de  dialogue,  touchant  la  vraie  et  pariaicte  amitie,"  tran- 
slated from  the  Italian  of  Piccolomini,  Lyons,  1577,  16mo. 
2.  ^^  Dialogue  et  Devis  des  Damoiselles,  pour  les  rendre  bienheureuses  en  la  vraye  et  parfaicte  amitie,^* 
Paris,  15a  1   and   15SS,  16mo.     3.  ^^  Regrets  facetieux  et 
plaisantes^  Harangues  funebres  sur  la  mort  de  divers  ani- 
maulx,''  from  the  Italian  of  Ortensio  Lando,. Paris,  1576, 
1583.     These  three  works  were  published  under  the  name 
of  Tbierrj  de  Thymophile,  a  gentleman  of  Picardy,  which 
has  procured  him  a  place  in  Baillet^s  catalogue  of  disguised 
authors.      4.    ^^  Les    Neapolitaines,*'   a  French  comedy, 
Parj^,  15$4,  1.6mQ..    5.  An  edition  of  the  works  of  Abe- 
lard.     6»  ^'  Desesporades,  ou  Eglogues  ainoarouses,"  Paw 
ris,.  1573,  8vo.     His  younger  brother  Adrians,  who  was 
boraat  Pairis  1551,  and  died  bishop  of  Treguier,  July28, 
1616^  wvote  in  hi»  youth,  a  speqies  of  sacred  drl^ma,  en- 
titled ^Mlolophernes,"  printed  at  Paris,  15B0,  8vo.* 

AMBQISE  (QfiOEOfi  d')  a  French  card&naL  and  8fta|:es^ 
mau  of  the  illustrious  house  of  Amboise  iiv  France,,  so  caiied 

I  Gen.  I>icitv--PrefacietoB«rnii|;t0n'8aitUofAbeliurdr--Bio|r.^Univer9^1)ct  . 

7t  A  M  1^  0  I  s  il: 

from  tbeir  possessing  the  seignory  of  that  name,  was  bom' 
in  1460.     Being  destined  at  a  very  early  age  for  the 
churchy  be  was  elected  bishop  of  Montauban   when  only' 
fourteen.     He  was  afterwards  made  one  of  the  almoners  to 
Lewi^  XI.  to  whom  he  behaved  with  great  prudence.  After 
the  death  of  this  prince  in  1480^  he  entered  into  some  of 
the  intrigues  of  the  court  with  a  design  to  favour  the  duke 
of  Orleansi  with  whom  he  was  closely  connected ;  but 
those  intrigues  being  discovered,  d'Atnboise  and  his  pro- 
tector were  both  imprisoned.     The  duke  of  Orleans  was? 
at  last  restored  to  his  liberty ;  and  this  prince  having  ne^ 
gotiated  the  marriage  of  the  king  with  the  princess  Anne 
of  Britanny,  acquired  great  reputation  and  credit  at  court. 
Of  this  his  favourite  d* Amboise  felt  the  happy  effect  as, 
toon  after,  the  archbishopric  of  Narbonne  was  bestowed  on 
bim ;  but  being  at  too  great  a  distance  from  the  court,  he 
changed  it  for  that  of  Rouen,  to  which  the  chapter  elected 
bim  in  1493.     As  soon  as  he  had  taken  possession  of 'his 
new  see,  the  duke  of  Orleans,  who  was  governor  of  Nor- 
mandy, made  him  lieutenant-general,  with  the  same  power 
as  if  he  had  been  governor  in  chief.     This  province  was 
at^that  time  in  great  disorder :  the  noblessie  oppressed  the 
people,  the  judges  were  all  corrupted  or  intimidated ;  the 
soldiers,  who  had  been  licentious  since  the  late  wars,  in- 
fested the  high-way8,    plundering  and  assassinating  all 
travellers  they  met ;  but  in  less^than  a  year,  d' Amboise  by 
his  care  and  prudence  established  public  tranquillity.    The 
king  dying  in  1498,  the  duke  of  Orleans  ascended   the 
throne,  by  the  name  of  Lewis  XII.  and  d* Amboise  became 
his  prime  minister.     By  his  first  operation  in  that  ofEce,  he 
conciliated  the  affection  of  the  whole  nation.     It  bad  been 
a  custota  when  a  new  monarch  ascended  the  throne,  to  lay 
an  extraordinary  tax  on  the  people,  to   defray  the  ex-r 
pences  of  the  coronation,  but  by  the  counsel  of  d'Amboise 
this  tax  was  not  levied,  and  the  imposts  were  soon  reduced 
one  tenth.     His  virtues  coinciding  with  his  knowledge,  he 
made  the  French  nation  happy,  and  endeavoured  to  pre- 
serve the  glory  they  had  acquired.     By  his  advice  Lewis 
XIL  undertook  the  conquest  of  the  Milanese  in  1499» 
Lewis  the  Moor,  uncle  and  vassal  of  Maximilian,  was  then 
in  possession  of  that  province.     It  revolted  soon  after  the 
conquest,  but  d*  Amboise  brought  it  back  to  its  duty.  Some 
time  after  he  was  received  at  Paris  with   great  magni^ 
ficence^  iQ  qualitj^  of  legate  from  Che  pope.     During  hi^ 

A  1^  B  G  I  3  R  tt 

legation,  he  kboured  to  reform  many  ol  the  religious  4r« 
den>  lis  the  jacobins^  the  cordeliers,  and  thoteof  St,  Ger» 
main  des  Pres.  His  disinterestedness  was  equal  to  his  zeaL 
He  never  possessed  more  than  one  benefice,  two  thirds  of 
which  he  employed  for  the  relief  of  the  poor  and  the  sup^ 
port  of  the  (iburches.  Contenting  himself  with  his  arch* 
bishopric  of  Rouen  and  his  cardinal's,  hat,  he  was  not, 
like  his  contemporaries,  desirous  to  add  abbeys  to  it.  A 
gentleman  of  Normandy  having  offered  to  sell  him  an  estate 
«t  a  very  low  price,  in  order  to  portion  his  daughter,  be 
made  him  ,  a  present  of  a  sum  sufficient  for  that  purpose, 
and  left  him  the  estate.  He  obtained  the  purple  after  the 
dissolution  of  the  marriage  between  Lewis  XII.  and  Joan 
of  France,  to  which  he  greatly  contributed :  and,  on  having 
procured  for  Caesar  Borgia,  son  of  pope  Alexander  VL 
the  duchy  of  Valentinois,  with  a  considerable  pension,  his 
ambition  was  to  be  pope,  with  a  view  to  the  reform  of 
abuses,  and  the  correction  of  manners.  After  the  death  of 
Pius  III.  he  might  have  succeeded  in  his  wishes,  and 
took  measures  to  procure  the  tiara,  but  cardinal  Julian  de 
Rovera  (afterwards  Julius  II.)  found  means  to  circumvent 
him ;  and  the  Venetians  having  contributed  to  his  exclu* 
sion,  he  took  the  first  opportunity  to  excite  Lewis  XII.  to 
make  war  on  them,  a  circumstance  which  seems  not  a  little 
to  detract  from  his  character.  This  celebrated  cardinal 
died  in  1510,  in  the  convent  of  the  Celestines  at  Lyons,, 
of  the  gout  in  his  stomach,  aged  50  years.  It  is  reported 
that  he  often  repeated  to  the  friar  who  attended  him  in  his 
illness,  '<  Brother  John,  why  have  I  not  during  my  whole 
life  been  brother  John  ?''  This  minister  has  been  gristly 
praised  for  having  laboured  for  the  happiness  of  France  ; 
but  he  has  been  equally  censured  for  having  advised  his 
master  to  sign  the  treaty  of  Blois  in  1 504,  by  which  France 
ran  the  risk  of  being  disnaembered.  He  governed  both 
the, king  and  the  state ;  laborious,  kii^d,  honest,  he  pbs-' 
sessed  good  sense,  firmness,  and  experience,  but  he  wa^ 
not  a  ereat  genius,  nor  were  his  views  extensive.  The 
desbe  ne  had  to  ease^  the  people  in  their  taxes,  procured 
him  during  his  life,  but  much  more  after  his  death,  the 
title  of  father  of  the  people.  He  merited  this  title  stttt 
more,  by  the  care  he  took  to  reform  the  administration  oi 
justice.  Most  of  the  judges  were  venal,  and  the  poor, 
and  those  who  had  no  support,  could  never  obtain  justice^ 
when  their  opposers  were  either  powerful  or  rich.    Another 

»f  A  W  B  O  1  S  t. 

net  \tt^  endrmous  troubled  th^  kingdom;  kW^^suiii' 
were  spun  out  to  such  a  length,  were  so  eicpensit^c,' Wfd 
ac4:oaipanied  by  so  much  trick  and  chicanery,  that  most 
people  rather  chose  to  abandon  tlieir  rights  than  engage  ih 
the  recovery  of  them  by  suits  wjiich  had  no  prospect  of 
eomifig  to  an  end.  D'Amboise  resolved  to  remedy  thi^ 
abuse.  He  called  to  his  assistance  many  lawyers  and  ci- 
vilian^, the  most  learned  and  of  the  greatest  integrity; 
and  charged  them  to  form  a  plan,  by  which  justice  might 
be  administered  without  partiality,  the  duration  of  law* 
suits  abridged  and  retidered  less  ruinous,  and  the  corrupt 
tion  of  the  judges  prevented.  When  these  commissionerar 
had  made  their  report,  d^Amboise  undertook  the  laboriouis 
task  of  examimng  into  the  changes  tfa^y  had  proposed  in 
the  old  laws,  and  tjie  new  regulations  they  desigtied  to 
establish ;  and  after  having  made  some  changes,  these  view 
iregttlations  w^re  published  throughout  the  kingdom.  As-  - 
he  was  governor  of  Normandy,  he  made  a  progress  through 
that  province  for  the  express  purpose  of  seeing  his  nev# 
code  properly  established.  * 

AMBOISE' (James  d*),  a  brother  of  the  preceding 
Francis  and  Adrian,  followed  his  father's  profession,  that 
of  medicine,  and  obtained  a  doctor's  degree  in  1594.  Aftef 
Benry  IV.  had  reduced  Paris  to  its  loyalty  and  submission, 
Ambeise  became  rector  of  the  university,  which  Cr^vi^i* 
says  he  found  in  great  decay  and  disorder,  add  which  hef 
left  in  a  renovated  and  flourishing  state:  He  began  by 
making  the  members  of  the  university  take  an  oath  of  al^ 
}egiance  to  Henry  IV.  He  afterwarrds  supportefd  the  uni- 
versity in  the  law-suit  with  the  Jesuits,  which  was  giverf 
against  the  latter,  and  they  were  e^gpelled ;  Jie  even  ac-* 
eused  them  of  being  enemies  to  the  Saliqtie  law,  and  tor 
the  royal  family.  He  died  of  the  plague  in  1606.  Hisr 
only  works  are,  ,**  Orationes  duje,"  against  the  Jesuits, 
Paris,  1595,  8vo,  and  "  Questionesr Medicales,'*  mentioned 
in  CjH^rere's  *'  Bibliotheque  de  la  Medicine."  Haller  at- 
tributes other  medical  treatises  to  one  of  the  same  name, 
but  does  not  notice  the  "  Questiones."  ' 

AMBOISE  (Michael  d'),  a  miscellaneous  French  writer, 
who,  in  his  works,  assumed  the  title  of  signior  de  Che- 
idlion,  was  the  natural,  son  of  Chaumont  d'Amboide,  aid-- 

1  Oen.  Dictv— Moreri.— Life,  by  the  Abbe  l^  Oendre,  1791,  4lo,«Dd1l  voli«r 

|8ino.    His  Letters  to  Lewis  XIL  were  printed  at  Brnssels,  171^  4  roU,  Ij^ipOa^ 

^-  ae««  Bict-^Bioip.  UaiTeneUe^-^Maoget  Bibl.-^H&lJer  Bibl.  Med.        ^^ 

A  M  B-  O  I  "S  E.  '  f« 

miralof  Fhuiee>  and  Uentenafit^geiidral  in  Lombardy.  He 
was  born  at  Naples  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  cen^ 
tary,  and  was-  educated  witsh  the  legitimate  son  of  hii 
father,  but  the  latter  died  suddenly,  in  1511,  before  he 
had  mode  any  promion  for  MichaeL  He  then  went  to 
Paris,  and  was  intended  for  the  profession  of  the  law,  but 
was  so  attached  to  poetry,  although  his  lirst  performances 
were  unsuccessful,  that  heponld  not  beprerailed  onto 
study  law,  'and  his  friends  abandoned  him,  *He  married 
also  imprudently,  and  his  accumalated  disappointments 
and  distresses  are  suppOMd tohave  shoiftened^his life.  Hd 
4ied  in  1547.  Niceron  has  giten  a  large  catalogue  of  hia 
works,  all  nottrinally  poetical,  tbut  withckit  any  character^* 
istios  of  the  art^.  and  which-  probably  procured  him  somts 
small  degree  of  r^p«iatidn,  chiefly  from  the  rapidity  wiA 
which  he  wroto  and 'published.  ^  ' 

AMBROGI  (AOTorwE  Marie),  an  eminent  Italianf  scho^ 
lar,  was  born  at  Florenco^June  13, 1713;  and  died  at'Rbm6 
in  1788,  where  he  had-  beett  professor  of  eloquence  for 
tiiirty  years  with  great  reputation.     Most  of  the  present 
Italialn.  literati  are  indebted  to  him  for  their  taste  for  study 
and  the  happy  manner  in  which  he  taught  them  to  employ 
theic  talents.     He  pidriished  a  ^^  Translation  of  Virgil  into 
blank  verse,'^  of  which  thf^  edition  printed  at  Rome,  8  vols* 
fel.  176S,  a  most  swperb  book,  fes  very  scajrce :  he  trans- 
lated likewise  some  qf  the  tragedies  of  Voltaire,  Florencei 
1752^  and  a  selection  o^  Cicero^s  epistles;  he  published 
a  Latin 'oratioH  on  the  election  of  Joseph  II.  to  be  king  of 
the  Boixtans ;  but  be  is  pfrincipally  known  for  the  **  Mu* 
seum  Kicheranum,"   in iJ^  yols.  folio,   1765.     The  care  of 
this  valuable  museum:  Wa^  )6ng  confided  to  him,  and  h^ 
prevailed  Uport  the  learned  cardinal  De  Zelada  to  enrich  it 
by  his  coileettons.     He  feft  in  manuscript,  a  Latin  poem 
pn  the  cultivation  of  the  Idmon-tree.     One  other  publica- 
tion ^remains,  to  b^  noticed^  his  traneJation  of  the  Jesuit 
Noq8ti*8'iwo  poems  oil  the  Ir»is  and  the  Aurora  Bore^lis^ 
which  were  printed  in  the,  same  magnificfent  manner  wiA. 
bis  Virgil.  *  '  • 

AMBROGIOy  or  AMBR9SIUS  (THESEtrs),  a  learned 
kalianorieiiialist^  v^as-bbrn  in  1469,'a  descendant  of  the 
noble  family  of  the  counts  of  Albanese.  At  fifteen  mOfithj^ 
be  is  said  to  have  ^pokeq.  his  native  language  with  facility. 

4   «.•«.,•• 

I  Miog;  Vuivertelltf.— Gen,  Diet.  •  Bio(;  Uniyerselle.— Diet.  Historiqus. 


and  ftt  fifteen  ^ars^,  to  have  spoken  and  written  Ghreek  and 
Latin  with  a  {»ron]()titude  equal  to  the  best  schohirs  of  bis 
time.  He  entered  young  into  the  order  of  regular  canons 
of  St.  John  of  Lateran^  but  did  not  come  to  Rome  until 
1512,  at  tiie  opening  of  the  fifdi  session  of  the  Lateran 
council.  The  great  number  of  ecclesiastics  from  Syria, 
£thiopia»  and  o^er  parts  of.  the  East,  who  attended  that 
iBOunciiy  afforded  him  an  opportunity  of  prosecuting  his 
studies  with  advantage  :  and  at  the  r<9{uest  of  the  cardinal 
Santa  Croce^  he  was  employed  as  the  person  best  qualified 
to  translate  from  the  Chaldean  into  Latin  the  liturgy  of 
jtlie  eastern  clerg^^,  previously  to  the  use  of  it  being  ex- 
pressly sanctioned  l^  the  pope.  After  having  been  em^ 
ployed  by  Leo  X*  for  two  years  in  giving  instxuctions  in 
JLatin  to  the  subdeacon  Elias,  a  legate  from  Syria  to  the 
council^  whom  the  pope  wished  to  retain  in  his  court,  and 
from  whom  Ambrogio  received  in  return  instructions  in  the 
Syrian  tongue,  he  was  appointed  by  the  pontiff  to  a  pro* 
fessor's  chair  in  the  university  of  Bologna,  where  he  de- 
livered instructions  in  the  Syriac  and  Chaldaic  languages 
fqr  the  first  time  that  they  had  been  publicly  taught  in  Italy. 
He  is  said  to  have  understood  no  less  than  eighteen  lan- 
guages, many  of  which  he  spoke  with  the  ease  and  fluency 
of  a  native ;  but  from  the  letter  quoted  by  Mazauchelli,  it 
appears  more  probable  that  he  was  master  of  at  lea$$t  ten 
languages,  and  understood  many  others  partially.  In  the 
commotions  which  devastated  luity  after  the  death  of  Leo  X^ 
Ixe  was  despoiled  in  1527  of  the  numerous  and  valuable 
eastern  manu^pipts,  Chaldean,  Hebrew,  and  Greek,  which 
he  had  collected  by  the  industry  of  many  years,  and  of  the 
lypes  and  apparatus  which  he  had  prepared  for  an  edition 
of  the  Psalter  in  the  Chaldean,  accompanied  with  a  disser- 
tation  on  that  language.  He  afterwards,  however,  came 
to  Venice,  in  the  prosecution  of  this  object;  and,  in  1539^ 
published  at  Pavia,  his  *'  Introduction  to  the  Chaldean, 
Syrian,  Armenian^  and  ten  other  tongues,  with  the  alpha- 
Jbetical  characters  of  about  forty  different  languages,'*'  4t09 
which  is  considered  by  the  Italians  themselves  as  the 
Earliest  attempt  made  in  Italy  towards  a  systematic  ac- 
quaintance with  the  literature  of  the  East,  H^  died  the 
year  following.  * 

A  M  fi  R  O  S  S.  hi 


AMBROSE  (Sr.)  one  of  the  most  eminent  fathers  of 
the  church,  was  by  descent  a  citizen  of  Rome,  but  bora 
at  Aries,  in  France,  then  the  metropolis  of  Gallia  Nar« 
bonensis,  in  the  year  333,  according  to  Cave,  or  ac- 
cording to  Du  Pin,  in  the  year  340.  His  father  was  the 
emperor's  lieutenant  in  that  district ;  one  of  the  highest 
places  of  trust  and  honour  in  the  Roman  empire.  Am- 
brose was  the  youngest  of  three  children,  Marcellina  and 
Satyrus  being  born  before  him.  After  his  father's  death, 
his  mother,  with  thelfamily,  returned  to  Rome,  where  he 
made  himself  master  of  all  the  learning  that  Greece  and 
Rom^  could  afford  ;  and  at  the  same  time  profited  in  re- 
ligion by  the  pious  instructions  of  his  sister  Marcellina, 
who  had  devoted  herself  to  a  state  of  virginity.  Wh6n 
grownup,  he  pleaded  causes  with  so  much  ability,  as  to 
acquire  the  good  opinion  of  Anicius  Probus,  pretorian 
prefect,  or  emperor's  lieutenant  in  Italy,  who  made  choice 
of  him  to  be  of  his  council ;  and  having  authority  to  ap- 
point governors  to  several  provinces,  he  gave  Ambrose 
one  of  these  commissious,  saying :  ^^  Go,  and  govern  more 
like  a  bishop  than  a  judge.''  In  this  office,  Ambrose  re- 
aided  at  Milan  for  five  years,  and  was  applauded  for  his 
»  prudence  and  justice;  but  his  pursuit  of  this  profession 
was  interrupted  by  a  singular  event,  which  threw  him 
into  a  course  of  life  for  which  he  had  made  no  preparation, 
and  bad  probably  never  thought  of,  and  for  which  he  was 
no  otherwise  qualified  than  by  a  character  irreproachable 
in  civil  life,  and  improved  by  the  pious  instructions  of  hia 

In  the  year  374,  Auxentius,  bishop  of  Milan,  died,  and 
immediately  the  bishops  of  the  province  met  together  to 
elect  a  successor.  The  emperor,  Valentinian,  sent  for 
them,  and  told  them,  that  they,  as  men  acquainted  with  th^ 
scriptures,  ought  to  understand  better  than  himself  the 
qualifications  necessary  for  so  important  a  station ;  that 
they  should  chuse  a  man  fit  to  instruct  by  life  as  well  a$ 
4k>ctrine,  in  which  casoj  he  (the  emperor)  would  readily 
submit  his  sceptre  to  his  counsel  and  directions;  and, 
conscious  that  he  was  liable  to  human  frailty,  would  re- 
ceive his  reproofs  and  admonitions  as  wholesome  physic. 
The  bishops,  however,  requested  his  majesty  to  nominate 
the  person,  but  Valentinian  persisted  in  leaving  the  de- 
cision W  their  choice.  This  was  at  a  time  when  factions 
werf  sttbng,  acid  wlien- the  Ariaa  party  were  very  desirous 
Vol.  IL  >G 


o£  Meeting  one  of  \heir  number.  The  city,  accordingly, 
was  divided,  and  a  tumult  seemed  approaching,  when  An»« 
brose,  as  a  magistrate,  hastened  to  the  church  of  Milan^ 
and  exhorted  the  people  to  peace  and  submission  to  the 
laws.  On  concluding  his  speech,  an  infant's  voice  in  the 
crowd  was  heard  to  say  :  "  Ambrose  is  bishop  ;"  and  im- 
mediately the  whole  assembly  exclaimed  :  ^'  Let  Ambrose 
be  bishop,"  a  decision  in  which  the  contending  factions 
agreed  unanimQusly. 

Ambrose,  in  the  greatest  astonishment,  endeavoured^  to 
refuse  the  offer,  and  afterwards  took  some  measures  of  ah 
Extraordinary,  and  certainly  unjustifiable  nature,  to  evade 
the  office.     By  exercising  unnecessary  severity  on  some 
hialefactprs,  he  endeavoured  to  give  the  people  a  notion 
of  his  savage  and  unchristian  temper ;  and  by  encouraging 
strumpets  to  come  to  his  house,  he  thought  to  obtain  the 
character  of  a  man  pf  loose  life.     This  singular  species  of 
bypocrisy,  however,  was  easily  detected.     He  had  then 
no  other  means  left  to  prove  his  repugnance  to  the  pro- 
fered  office  of  bishop,  than  by  retiring  from  Milan ;  but, 
mistaking  his  way,  he  was  apprehended  by  the.  guardjt, 
and  confined  until  the  emperor's  pleasure  should  be  known, 
without  which  no  subject  could  leave  his  office.     Valen- 
tinian  immediately  consented ;  but  Ambrose  again  made 
his  escape,  and  did  not  return  until  it  was  declared  cri* 
minal  to  conceal  him.     He  then,  with  great  reluctance, 
entered  upon  his  new  office,  in  the  thirty -fourth  year  of 
his  age. 

The  first  step  he  took,  which  probably  confirmed  the 
good  opinion  to  which  he  owed  his  election,  was  to  give 
to  the  church  and  to  the  poor  all  his  personal  property, 
aud  his  lands  in  reversion,  after  the  deatli  of  his  sister 
Marcellina.  '  His  family  he  committed  to  the  care  of  liis 
brother  Satyrus.  He  now  applied  himself  to  the  study,  of 
theology,  under  Simptician,  a  presbyter  of  Rome,  a  maoi 
of  great  learning  and  piety,  whom  he  invited  to  Milan^ 
and  who  was  afterwards  his  successor  in  that  see.  His 
studies  he  pursued  with  ardour  and  perseverance ;  but  it 
has  been  uniformly  regretted  that  he  made  the  workS  of  the 
fanciful  Origen  so  much  the  object  of  his  study,  for  to  this 
all  the  extravagant  opinions  in  his  writings  may  be  referred^ 
He  soon,  however,  commenced  preacher,  and  officiated  every 
Sunday,  and  as  head  of  the  church  of  Milan,'  he  Iflpboured 
Unremittingly  in  discouraging  the  Arian  heresy  in  Italy,  in 

A  M  B  RO  S  E.  :$i 

which,  it  will  soon  appear,  he  would  have  made  little- 
progress,  had  he  not  been  endowed  with  an  uncommon 
share  of  heroic  firmness. 

In  his  general  conduct  he  was  distinguished  for  his  sin-^ 
cerity,  charity,  and  piety,  but  he  could  not  withstand  all 
the  superstitious  practices  of  his  time.  His  encomium^  on 
virginity  were  certainly  extravagant  and  pernicious.  Thii 
has  been  attributed  to  the  little  acquaintance  he  had  with 
the  scriptures  before  his  ordination,  and  to  the  influence 
of  his  sister  Marcellina,  a  zealous  devotee,  to  whom  he 
was  aflectioiiately  attached,  and  who  had  received  the  veil 
from  the  hands  of  pope  Liberius.  He  wrote  several  trea- 
tises on  tbi^  subject,  and  attempted  to  reduce  the  rules  of 
it  to  a  kind  of  system,  and  probably  induced  many  young 
women,  who  might  otherwise  have  been  ornaments  of  sp- 
tiety,  to  become  the  victims  of  solitary  restraint,  and 
fanciful  continence.  In  other  respects  he  inculcated  the 
essentials  of  Christianity  with  fervour  and  success,  and 
uniformly  practised  its  virtues.  When  the  ravages  of  the 
Goths  afforded  him  aii  opportunity  to  exercise  his  libe- 
rality, he  scrupled  not  to  apply  the  vessels  of  the  church 
-to  redeem  captives,  and  vindicated  himself  against  those 
who  censured  bis  conduct.  In  the  instruction  of  catechu* 
mens,  he  was  remarkably  indefatigable,  and  his  character 
rose  to  such  estimation,  that  his  person  was  supposed  to 
be  sacredly  guarded.  Some  stories  to  this  effect  are  re- 
lated in  his  life  by  Paulinus,  which  perhaps  may  not  now 
obtain  credit.  On  one  occasion,  when  a  woman  in- 
sulted him,  he  told  her  that  '^  she  ought  to  fear  the  judg- 
ment of  God,"  and  she  died  next  day*  On  another 
occasion,  when  two  Arians,  of  the  court  of  Gratian^  in- 
tended to  pass  a  ridicule  upon  him^  they  were  both  thrown 
from  their  hor^s,  and  died  before  they  could  accpmplish 
their  purpose.  These  stories,  questionable  or  not>  at  least 
show  the  veneration  paid  to  his  character,  while  a  modern 
reader  is  left  to  draw  what  other  inference  he  pleases* 

His  steady  adherence  to  the  Catholic  doctrine  of  the 
Trinity,  in  opposition  particularly  to  the  Arians,  induced 
him  to  take  very  active  measures,  and  involved  him  in 
much  trouble.  About  the  year  'SSI,  he  condemned,  in  a 
council  held  at  Aquileia,  Palladius  and  Secundianus,  two 
Arian  bishop's,  and  the  chief  supporters  of  that  heresy  in 
the  west,  and  they  were  formally  deposed.  Justina,  the 
empress^  waii  a  decided  patroness  of  Arianism^  and  after 

<5  2 


the  death  of  her  husband,  she  endeavoured  to  instil  those 
principles  into  her  son  Valentinian,  and  to  induce  him  to 
threaten  Ambrose,  who  exhorted  him  to  support  the  docr 
trine  received  from  the  Apostle's.  In  a  rage  the  young 
emperor  ordered  his  guards  to  surround  the  church,  and 
commanded  Ambrose  to  come  out  of  it ;  but  when  the 
latter  told  him,  that  although  his  life  was  in  his  hands,  he 
could  not  obey  such  an  order,  Valentinian  desisted,  and 
Justina  was  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  more  secret  hos- 
tilities,  dreading,  probably,  the  people,  who  were  gene- 
rally inclined  to  support  their  bishop. 

About  this  time  Ambrose  had  to  contend  with  an  attempt 
of  another  kind.  The  Pagans,  taking  advantage  of  the 
minority  of  Valentinian,  and  the  confusions  of  the  empire^ 
endeavoured  to  recover  their  ancient  establishment.  The 
senate  of  Rome  contained  still  a  considerable  proportion 
of  Gentiles,  and  many  of  the  great  families  piqued  them- 
selves on  their  constancy,  and  contempt  for  the  innovations 
of  Christianity.  Symmachus,  one  of  their  number,  a  man 
of  great  learning  and  powers  of  eloquence,  applied  to  the 
emperor  for  permission  to  restore  the  altar  of  victory  to  the 
senate-hou^e.  Ambrose  immediately  discerned  that  this  was 
a  request  for  something  more  than  toleration.  ^^  If,''  said  he, 
in  his  letter  to  Valentinian,  *'  he  is  a  Pagan  who  offers  )'ou 
this  advice,  let  him  give  the  same  liberty  which  he  takes  him- 
self. You  compel  no  man  to  worship  what  he  does  not  ap- 
prove. Here  the  whole  senate,  as  far  as  it  is  Christian,  is 
endangered.  Every  senator  takes  his  oath  at  the  altar;  and 
every  person  who  is  obliged  to  appear  before  the  senate 
upon  oath,  takes  his  Oath  in  the  same  manner.  The  di- 
vinity of  the  false  gods  is  evidently  allowed  by  the  practice, 
and  Christians  are  by  these  means  obliged  to  endure  a 
persecution."  The  address  of  Symmachus,  with  Am- 
brose's reply,  are  still  extant ;  but  Ambrose  was  success- 
ful, and  lived  to  defeat  Symmachus  when  he  made  a 
second  attempt,  in  the  reign  of  Theodosius. 

Still,  however,  Justina,  the  empress,  continued  his 
enemy,  although  he  had,  by  his  talents  in  negociation, 
averted  for  a  time  the  invasion  of  Italy  from  the  court  of 
Milan.  In  the  year  386,  she  procured  a  law  to  enable  the 
Arian  congregations  to  assemble  without  interruption  ; 
and  Auxentius,  a  Scythian,  of  the  same  name  with  the 
Arian  predecessor  of  Ambrose,  was  now  introduced,  under 
the  protection  of  the  empress^  into  Milan.     He  challenged 


Ambrose  to  hold  a  disputation  with  him  in  the  emperor^s 
court,  but  the  latter  denied  that  it  was  any  part  of  the 
emperor's  business  to  decide  on  points  of  doctrine ;  add- 
ii)g,  '^  Let  him  come  to  church,  and  upon  hearing,  let 
the  people  judge  for  themselves ;  and  if  they  like  Auxen- 
tius  better,  let  them  take  him  ;  but  they  have  already  de- 
clared their  sentiments."  Auxentius  then  demanded  that 
a  party  of  soldiers  might  be  sent  to  secure  for  himself  the 
possession  of  the  church  called  Basilica ;  and  it  was  re- 
presented as  a  very  unreasonable  thing,  that  the  emperor 
should  not  be  allowed  one  place  of  worship  agreeable  to 
his  conscience.  This,  however,  was  not  the  fair  question, 
for  the  emperor,  if  he  chose  to  exert  his  authority,  might 
have  commanded  any,  or  all  the  churches*  The  fact 
was,  that  Ambrose  was  now  requested  to  do  what  be  could 
not  do  conscientiously;  namely,  by  his  own  deed  to  resign  a 
church  into  the  hands  of  the  Arians,  and  thereby,  indi- 
rectly at  least,  acknowledge  their  creed.  He  therefore 
refused,  telling  the  officers  that  if  the  emperor  had  de- 
manded his  house  or  land,  money  or  goods,  he  would 
have  freely  resigned  them,  but  that  he  could  not  deliver 
up  that  which  was  committed  to  his  care.  And  although 
another  attempt  was  made  to  obtain  forcible  possession  6( 
one  or  two  churches,  and  violent  commotions  were  about 
to  ensue,  Ambrose  persisted  in  his  principles  of  duty,  and 
his  resistance  was  effectual. 

Notwithstanding  this  weight  of  personal  character,  which 
crushed  every  attempt  of  his  enemies,  we  find  some  ac« 
counts  of  superstitious  practices  upon  record,  which  it  is 
difficult  to  reconcile  to  his  general  conduct.  Being  called 
upon  by  the  people  to  consecrate  a  new  church,  he  an- 
swered that  he  would  comply,  if  he  could  find  any  relics 
of  martyrs  there,  and  we  are  told  that  it  was  reve^aled  to 
him  in  a  vision  at  night,  in  what  place  he  might  find  the 
reliqs ;  but  this  last  circumstance  is  not  to  be  found  in  the 
epistle  which  he  writes  on  the  subject.  He  describes, 
however,  the  finding  the  bodies  of  two  martyrs,  Protasius, 
and  Gervasius  ;  the  supposed  miracles  wrought  on  the  oc- 
casion ;  the  dedication  of  the  church  ;  the  triumph  of  the 
orthodox';  and  the  confusion  of  Arianism.  If  these  mi- 
racles were  not  real,  we  know  not  how  to  exculpate  Am- 
brose from  at  least  conniving  at  the  imposture,  or  being 
deluded  himselfi  neither  of  whicb  are  very  consistent  with 

S6  AM  BR  O  8  E. 

the  strength  of  understanding  and  independence  of  mtud 
which  he  displayed  on  other  occasions. 

The  hews  of  Mas^imus^s  intention  to  invade  Italy  ar- 
riving at  this  time  (387),  Justina  condescended  to  employ 
Ambrose  again  on  an  embassy  to  the  usurper,  which  he 
cheerfully  undertook,  and  executed  with  great  fortitude, 
but  it  was  not  in  his  power  to  stop  the  progress  of  the 
enemy.  Theodosius,  who  reigned  in  the  east,  coming  at 
length  to  the  assistance  of  Valentinian,  put  an  end  to  the 
usurpation,  and  the  life  of  Maximus,  and  by  his  means 
the  young  emperor  was  induced  to  forsake  his  mother's 
principles,  and  to  embrace  those  of  Ambrose.  After  his 
death,  in  the  year  392,  Ambrose  composed  a  funeral  ora- 
tion to  his  praise,  in  which  he  seems  to  believe  the  real 
conversion  of  his  royal  pupil.  The  oration  is  not  worthy 
of  Ambrose,  and  perhaps  the  best  excuse  that  can  be 
made  for  him,  is  that  he  praised-one  when  dead,  whom  he 
never  flattered  when  living. 

A  more  unpardonable  instance  of  his  weakness  occurred 
at  the  beginning  of  the  reign .  of  Theodosius.  This  em- 
peror, from  a  sense  of  justice,  ordered  some  Christians  to 
rebuild,  at  their  own  expence,  a  Jewish  synagogue,  which 
they  had  tumultuously  pulled  down*  But  Ambrose  pre- 
vailed on  him  to  set  aside  this  sentence,  from  a  mistaken 
notion,  that  Christianity  should  not  be  obliged  to  contri- 
bute to  the  erection  of  a  Jewish  synagogue.  His  eloquence 
on  this  occasion  was,  as  usual,  vigorous,  but  must  surely 
have  been  used  in  support  of  arguments  that  could  be  lis- 
tened to  only  in  an  age  of  remarkable  superstition.  Am- 
brose appears,  however,  to  more  advantage  in  another 
transaction  with  the  emperor  Theodosius,  of  a  very  ex- 
traordinary kind.  At  Thessalonica  a  tumult  happened 
among  the  populace,  and  one  of  the  emperor's  officers 
was  murdered.  Theodosius,  who  was  of  a  passionate 
temper,  ordered  the  sword  to  be  employed.  Ambrose  in- 
terceded, and  the  emperor  promised  forgiveness ;  but  the 
great  officem  of  his  court  persuaded  him  to  sign  a  warrant 
for  military  execution,  and  seven  thousand  persons  were 
massacred  in  three  hours,  without  trial  or  distinction. 

Ambrose  immediately  wrote  a  letter  to  Theodosius,  in  which, 
be  stated  his  own  duty,  and  the  emperor's  crime,  and  refused 
to  admit  him  into  the  church  at  Milan.  The  emperor 
jlloading  the  qa^  of  |)avid,  Apibrose  desired  bin)  to  i.mif 

AMBROSE;.  19 

t^e  David  in  his  nepentance  as  wdl  as  in  hu  tin,  and  k^ 
acccnrdingly  submitted,  and  kept  from  'the  churofa  eight 
inontbs,  nor  was  he  at  last  admitted  without  signs  of  peni«^ 
tence,  and  the  performance  of  public  penance.  One  coiji* 
dition  which  Ambrose  imposed  cannot  be  mentioned  witlit 
out  approbation ;  it  was,  that  the  emperor  should  suspend 
the  execution  of  capital  warrants,  for  thirty  days,  in  order 
that  the  mischiefs  of  intemperate  anger  might  be  pre* 
vented.  Although  in  these  public  penances  we  see  more 
of  superstition  than  real  compunction,  and  perhaps  what, 
might  now  be  reckoned  an  immoderate  exercise  of  epis* 
copal  power,  yet  it  is  probable  in  the  then  state  of  society, 
l^heodosius  lost  nothing  by  submission  in  the  case  of  so 
flagrant  a  crime,  nor  Ambrose  by  performing  what  not 
only  he  conceived,  but  was  then  acknowledged,  to  be  his 

8uch  are  the  outlines  of  the  life  of  this  eminent  father,* 
which  might  have  perhaps  been  filled  up  with  many  col- 
lateral events  in  which  he  was  partially  concerned;  but 
for  these  our  readers  may  be  referred  to  Cave,,  in  his  lives 
of  the  fathers,,  and  other  ecclesiastical  historians.  Some  of 
these,  indeed,  seem  inclined  to  depreciate  his  character 
by  a  common  error,  of  estimating  the  characters  of  distant 
and  dark  ages  by  the  opinions  which  now  prevail,  and  in 
this  they  have  been  followed  by  all  who  are, hostile  to.  ec-' 
clesiastical  establishments. 

It  remains  that  we  conclude  this,  article  with  a  short, 
notice  of  his  death*  In  the' year  392,  Valentinian  the 
emperor  being  assassinated  by  the  contrivance  of  Argo- 
bastus,  and  Eugenius  Msitrping  the  empire^  Ambrose  was 
obliged  to  leave  Milan,  but  returned  the  year  following, 
when  Eugenius  was  defeated.  He  died  at  Milan  the  4th 
of  April,  397  ;  and  was  buried  in  the  great  church  at  Mi^ 
Ian.  He  wrote  several  works,  the  most  considerable  of 
which  is  that  **  De  officiis,"  a<liscourse,  divided  intotfafae 
books,  upon  the  duties  of  the  clergy.  It  appears  to  have 
been  written  several  years  after  he  had  been  bishop,  send 
very  probably  about  the  year  390  or  391,  when  peace  was 
restored  to  the  church,  after  the  death  of  the  tyrant 
Maximus.  He  has  imitated  in  these  three  books  the  design 
and  disposition  of  Cicero's  piece  De  ofEciis.  He  confirms, 
says  Mr.  Du  Pin,  the  good  maxims  which  that  orator  has 
advanced,  he  corrects  tbos^  which  are  imperfect,  he.  re-s 

91  A  M  B  R  O  a  ]& 

{oitdft  those  which  are  fstbe,  and  ^ds  a  gi^edt  many 
ftth^is  which  are  more  excellent,  pure,  an4  elevated. 
He  is  concise  and  seateniious  in  his  manner  of  wilting^ 
and  full  of  turns  of  wit ;  his  terms  are  well  chosen,  and 
his  expressions  noble,  and  he  diversifies  his  subjects  by 
in  admirable  copiousness  of  thought  and  language.  He  is 
Tery  ingenious  in  giving  an  easy  and  natural  turn  to  every 
thing  he  treats, .  and  is  frequently  iK)t  without  strength  and 
pathos;  This  is  part  of  the  character  which  Du  Pin  gives 
him  as  a  writer ;  but  Erasmus  tells  us  that  he  has  many 
quaint  and  affected  sentences^  and  is  frequently  very  obh* 
scure ;  and  it  is  certain  that  his  writings  are  intermixed 
with  many  strange  and  peculiar  opinions ;  derived,  as  we 
have  already  remarked,  from  his  early  attachment  to  the 
manner  of  Origen.  He  maintained,  thai;  all  men  indif* 
ferently  are  to  pass  through  a  fiery  trial  at  the  last  day  ; 
that  even  the  just  are  to  suffer  it,  and  t(y  be  purged  from 
their  sins,  but  the  unjust  are  to  continue  i<>  for  ever  ;  that 
the  faithfiil  will  be  raised  gradually  at  the  last  day,  ac- 
Gcnrdiug  to  the  degree  of  their  particular  merit ;  that  the 
bow  which  God  promised  Noah  to  place  iti  the  firmament 
after  the  deluge,  as  a  sign  that  he  never  intended  to  drown 
the  world  again,  was  not  to  be  understocki  of  the  rainbow, 
which  can  nev<er  appear  in  the  night,  but  some  visible 
token  of  the  Almighty »  He:  carries  the  esteem  of  virginity 
and  celibacy  so  far,  that  he  seems^  to  regard  matrimony  as 
an  indecent  thing.  But  it  inust  be  observed  with  regard 
to  all  those  selections  of  opinions,  that  great  injustice  baa 
been  done  to  his  memory  by  friuds  and  interpolations,  anj 
•ntire  works  have  been  attn^tited  t6  blm,  which  he  never, 
wrote.  His  wprks^  indeed,  are  divided  into,  1.  Those 
diat  are  genuine.  2.  Those  that  are  doubtfhl:  3.  Those 
that  are  fictitious:  and  4.*  Those  that  are  not  extant. 
PauUnus',  viik>  was  his  amanuensis,  wrote  his  life,  and 
dedicated  it  to  St.  Augustin  ;  it  is  prdixed  to  St.  Ambrose^S 
works }  the  best  edition  of  which  is  reckoned  to  be  that 
piiblished  by  the  benedictine  monks,  in  two  volumes  itt 
folio,  at  Paris^  in  1686,  and  1690.  His  life  was  also  pub- 
lished in  167a,  by  Godfrey  Herment.  * 

AMBROSE,  deacon  of  Alexandria,  the  intimate  friend 
md  admirer  of  Origen,  was  a  .man  of  great  learning  and 

1  Cavf's  Uy«t  of  the  Fi^tiicrs^— Milpec!ft  <%urok  ^ji^.  vol.  II.  p.  ji73«*«9dflu 
iffoshelm.— Ge^»  Diet.'— Saxil  Obomasticoii. 

AM  B  ft  O  S  2^.  §i 

^  « 

jpietyv  and .  worthy-  of  being  recorded,  although  his  his- 
loiy  has  not  in  all  particulars  been  exactly  ascertainecf. 
Eusebius  says  that  he  followed  the  Valentinian  heresy^, 
but  was  brought  ov«r  to  orthodoxy  by  the  preaching^  of 
Origen.  St.  Jerome  says  that  he  was  at  first  a  Marcionite^ 
but  being  convinced  of  his  error  by  Origen,  he  became  i 
deacon  of  the  church,  and  had  the  honour  of  suffering  for 
Christ,  as  a  confessor.  To  him,  he  adds,,  and  to  Protoc^ 
tetus,  Origen  inscribed  his  book  on  Martyrdom,  and  de- 
dicated to  him  many  other  volumes  which  were  published 
at  his  desire  and  expence.  Ambrose  was  a  man  of  a  good 
femily,  and  of  considerable  wit,  as  his  letters  to  Origen 
show..  He  died  before  Origen,  and  is  blamed  by  many, 
because,,  though  he  was  rich,  he  did  not  at  his  death  re- 
member his  friend,  who  was  not  only  poor,  but  in  hi* 
old  age. 

Of  these  two  accounts  of  Ambrose*s  first  opinions,  Di*, 
Lardner  prefers  that  of  Eusebius,  and  thinks  that  Ambrose*!^ 
conversion  from  the  heresy  of  Valentin  us,  tookjilace 
about  the  year  212.  Eusebius  says  nothing  of  his  being  a 
deacon  of  the  church  of  Alexandria,  which  we  have  named 
him,  and  Dr.  Lardner  is  inclined  to  think  he  held  tha:t 
office  in  the  church  of  Caesarea.  Origen,  in  a  letter  of 
which  a  fragment  only  remains,  calls  him  '^  a  man  indeed 
devoted  to  God,'^  and  speaks  of  his  earnest  desire  to  un- 
derstaivd  the- scriptures,  and  of  his  great  application  to 
them.  He  had  a  wife,  named  Marcella,  by  whom  he  had 
several  children ;  she  is  commended  by  Origen  as  a  true 
Christian,  and. faithful  wife.  Eusebius  also  informs  us, 
that  Ambrose  was  the  person  who  excited  Origen  to  write 
commentaries  upon  the  scriptures,  and  that  not  only  h^ 
words  and  entreaties,  but  by  supplies  of  all  things  neces* 
tary,  furnishing  him  with  amanuenses,  whom  he  paid  li- 
berally. With  respect  to  his  bequQatbing  nothing  to 
Origen^  Tillemont  thinks  that  Ambrose  knew  his  friend'a 
mind,  and  that  Origen  chose  to  be  poor,  and  to  live  in  a 
dep^idence  on  providence.  St.  Jerome  speaks  of  Am- 
brose's *'  Epistles ;''  but  there  are  none  of  them  extant. 
It  appears  by  the  best  conjectures,  that  he  lived  nearly  to 
the  yoar  250.  ^ 

AMBROSE,  a  monk,  and  general  of  the  monks  of  Ca-. 
malduli,  was  born  in  1378,   at  Portico  in  the  Romagnai. 

■»  Oen.  Pict^^Lardner's.WorkSj  vol.  III.  p.  1S>1.— Moreru 


Eugene  IV.  sent  him  to  the  couocil  of  Basil,  where  he 
much  distinguished  himself,  as  well  as  at  those  of  Ferrara 
and  Florence.     He  acquired  a  high  degree  of  reputation 
by  his  profound  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language,   by 
his  uncommon  acquaintance  with  Grecian  literature,  b^ 
the  zeal   and  industry  he  discovered  in  the  attempts  be 
made  to  effectuate  a  reconciliation  between  the  Greek  and 
Latin  churches.    He  was  no  less  admired  for  his  candid  and 
liberal  spirit,  .  and  placid   and    serene  temper.     Having 
failed  in  an  attempt  to  reconcile  those  literary  rivals  Pog- 
gius  and  Valla,  he  told  them  that  men  who  m^atde  use  of 
abusive  language  could  not  be  supposed  to  possc^ss  either 
the  charity  of  Christians,  nor  the  politeness  of  men  of 
letters.,    His  talents  would  have  recommended  him  to  the 
purple,  which  the  pope  intended,  but  this  was  prevented 
by  his  death,  Oct  23,  1439.     He  was  employed,  by  order 
of  pope  Eugenius  IV.  to  reform  several  convents  of  both 
sexes,  which  had  become  irregular;  and  he  has  described 
the  result  of  his  labours  in  this  difficult  work  in  his  ^^  Ho« 
da^poricon,''  which  contains  particulars  of  the  behaviour 
of  the  inhabitants  of  those  convents,  which  he  found  it  ne- 
cessary to  express  in  Greek.  This  was  printed  at  Florence, 
14:$  1  and  1432,  4to,  both  scarce  editions,  and  1678,  Svo. 
The  other  works  of  this  learned  monk  were  Latin  transla- 
tions from  the  fathers.     Martenne,  in  his  ^'  Collectio  am* 
plissima,*^  has  published  twenty  hpoks  of  his  letters,  which, 
contain  many  curious  particulars  of  the  history  of  his  time. 
He  also  translated  Diogenes  Laertiusinto  Latin,  which  was 
printed  at  Venice,  1475,  and  is  a  book  of  great  price,  as 
being  prior  in  date  by  nearly  sixty  years  to  any  edition  of 
that  author. ' 

AMBROSE  DE  LoMB^z  (Pere),  a  pious  and  learned 
capuchin,  whose  family  name  was  la  Peirie,  was  born  at 
Lombez  in  1708^  and  died  the  25th  of  October  1778,  at 
St.  Saviour,  near  Bareges,  at  the  age  of  70.  His  order 
was  sensible  to  his  merit,  and  he  was  successively  pro- 
fessor of  theology,  guardian,  and  deiinitor.  His  tract  on 
^*  Inward  Peace,'*  and  his  "  Lettres  Spirituelles,'-  each 
in  one  vol^  12mo,  are  said  by  persons  of  his  communion, 
to  be  full  of  light  and  unction,  and  breathe  that  gende 
piety  that  characterised  their  author.  We  are  told  by  pere 
Mayeul,  that  he  had  great  talents  as  a  spiritual  director, 

^  Bios.  UQiverselk,*-Dict.  Hist.*-Gen.  Diet  in  Camaldoli-i— Moceru 

A  M  B  R  O  S  E.  fl 

%Tid  was  an  instrument  in  the  hand  of  God  for  converting 
sinners,  and  consoling  the  just.  Pere  Ambrose  had  hj 
nature  a  self«love  by  tar  too  sensible^  with  an  exuberance 
of  delicacy,  and  an  ardent  desire  of  public  esteem  :  but  an 
adherence  to  the  precepts  of  the  gospel  effectually  cured 
him  of  all  these  defects.  To  his  native  pride  he  opposed 
humility  and  self-contempt.  **  It  is  self-love/*  said  he, 
^^  that  corrupts  our  virtues,  and  spoils  our  happiness.  Of 
a  hundred  things  that  offend  us  in  society,  ninety*nine 
were  never  meant  to  offend.  But  pride  takes  all  things  in 
their  strictest  rigour."  "  Let  it  take  things,"  added  he, 
^  as  it  will ;  I  will  suffer  all.  If  they  should  spit  in  my 
iace,  have  I  not  a  handkerchief  to  wipe  it  off?"^ 

AMBROSE  (Isaac),  a  noted  presbyterian  teacher  in  the 
times  of  the  usurpation,  was  son  of  a  clergyman,  and  de-* 
scended  from  the  Ambroses  of  Ambrose-hall,  in  Lancashire* 
In  the  beginning  of  the  year  1621  he  was  admitted  of  Bra*' 
zen-nose  college  in  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of 
bachelor  of  arts.    Afterwards  he  went  into  holy  orders,  and 
officiated  in  some  little  cure  in  his  own  county.     Being  in 
very  low  circumstances,  he  was  often  obliged  to  the  bounty 
of  William  earl  of  Bedford  for  the  relief  of  himself  and  ia« 
mily.     Mr.  Wood  thinks  that  lord  procured  him  to  be 
inserted  in  the  list  of  his  majesty's  preachers,  appointed 
for  the  county  of  Lancaster.     Afterwards,  when  the  times 
changed,  in  1641,  he  left  the  church  of  England,  and  went 
over  to  the  presbyterian  party,  took  the  covenant^,  and 
became  a  preacher  at  Preston,  and^afterwards  at  Garstang, 
in  his  own  county.     He  was  very  zealous  and  very  active 
against  the  clergy  of  the  estabUshed  church,  especially 
after  he  was  appointed  assistant  to  the  commissioners  for 
ejecting  such  whom  they  called  scandalous  and  ignorant 
ministers  and  school- masters.     In  1662  he  was  ejected  for 
nonconformity.     It  was  usual  with  him  to  retire  every  year 
for  a  month,  into  a  little  hut  in  a  wood,  when  he  shunned 
all  society,  and  devoted  himself  to  religious  contemplation. 
He  had,  according  to  Calamy,  a  very  strong  impulse  on 
bis  mind  of  the  approach  of  death  :  and  took  a  formal  leave 
of  bis  friends  at  their  own  houses,  a  little  before  his  de^* 
parture>  and  the  last  night  of  his  life,  he  sent  his  **  Dis«< 
course  concerning  Angels,^'   to  the  press.    Next  day  be, 
-Aut  himself  up  in  his  parlour,  where,  to  the  surprise  and 

I  Qict,  Hist,— Bios.  UijmMUe, 



fegrct  of  bis  friebds^  he  wis  found  expiring.  The  time  of 
liis  death  is  sta4:ed  to  have  been  in  166S-4,  in  the  seventy- 
second  year  of  his  age,  but  at  the  bottom  of  the  portrait 
prefixed  to  bis  works,  is  the  inscription  "  aetat.  59.  1663.** 
This  cdntradictioD  has  not  been  reconciled  by  Granger. 
His  works  were  printed  in  a  large  folio  volume,  in  1674^ 
16S2,  and  )6S9,  and  often  since.  They  consist  of  pious 
tracts  on  various  subjects,  and  have  ever  been  popular*  * 

AMBROSINI  (Bartholomew),  was  a  physician  of  con- 
ftderable  eminence  and  professor  of  botany  at  Bologna, 
where  he  died  in  1657.  He  was  also  director  of  the  bo- 
tanic garden,  and  was  appointed  by  the  senate  sUperin- 
tendant  of  the  museum  of  natural  history  belonging  to  the 
fepublic.  His  principal  botanical  work  was  entitled  "  De 
Capsicorum  varietate  cum  suis  iconibus:  accessit  panacea 
ex  herbis  quae  a  Sanctis  denominantur,**  Bologna,  1650, 
12H10.  He  was  also  distinguished  as  a  successful  medical 
practitioner;  and  during  the  plague  in  1630,  his  extensive 
experience  furnished  the  materials  of  a  work  on  that  sub- 
ject, **'Mod(i,  e  facile  preser>'a,  e  cura  di  peste  a  beneficio 
de  popolo  di  Bologna,"  1651,  4to.  He  published  after- 
wards, "  Theorica  medicina  in  tabulas  digesta,"  1632,  4to, 
ibid.  **De  Pulsibus,"  1645,  4to;  **  De  externis  malis 
opusculum,'^  1656;  "  De'Urinis,"  &c.  He  likewise  dis- 
csovered  great  ability  as  an  editor,  in  the  publication  of 
the  9th,  10th, nth,  and  12th  vdumes  of  the  works  of  Al- 
iircHrandus.  * 

AMBROSINI  (Hyacinth),  brother  to  the  preceding, 
pnd  his  successor  in  the  direction  of  the  botanic  garden  at 
Bologna,  in  1657  published  the  catalogue  **  Hortus  Bo- 
poniae studiosorum  consitus,"  ibid.  1654,  1657,  4to;  and  a 
little  before  his  death,  **  Phy tologia,  hoc  est,  de  plantis. 
partis  primse  tomus  primus,  &c.*'  ibid.  fol.  1666.  This 
.contains  the  names,  synonyms,  and  etymologies  of  the 
plants,  with  a  botanical  lexicon,  and  index  in  three  Ian- 

fuages.  It  has  been  often  consulted  for  the  synonyms, 
at  the  etymologies  are  thought  to  be  sometimes  fanciful. 
The  second  volume,  which  was  to  include  trees,  never 
Appeared.  The  Ambrosini  were  skilful  botanists,  but  living 
before  the  science  was  so  well  understood  as  it  has  been 
lince  the  time  of  Linnaeus,  their  works  are  deficient  in 

*  Biog.  Brit— Calamy.— Ath.. Ox.— Granger. 

s  Biog.  Universelle.-^Maiige^  BibL-^Oiet;  Histortqite^ 

A  M  B  R  O  S  I  N  I.  99 

«rder  and  precision.  Bassi  dedicated  a  genus  of  plants  to 
tbeir  memory,  under  the  name  of  Ambrosinia,  a  g^nus  of 
the  polyandria  order,  of  which  there  is  but  one  species^  « 
native  of  Turkey. ' 

AMELINE  (Claude),  a  French  ecclesiastic,  born  at 
Paris  about  1629,  for  a  few  years  practised  at  the  bar,  but 
from  some  disgust  with  the  world,  entered  the  congrega* 
tion  of  the  oratory  in  April  1660,  and  having  repaired  t^ 
the  university  of  Saumur  to  study  divinity,  became  thero 
intimately  acquainted  with  father  Malebranche.  He  waft 
ordained  a  priest  in  1663,  and  about  the  same  time  was 
appointed  grand  chantor  of  the  church  of  Paris ;  but  this 
situation  affording  no  scope  for  his  zeal,  he  exchanged  it 
for  that  of  grand  archdeacon,  an  office  which  placed  under 
his  inspection  the  greater  part  of  the  curates  of  the  diocese. 
He  published^  1.  <'  Traite  de  la  volenti,"  Paris,  1684» 
12mo,  the  fruit  of  his  intimacy  with  Malebranche,  but 
whicb^  Bayle  has  erroneously  attributed  to  IVJ.  Nicole,  2. 
**  Traite  de  Tamour  de  souverain  bien,  &c."  Paris,  1699, 
12mo^  against  the  Quietists.  Some  also  think  he  wiote 
^'  Uai-t  de  vivre  heureux^'^  Paris,  1690,  which  others  give 
to  Louis  Pascal.* 

AMELIUS  GENTILIANUS,  an  eclectic  philosopher 
of  the  third '  century,  was  a  native  of  Tuscany,  and  th« 
contemporary  of  Porphyry,  and  studied  the  principles  of 
the  Stoic  philosophy  under  Lysimachus.  He  became  after«> 
wards  acquainted  with  the  writings  of  Numenius,  and  from 
him  learned  and  adopted  the  dogmas  of  Plato,  but  at  last, 
about  the  year  246,  became  the  disciple  of  Plotinus.  For 
twenty-four  years  he  associated  with  this  master,  and  pro- 
bably never  would  have  quitted  him,  if  Plotinus,  on  ac-* 
count  of  his  health,  had  not  been  obliged  to  go  to  Cam**' 
pania.  Amelius  then  settled  .at  Apamea  in  Syria,  and  it 
was  no  doubt  his  long  residence  here  which  led  Suidas  intQ 
the  mistake  that  he  was  a  native  of  the  place.  The  word 
Amelius  in  Creek  signifies  negligent,  but  no  epithet  could 
ever  be  worse  applied  than  to  bim^  Porphyry  therefore 
tells  us  tliat  he  preferred  being  called  Amenusj  and  he  is 
accordingly  recorded  under  this  name  by  Eunapius  in  his 
lives  of  the  Greek  sophists.  His  disciples  also,  bestowed 
on  him  the  title  of  noble.     He  wrote  nearly  an  hundred 

>  Biog,  UniVersellc. — Manget.  Bibl. — Diet.  Historique. 
3  MorerL— -Bayle  Rep^blique  ^i  Isttres,  Jan.  1685. 

irl^  AM  ELI  US, 

treatisesi  none  of  which  have  descended  to  our  times,  dt^ 
of  them  was  a  discussion  on  the  difference  between  the 
doctrines  of  Numenius  and  Plotinus.  Eusebius^  Theodoret, 
and  St.  Cyril,  quote  a  passage  from  Amelius  in  which  h& 
brings  the  beginning  of  the  Gospel  of  St.  John  in  confir- 
mation of  the  doctrine  of  Plato  on  the  divine  nature.  He 
bad  an  adopted  son,  Justin  Hesycbius,  to  whom  he  left  his 
writings.     The  time  of  bis  death  is  not  known.  * 

AMELOT    DE  LA  HOUSSAYE  (Nicholas),   called 
by  some  Abraham  Nicholas,  but,  according  to  Niceron, 
Nicholas  only  appears  in  his  baptismal  register,  was  bom 
February  1634,  at  Orleans.     He  wa^  much  esteemed  at 
the  court  of  France,  and  appointed  secretary  of  an  em- 
bassy which  that  court  sent  to  the  commonwealth  of  Venice, 
as  appears  by  the  title  of  bis  translation  of  father  PauPs 
history  of  the  council  of  Trent ;  but  he  afterwards  published 
writings  which  gave  such  offence,  that  he  was  imprisoned 
in  the  Bastile,     The  first  works  he  printed  were  the  "  His- 
tory of  the  Government  of  Venice,  and  that  of  the  Uscocks', 
8  people  of  Croatia:''  in  1683,  he  published  also  transla- 
tions into  French  of  Macbiavel's  Prince,  and  father  Paul's 
history  of  the  council  of  Trent,  and  political  discourses  of 
his  own  upon  Tacitus.     These  performances  were  well  re- 
ceived by  the  public,  but  he  did  not  prefix  his  own  name 
to  the  two  last  mentioned  works,  but  concealed  himself 
under  that  of  La  Mothe  Josseval.     His  translation  of  father 
Paul  was  attacked  by  the  partisans  of  the  pope's  unbounded 
power  and  authority.     In  France,  however,  it  met  with 
great  success  ;  all  the  advocates  for  the  liberty  of  the  Gal- 
ilean church  promoting  the  success  of  it  to  the  utmost  of 
their  power ;  though  at  the  same  time  there  were  three 
memorials  presented  to  have  it  suppressed.     When  th& 
second  edition  of  this  translation  was  published,  it  w^s 
violently  attacked  by  the  abbe  St.  Real,  in  a  letter  he  wrote 
to  Mr.  Bayle,  dated   October  17,  1685,  and  Amelot  de^ 
fended  himself,  in  a  letter  to  that  author.     In  1684,  he 
printed,  at  Paris,  a  French  translation  of  Baltasar  Gracian'» 
Oraculo  manual,  with  the  title  of  ^^I'Homme  de  Cour;^*- 
In  his  preface  he  defends  Gracian  against  father  Bot^houi^ 
critique,  and   gives  bis  reasons  why  he  ascribes  this  book, 
to  Baltasar  and  not  to  Laurence  Gracian.     He  also  meii- 
lions  that  be  had  altered  the  title,  because  it  appeared  to(^ 

^  Blog.  UaiverseUe.— Morcri.— Geo.  Dictj.— Brooker. 

A  M  E  L  O  T.  9S 

«6tentatiou»  and  hyperbolical ;  that  of  <*  1' Homme  de  Cour;*^ 
the  Courtier,  being  more-proper  to  erpress  the  subject  of 
the  book,  \ffaich  contains  a  collection  of  the  finest  maxims 
for  regulating  a  court-life.  In  1686,  be  printed  ^^  La  Mo- 
rale, de  Tacite;^'  in  which  he  collected  several  particular 
tacts  and  maxims,  that  represent  in  a  strong  light  the  ar* 
tifices  ofcourt-^flatteries,  and  the  mischievous  effect  of  their 
conversations.  In  1690,  he  published  at  Paris  a  Frenoh 
trauslatien  of  the  first  six  books  of  Tacitus's  annals,  widi 
his  historical  and  political  remarks,  some  of  which,  ae* 
cording  to  Mr.  Gordon,  are  pertinent  and  useful,  but  many 
of  tbem  insipid  and  trifling.  Ametot  having  employed  his 
pen  for  several  years  on  historical  and  political  subjects^ 
began  now  to  try  his  genius  on  religious  matters ;  and  in 
16dl  printed  at  Paris  a  translation  of  <^  Palafox's  theolo- 
gical and  moral  Homilies  upon  the  passion  of  our  Lord.**-^ 
Frederic  Leonard,  a  bookseller  at  Paris,  having  proposed, 
in  the  year  16i^2,  to  print  a  collection  of  all  the  treaties  of 
peace  between  the  kings  of  France  and  all  the  other  princes 
of  Europe,  since  the  reign  of  Charles  VII.  to  the  year  1690, 
Amelot  published  a  small  volume  in  duodecimo,  containing 
a  preliminary  discourse  upon  these  treaties ;  wherein  he 
endeavours  to  show  the  insincerity  of  courts  in  matters  of 
aegociation.  He  published  also  an  edition  of  cardinal 
d^Os8at*s  letters  in  1697,  with  several  observations  of  his 
own ;  which,  as  he  tells  us  in  his  advertisement,  may  sen- e 
as  a  supplement  to  the  history  of  the  reigns  of  Henry  III. 
and  Henry  IV.  of  France.  Amelot  died  at  Paris,  Dec«  8, 
1706,  being  then  alfi)ost  73  years  of  age,  and  left  several 
other  works  enumerated  by  Niceron,  who  objects  to  his 
style,  but  praises  his  fidelity.  The  freedom  with  which 
he  wrote  on  political  subjects  appears  to  have  procured  for 
him  a  temporary  fame,  unaccompanied  with  any  other  ad« 
vantages.  Altl^ough  be  was  admired  for  his  learning  and 
political  knowledge,  he  was  frequently  in  most  indigent 
circumstances,  and  indebted  to  the  bounty  of  bis  friends.  ^ 
AMELOTTE  (Denis),  a  celebrated  French  writer,  was 
born  at  Saintonge  in  1606,  He  maintained  a  close  corre- 
•pondenoe  with  the  Fathers  of  the  Oratory,  a  x^ongregation 
of  priests  founded  by  Philip  of  Neri.  He  wrote  the  "  Life 
of  Charles  de  Gondren,"  second  superior  of  this  congre-f 
.  gation,  and  published  it  at  Paris  in  1643.  In  this  pieced 
■  '         •  ..       ». 

.,\  Gen. . Diet.— phaufepie.—M'iren.—SaxiiC^D9maiticon. 

m.  AM  EL  G  T  T  K 

ifitrodooed  .ft  passage  respecting  the  fiftinous  M}6  de  Slt^ 
Cyran,  which  greatly  displeased  the  gentlemen  of  Port 
Boyal ;  who»  out  of  reveage,  published  a  pamphlet 
against  him,  entitled  *^  ld6e  generate  de  Pesprit  et  du  livre 
de  pere  Amelot,^'  and  h^  was  so  much  provoked  by  this  sa^* 
tire,  that  he  did  all  in  his  power  to  injure  them^  They  had 
fipished  a  translation  of  the  New  Testament,  known  by  the 
name  of  the  Mons  New  Testament,  and  were  desirous  t<x 
have  it  published,  for  which  purpose  they  endeavoured  to 
procure  an  approbation  from  the  doctors  of  the  Sorbonne, 
and  a  privilege  from  the  king.  They  had  some  friends  iu 
tiie  Sorbonue,  but  at  the  same  time  very  powerful  enemies^ 
and  as  to  the  privilege,  it  was  impossible  to  prevail  with 
the  chancellor  Seguier  to  grant  them  one,  as  he  hated  them  $ 
so  that  father  Amelotte,  whose  advice  the  chancellor  gene-^ 
rally  followed  in  matters  of  religion^  easily  thwarted  ali 
their  measures,  iK)t  only  out  of  zeal  for  what  he  thought  tho 
true  doctrine,  or  out  of  aversion  to  the  Port  Royalists,  but 
also  from  a  view  to  bis  own  interest ;  for  he  was  about  to 
publish  a  translation  of  hia  own  of  the  New  Testaflaenl;;^ 
which,  accordingly,  with  annotations,  in  four  volumes  8vo^. 
was  printed  in  the  years  1666,  1667,  and  1668,  but^ accord- 
ing to  F.  Simon,  it  contains  some  very  gross  bluoderSi  lu 
was  dedicated  to  M«  de  Perefixe,  archbishop  of  Paris,  wbomr 
he  addresses  in  these  words  :  '^  You  will  be  confirmed  in 
that  zeal  which  obliged  you  to  take  up  the  holy  arms  to 
defend  the  true  grace  of  God,  and  the  decrees  of  the  boly^ 
see,  against  the  new  heresy  :  you  will  daily  strengthen 
yourself  against  these  blind  rebels,  whose  fury,  impo8« 
tures,  and  calumnies,  add  new  splendour  to  your  glory, 
which  they  endeavour  to  blemish.  They  place  you  in  thd 
same  rank  with  the  Athanasiuses  and  Hilaries,  when-  they' 
abuse  you  in  the  same  manner  as  the  Arians  did  those 
great  and  holy  bishops.''  In  this  translation  he  endea« 
vQured  to  find  expressions  more,  proper  and  elegant  thaa 
those  of  the  former  versions ;  for  which  reason  he  com- 
mitted bis  work  into  Mr.  Courart's  hands,  to  polish  and  Cor- 
rect whatever  he  should  judge  inelegant  or  impropi^r: 
Amelotte  wrote  also  an  ^^  Abridgment  of  Divinity,^^  » 
^^  Catechism  for  the  Jubilee,''  and  a  kind  of  ^*  Cbrhtian 
Manual  for  every  day,  (Journee  Chretienne.)'*  Though  ho 
had  always  been  a  very  zealous  Anti-Port- Royalist,  y«t  ho 
was  but  poorly  rewarded  for  all  his  labour  and  trouble,* 
since  towards  d£e  end  of  his  life  he  sued  fot  -a  v^ry  small 

A  M  E  L  0  T  T  E.  ST 

bishoprip,  th^t  of  Sarlat,  and  met  witb  a.  rd£iisal»  though 
•«»e  bad  all  the  qualities  requisite  to  a  bishop.  He  could 
not  forbear  complaining  of  this  usage  to  his  friends;^ telling 
them  that  those^  whom  he  had  often  served  effectually,  had 
been  very  cold  to  him  on  this  occasion.  He  entered  into 
die  congregation  of  the  Oratory  in  1650,  and  continued 
amongst  them  till  his  death,  which  happened  at  Paris^ 
Oct  7,  1678.  His  dedication  .to  M.  Perefiace  was  sup*- 
pressed  after  his  death  and  the  death  of  Perefixe,  and  one  of 
a  diflferent  cast  substituted  by  M«  de  Hariay,  in  the  edition 
of  16^8,  2  vols.  4to,  and  the  work  lias  been  often  reprinted 
with  and  without  notes.  The  chief  objection  made:  ^  him, 
on  the  score  of  veracity,  is  that  he  boasted  of  having  con- 
sulted all  the  manuscripts  of  Europe^  which  he  afterwards 
confessed  he  had  not  seen ;  but  it  is  answered,  that  although 
he  had  not  seen  these  manuscripts,  he  took  great  pains  in 
procuring  transcripts  of  their  various  readings.  ^ 

AMENTA  (Nicholas),  an  Italian  lawyer  a^d  miscella* 
neous  writer,  was  born  at  Naples  in  1659, ,  and  for  the  first 
Fourteen,  years  of  his  life,  was  obliged  to  be  confined  in  a 
dark  room,  owing  to  a  complaint  in  his  eyes.  On  his  re* 
covery,  h&  made  very  capid  progr^^ss  in  general  science, 
went  through  a  qqurse  of  law,  and  had  very  considerable 
practice  at  Naples.  His  leisure  hpurs  \ke  dedicated  to'po* 
iite  literature,  and  particularly  cultivafted  the  Tuspan  lan- 
guage, which  he  wrote  with  the  greatfsst  purity,,  and  used 
in  all  his  works.  He  died  at  Naples,  July  2  i ,  1 7- 1 9.  His 
principal  writings  are,  li  Seven  prose  comedies,  La  Cos- 
tanza,  il  Forca,  la  Fante,  &c.  whicl^  are>  Baretti  says^  per* 
haps  the  wittiest  we  have  io  It^ian  ;  but  the  author  makes 
some  of  his  actors  appear  masked  and  speak,  the  different 
dialects  of  Italy^-  especially  the  Neapolitan,  2*  "  Rapporti 
di  Parnas80,V  part  I.  the  oi^ly  one  ever  published,  Naples, 
1710,  4tol  The^e.are  somewhat  in  the  manoer  of  Bocca-* 
lini's  advertiseoieiits,  b^t  u^Ufe  them  in, their  subjects, 
which  ar^  matters  of  litert^ture  and  literaxyljiistory.  ,3.  "II 
Torto  e  it  Dbritto  del  non  sd  puo,  &c,  es?|mihato  da  Ferrante 
Longobardi,'^  i»  e.  father  jDjaniel  Bartoli,  whose  work  is 
here  reprln^d  with  Amenta's  Observation^  Naples,  1717, 
8vo,  1728,.,8vo;  the  latter  eaitionhas  tjie  rewavksof  th^ 
abbeCit6.J^4.>*"  t)ella  lingulaj  NiV^l^  d^Italia,.  4^."  aoo- 
ther  work  on  language  divided  into  parts,  Naples,  1723, 

»  Oen.  but— Mor^--Bk».«ft»f»!M'liril«.«-Ut  Uh  BiW-Sior. 

Vot.II.  H 

»ft  AMENTA. 

4to.  5.  The  lives  of  Scipio  Pasquali,  and  Lionardo^  a 
Neapolitan  poet  6.  Twenty-four  "  Capitoli/'  or  satirical 
kneces,  in  tke  style  of  the  capitoli  of  Bemi^  and  other  bur'- 
fesque  poets,  Naples,  1721,  12nio.  7.  *<Rime/'  or  poetical 
pieces,  published  in  various  collections.  ^ 

AMERBACH  (John),  a  learned  printer  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  was  bom  at  Rutlingen,  in  Suabia^  and  settled  at 
Basil.  He  was  the  first  who  made  use  of  the  round  type, 
instead  of  the  Italic  and  Gothic.  In  1506,  He  published 
the  first  edition  of  the  works  of  St.  Augustine,  corrected  by 
himself,  with  a  type  known  long  by  the  name  of  the  St. 
Augustine  t3rpe.  He  began  also  the  works  of  St.  Jerome ; 
but  his  death,  which  took  place  in  151S,  prevented  his 
finiisihing  them,  and  he  left  them  to  the  care  of  his  sons,  by 
whom  they  were  published.  All  his  editions  are  valued 
for  their  accuracy.  Boni&ce,  his  eldest  son,  who  died  in 
1562,  was  for  thirty  years  law  professor  at  Basil,  five  times 
rectcNT  of  the  university,  and  went  through  the  difierent 
offices  of  magistracy  with  the  reputation  of  a  man  of  great 
integrity.  In  1659,  was  printed  at  Basils  4to,  the  ^^  Biblio* 
theca  Amerbachiana,**  a  scarce  work,  which  throws  consi<> 
derable  light  on  the  history  of  printing,  and  mentions  many 
early  editions  omitted  in  our  largest  catalogues.  '  Krasmu^ 
and  Boniface  Amerbach  contributed  to  this  Bibliotheca. 
Boniface  had  a  son  Basil,  al^  a  mati  of  learning,  syndic  of 
the  city,  and  rector  of  the  university.  He  contributed  much 
to  the  cabinet  of  pictures,  and  medals,  and  to  the  library 
whitAi  his  father  had  founded.  He  founded  likeyise  sofne 
charitable  establishments,  jsind  a  new  pro(fessor$fai]i)  in  the 
university,  called  the  Amerbachian.*  *       * 

AMERBACH  (Vitus)  was  born  at  W^dingiien  in  Ba- 
varia, and  studied  law,  philosophy,  and  diviiiity,  atWit- 
temberg,  where  he  professed  to  be  a  foHbwerof  Ijuther  i 
but  on  returning  to  his  own  country,  he  became  a  Hotidah 
catholic,  and  professor  of  phildsojfliy  at  Ingoldstadt,  where 
be  died  in  1 557,  at  the  age  of  TO.  He  translated  into  La- 
tin the  orations  of  Isocrates  and  Demostheties ;.  the  ty^atisfe 
of  St.  Chrysostom  on  Providence,  and  that  of  Kpipharihii 
on  the  catholic  faith.  He  published  also  comthentarieS  on 
Cicero's  Offices,  on  the  poems  of  Pythagorttiland  PhoCyU 
tides,  oil  the  Tristia  of  Ovid,  and  Bforace  **.i)e  arte  bbeti- 


1  Biog.  UniveiteUe.— Kftym  Bibl.  Ita].-4Sai«tti't  Italian  Libraiy. 

A  M  £  R  B  A  C  a  $9 

ca.^'  To  much  learning  he  added  a  considerable  talent  for 
poetry^  in  which  \ie  left  various  small  pieces,  epigrajns,  epi* 
taphs.  His  philosophical  works  ^*  De  Anima,  de  pbilo<> 
Sophia  naturflui,  &c.''  are  less  known ;  buA  a  list  of  them 
may  be  seen  in  Teissier's  Essays,  vol.  I.^ 


AMES  (Jossph),  the  celebrated  typographical  histo-* 
nan,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family  in  Norfolk, 
where  they  are  to  be  traced  back  as  far  as  the  middle  pf 
the  sixteenth  century.  He  was  born  at  Yarmouth,  Jaq.  23, 
1688-9,  and  removed  by  bis  father,  who  spears  to  have 
been  the  master  of  a  merchant  ship  trading  from  Yarmouth 
to  London,  and  placed  at  a  little  grammar*scbool  at  Wap-» 
ping.  At  the  age  of  fifteen,  it  is  said,  he  vcas  put  appien- 
tice  to  a  plane*maker  in  King  or  Queen-street  near  GhiH^* 
hall,  LondcMi;  audit  is  added  that  after  serving  out  liis  time 
with  reputation,  be  took  up  his  freedom,  and  became  a 
liveryman  of  the  Joiners'  Company,  but  on  inquiry  both  at 
Joiners'  hall  and  at  the  Chamberlain's  office,  it  does  ndt 
appear  that  he  ever  took  up  his  freedom :  be  aettled,  how* 
ever,  near  the  Hermitage,  in  Wapping,  in  the  business  of 
a  ship-chandler,  or  ironmonger,  and  continued  there  till 
his  death. 

Mr.  Ames  very  early  dbcovered  a  taste  for  English  his« 
tory  and  antiquities,  in  which  h&  was  encouraged  by  his 
two  friends  Mr.  Russel, .  preacher  at  St.  John's  Wapping, 
alid  Mr.  John  Lewis,  minister  of  Margate,  an  eminent  di- 
vine and  antiquary.  Some  time  before  1720,  in  attend-* 
ing  Dr.  Desaguliers'  lectures,  he  formed  an  i^cquaintance 
with  Mr.  Peter  Thompson,  an  eminent  Hamburgh  meN 
ehant,  and  member  for  St.  Alban's,  a  gentleman  of  great 
humanity,  and  strong  natural  parts,  who  supplied  the  want 
of  a  liberal  education  by  a  conversation  with  men  and . 
books.  He  was  also  a  lover  of  our  national  antiquities,  and 
many  years  fellow  of  the  royal  and  antiquary  societies. 
This  frieodshijp  coptinued  uninterrupted  till  the  death  of 
Mr.  Ames.  Some  time  before  1730,  Mr.  Lewis,  whohad 
himself  collected  materials  for  such  a^  subject,  suggested  to 
Mr.  Ames  the  idea  of  writing  the  history  of  printipg  in  Eng- 
land. Mr.  Ames  declined  it  at  first,  because  Mr.  Ps^lmer, 
a  printer,  was  engaged  in  a  similar  work,  and  because  he 
thought  himself  by  no  means  equal  to  an  undertaking  of 

>  lAorerL— >Bio|p.  UniTeraelle.-«»Saxii  OnaiDut. 

H  2 


so  much  extent  But  when  Mr.  Palmei'^s  book  came  ont^ 
it  was  far  from  answering  the  expectations  of  Mr.  Lewis^  or 
Mr.  Ames,  or  those  of  the  public  in  general.  Mr.  Ames, 
therefore,  at  length  consented  to  apply  himself  to  the  task, 
and  after  twenty-five  years  spent  in  collecting  and  arrang-^ 
ing  his  materials,  in  which  he  was  largely  assisted  by  Mr. 
Lewis  and  other  learned  friends,  and  by  the  libraries  of 
'  lord  Oxford,  sir  Hans  Sloane,  Mr.  Anstis,  and  many«otheirSy 
published,  in  one  vol.  4to,  1749,  "  Typographical  Antiqui- 
ties, being  an  historical  account  of  Printing  in  England^ 
with  some  memoirs  of  our  ancient  Printers,  and  a  register 
of  the  books  printed  by  them,  from  the  year  1471  to  1600; 
with  an  appendix  concerning  printing  in  Scotland  and  Ire- 
land to  the  same  time.'*  In  his  preface  he  speaks  with' 
great  humility  of  his  work,  and  of  its  imperfections ;  but  it 
certainly  has  no  faults  but  what  may  well  be  excused  in  the 
first  attempt  to  accomplish  an  undertaking  of  such  vast  ex- 
tent. He  inscribed  this  work  to  Philip  lord  Hardwicke, 
lord  high  chancellor  of  Great  Britain.  Mr.  Ames  was  at 
this  time  fellow  of  the  royal  and  antiquary  societies,  and 
secretajry  to  the  latter  of  these  learned  bodies.  He  was. 
elected  F.  A.  S.  March  3,  1736,  and  on  the  resignation  of 
Alexander  Gordon,  previous  to  his  going  to  settle  in  Caro- 
lina, 1741,  was  appointed  secretary.  In  1754,  the  rev* 
W.  Norris  was  associated  with  him,  and  on  his  decease 
became  sole  secretary  till  1784.  This  office  gave  Mr. 
Ames  further  opportunities  of  gratifying  bis  native  curio- 
sity, by  the  communications  as  well  as  the  conversation  q{ 
the  literati ;  and  these  opportunities  were  further  enlarged 
by  his  election  into  tiie  royal  society,  and  the  particular 
friendship  shewn  to  him  by  sir  Hans  Sloane,  then  presi- 
dent, who  nominated  him  one  of  the  trustees  of  his  will. 

Besides  his  great  work,  Mr.  Ames  printed  a  ^<  Catalogue 
of  English  Printers,  from  1471  to  1700^*  4to,  intended  to 
accompany  the  proposals  for  the  former ;  '^  An  Index  to 
lord  Pembroke's  Coins  ;^'  <^  A  Catalogue  of  English  heads^ 
or  an  account  of  about  2000  prints,  describing  what  is  pe-^ 
culiar  on  each,  as  the  name,  title,  or  office  of  the  person, 
the  habit,  posture,  age,  or  time  when  done,  the  name  of 
the  painter,  graver,  scraper,  &c.  and  some  remarkable  par** 
ticuUirs  relating  to  their  lives,'*  1748,  8vo.  This  was  a  kind 
of  index  to  the  ten  volumes  of  English  portraits,  which  had 
been  collected  by  Mr.  John  Nickolls,  F.  R.  and  A.  SS.  of 
Ware  in  Hertfordshire,  in  four  volumes  folio,  and  six  in 

A  M  E  &  lOl 

4to ;  and  which  after  bis  death  in  i  745,  were  purchased, 
for  80  guineas,  by  the  late  Dr.  Fothergill.  The  last  of 
Mr.  Ames's  literary  labours  was  the  drawing  up  the  '^  Pa- 
rentalia,  of  Memoira  of  the  family  of  Wren,"  1750,  in  one 
volume  folio,  from  the  papers  of  Mr.  Wren.  At  his  ex- 
pence  two  plates  were  engraved,  one  of  a  Greek  inscrip<^ 
tion  |u  honour  of  Crato,  the  musician  of  Pergamos;  the. 
other  an  ancient  marble  pillar,  in  his  possession,  with  ther 
Cufic  inscription. 

Mr.  Ames  died  suddenly  of  a  fit  of  coughing,  Oct.  7, 
1759,  and  on  the  14th  was  interred  in  the  church*yard  of 
St.  George  in  the  East,  in  a  stone  coffin,  on  the  lid  of  which 
is  an  inscription  in  Latin  by*  the  rev.  Dr.  Flexman;  and 
over  the  grave  was  placed  a  ledger-stone  with  two  inscrip* 
tions,  one  in  English,  the  other  in  Latin.  His  collection 
of  coins,  natural  curiosities,  inscriptions,  and  antiquities, 
were  sold  by  Mr.  Langford,  Feb..  20  and  21,  1760:  his 
library  of  books,  manuscripts  and  prints,  on  May  5 — 12, 
1 7  60.  Many  of  the  books  had  notes  by  him,  and  Mr.  Gough 
has  enumerated  many  valuable  articles  among  his  collec- 
tion, with  the  buyers'  names. 

Mr.  Ames  married  April  12,  1714,  Mary,  daughter  of 
Mr.  Wrayford,  merchant  of  London,  who  died  August  12^ 
1734,  and  by  lyhom  he  had  six  children,  one  only  of  whom, 
a  daughter,  survived  him,  and  was  married  to  Edward  Dam- 
pi^r,  esq.  lately  deputy  surveyor  of  shipping  to  the  East 
India  Company,  and  descended  from,  or  related  to  the 
voyager  of  that  name. 

Of  Mr.  Ames's  character,  the  opinion  seems  to  be  tini-» 
form,  that  he  possessed  an  amiable  simplicity  of  manners, 
and  exemplary  integrity  and  benevolence  in  social  life. 
Mr.  Cole,  who  bears  him  no  good  will,  because,  as  he  as- 
serts, he  was  an  Anabaptist,  sdlows  that  he  ^'  was  a  little, 
friendly,  good-tempered  man,  a  pe|:son  of  vast  application, 
and  industry  in  collecting  old  printed  books,  prints,  and 
other  curiosities,  both  natural  and  artificial.^'  It  is  con- 
fessed, on  the  other  hand,  that  he  had  not  much  of  what  is 
,  called  literature,  and  knew  nothing  of  composition.  His 
prefac(e  to  the  ^'Typographical  Antiquities^^  commences 
in  the  form  of  a  preamble  to  an  act  of  parliament,  "  Where- 
as it  appears  from  reason  and  ancient  history,'*  &c.  His 
style,  indeed,  very  much  resembles  that  of  his  brother  an- 
tiquary and  equally  laborious  collector,  Strype.  With  all 
this,  be  appears  to  have  been  a  man  entitled  to  high  re- 

102  AMES. 

spectjor  his  acquisitions ;  they  yrere  entirely  his  own,  and 
instigated  by  a  laudable  desire  to  be  useful.    The  dates  in 
the  preceding  account  of  his  life  will  be  sufficient  to  prove 
the  absurdity  of  Horace  Walpole^s  flippant  notice  of  hiniy 
in  which  he  says,  that  Mr.  Ames  took  to  the  study  of  anti* . 
nquities  **  late  in  life,"  and  that  he  was  "  originally*'   a 
ship-chandler.     The  truth  is,  and  it  is  to  the  honour  of  his 
industry,  that  he  w^  always  an  antiquary,  and  always  a 
$hip-chandler,  but  principally  in  articles  of  ironmongery. 
It  is  necessary  to  add  that  an  enlarged  edition  of  the 
'^  Typographical  Antiquities"   was  published  by  the  late 
learned   and  industrious,  Mr.  William  Herbert,  of  whom 
0ome  account  will  be  given  in  its  proper  place.     This  was 
exiipnded  to  three  volumes  quarto,  the  first  of  which  ap- 
peared in  1785,  the  second  in  1786,  and  the  third  in  1790^ 
a  work  of  inestimable  value  to  the  antiquary,  the  historian, 
and  the  general  scholar.     To  the  first  volume,  Mr.  Gough 
prefixed  ^^  Memoirs  of  Mr.  Joseph  Ames,"  from  which  all 
that  is  valuable  in  the  present  article  has  been  taken;  and 
the  same  has  been  retained,  with  many  additional  particu- 
larsy  in  the  new  and  very  splendid  edition  of  Ames  and  Her- 
bert,  by  the   rev.  Thomas   Frognall  Dibdin,  F.  S.  A.  of 
which  one  volume  was  published   in  IS  10  and  a  second 
in  1812,  which  promise  ample  gratificatioh  to  the  lovers  of 
typographical  antiquities.^ 

AMES  (William),  a  divine  in  the  reigns  of  king  James 
and  Charles  I.  and  famous  for  his  casuistical  and  contro- 
versial writings,  hut  much  more  so  abroad  than  in  his  own 
ebuntrys  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  which  is 
said  to  remain  in  Norfolk  and  Somersetshire,  and  was  born 
in  1576.     He  was  educated  at  Christ-church  college,  in 
Cambridge,  under  the  celebrated  champion  of  Calvinism^ 
fAr,  William  Perkins,  and  this  gave  a  rigid  strictness  to 
his  opinions,  which  was  not  agreeable  to  some  of  his  asso-* 
ciates  in  the  university.     One  instance  of  this  is  given  by 
Fuller,  which  we  shall  transcribe  as  recording  a  feature  in 
the  manners  of  the  times.     He  says,  that  ^'  about  the  year 
1610-11,  this  Mr.  Ames,  preaching  at  St.  Mary's,  took 
occasion  to  inveigh  against  the  liberty  taken  at  that  time ; 
tespecially  in  those  colleges  which  had  Jords  of  misrule,  a 
Pagan  relique  ^   which,  he  said,  as  Polydore  Vergil  haa 

'  Ames  and  Herbert's  Edition.— Dibdin's.-pCole's  MSS.  in  Brit.  Mus.— W^U 
'|>ole't  Catalogue  of  Engraven. 

AMES.  lot 

observed^  remains  only  in  England.  Hence  he  proceeded 
to  condemn  dl  pla3dng  at  cards  and  dice ;  affirming  that 
the  latter,  in  all  ages,  .was  accounted  the  derice  of  the 
devil ;  and  that  as  God  invented  the  one-and-twenty  letters 
whereof  he  made  the  bible,  the  devil,  saith  an  authoi^ 
found  out  the  one-and-twenty  spots  on  the  die ;  diat  canon 
law  forbad  the  use,  of  the  same ;  spying  Inventio  DiaMi 
mdla  ctmsuetudine  potest  vaUdari.  His  sermon,^*  continues 
our  author,  <*  gave  ilauch  offence  to  many  of  his  auditors ; 
the  rather  because  in  him  there  was  a  concunrence  of  much 
nonconformity;  insomuch  that,  to  prevent  an  expulsion 
from  Dr.  Yal.  Gary,  the  master,  he  fairly  forsook  the  col 
lege,  v^ich  proved  unto  him  neither  loss  nor  disgrace ; 
being,  not  long  after,  by  the  States  of  Friesland,  chosen 
Professor  of  their  university.*'  There  seems^  however, 
some  mistake  in  this,  and  Dr.  Maclaine  has  increased  it  by 
asserting  in  his  notes  on  Mosheim's  Ecclesiastical  history, 
that  Ames  fled  to  Franeker  to  avoid  the  persecution  of 
archbishop  Bancroft.  This  prelate  certainly  pressed  con- 
formity on  the  Puritans  as  much  as  he  codd,  but  a 
man  who  only  preached  against  cards  aqd  dice  could 
have  nothing  to  fear  from  him.  The  fact  was,  that 
the  archbishop  died  some  months  before  this  sermon  at 
St.  Mary^s. 

It  might  not,  however,  be  long  after,  that  he  went  to 
Holland,  the  common  refuge  of  many  of  the  divines  of 
this  period  who  were  strong  opponents  to  church  dis* 
cipline,  for  in  1613,  his  dispute  with  Grevinchovius,  mi- 
nister at  Rotterdam,  appeared  in  print.  From  thence,  we 
are  told,  he  was  invited  by  the  stages  of  Friesland,  to  the 
divinity  chair  in  the  university  of  Franeker,  which  he  filled 
with  universal  reputation  for  many  years.  He  was  at  the 
synod  of  Dort,  in  1618,  and  informed  king  James's  am* 
bassador,  from  ttee  to  time,  of  the  debates  of  that  assembly. 
After  be  had  been  at  least  twelve  years  in  the  doctor's 
chair  at  Franeker,  he  resigned  his  professorship,  and  ac« 
cepted  of  an  invitation  to  the  English  congregation  at  Rot« 
terdam,  the  air  of  Franeker  being  too  sharp  for  him,  who 
wi«  troubled  with  such  a  difficulty  of  breathing,  that  he 
concluded  every  winter  would  be  his  last  Besides,  he 
was  desirous  of  preaching  «o  his  own  countrymen,  which 
he  bad  disused  for  many  years.  He  held  many  public 
discourses,  published  many  learned  books,  and  acquired'a 
great  degree  of  popularity  among  all  classes.     Upon  his 

10%  A  M  £  S. 

removal  to  RotterdsAn,  he  ^wrote  Iris  **  Fresh  suit  dgainst 
Ceremonies,"  but  did  not  Ihre  to  publish  it  himself,  for 
his  constitution  was  so  shattered,  that  the  air  of  Holland 
was  of  no  service,  upon  which,  he  determined  to  remove 
to  New  England ;  but  his  asthma  returning  at  the  begins- 
xiing  of  winter,  put  an  end  to  his  life  at  Rotterdam,  where 
he  was  buried,  Nov.  14,  (N.  S.)  1633,  aged  fifty-seven.  In 
the  spring  following,  his  wife  and  children  embarked  for 
New  England,  and  carried  with  them  his  valuable  library 
of  books,  which  was  a  rich  treasure  to  that  country  at  that 
time.  Of  his  private  character  we  know  little,  but  it  is 
generally  agreed  that  he  was  a  man  of  very  great  learning, 
a  strict  Calvinist  in  doctrine,  and  of  the  persuasion  of  the 
Independents,  with  regard  to  the  subordination  and  power 
of  classes  and  synods.  As  a  teacher  he  was  so  much  ap-* 
proved,  that  students  came  to  him  from  many  parts  of  Eu- 
rope, particularly  Hungary,  Poland,  Prussia,  and  Flanders. 
Mosheim,  who,  upon  what  authority  we  know  not,  calls 
him  a  Scotch  divine,  says,  that  he  was  one  of  the  first; 
among  the  reformed  who  attempted  to  treat  morality  as  a 
separate  science,  to  consider  it  abstractedly  from  its  con- 
nection with  any  particular  system  of  doctrine,  and  to  in- 
troduce new  light  and  a  new  degree  of  accuracy  and 
precision  into  this  master-science  of  life  and  manners. 
The  attempt,  he  adds,  was  laudable,  had  it  been  well 
executed ;  but  the  system  of  this  learned  writer  was  dry, 
theoretical,  and  subtle,  and  was  thus  much  mor«  adapted 
to  the  instruction  of  the  studious,  than  to  the  practical  di- 
rection of  the  Christian. 

His  works  are:  1.  <^  Sermons,  preached  at  St.  Mary's 
Cambridge,'*  but  whether  printed  is  uncertain.  2.  "  Pu*? 
ritanismus  Anglicanus,''  8vo,  1610;  and  in  English,  Lon* 
don,  4to,  1641,  containing  the  chief  doctrines  of  the  Pu* 
ritans.  3.  *^  Disceptatio  scholastica  inter  Nic.  Grevin- 
chovium  and  GuL  Amesium,''  8vo,  Amst.  1613^  concerning 
Arminnis's  opinions  on  election,  &c:  4.  ^^  Disputatio 
inter  Amesium  et  Grevinchovium,'*  Rt>tter.  8vo,  1615  ; 
Lugd.  Bat.  1617,  J  63 3,  on  reconciliation  by  the  death  of 
Christ.  5.  *^  Coronis  ad  collationem  Hs^ensem,'*  ISmo^ 
Lugd.  Bat.  1618,  1628,  1630,  confuting  the  answers  given 
by  the  Arminians  to  the  Dutch  pastors.  6.  ^^  Medulla 
Theolog^ca,^'  Frank.  1623,  reprinted  four  times  at  Am- 
sterdam, and  translated  into  English.  7.  ^'  Explicatio 
utriusque  EpistolsB  S.  Petri/'  12mo^  Amst  1625|  1635, 


AM  E  S«  lOS 

and  also  translated  into  English,  Lond.  1461,  4to.  S.  <<  De 
■Incaraatione  Verbi,**  Franek.  162  6,  8vo,  against  tke  Soci^ 
nians.     9.  "  Beilarminns  enervatus,"  8vo,  often  reprinted 
at  Amstei'dam,  Oxford,  and  London.     10*  '*  De  Consci- 
entia^'*  thrice  printed  at  Amsterdam,  and  in  English  with 
this  title,  *^  A  treatise  on  Con^eience,  with  the  power  and 
cases  thereof/*  Lond.  4to^  1643  ;  this  book  is  still  much 
read.     11.  ^^  Antisynodalia/'  Franek.  1629,  12mo,  against 
the  Remonstrants.      12;    **  Demonstratio  logicae   versB, 
]2mo,  Lug;  Bat.  1632.     13«   *^  Disputatio  Theologica, 
ibid,   against  metaphysics.     14.  '^  Technometria,*'  Amst. 
1632,  8vo,  on  the  purpose  and  bounds  of  arts.     15.  •*  A 
reply  to  Bishop  Mofrton/'  on  his  lordship^s  defence  of  the 
surplice,    the   cross    in    baptism,    and    kneeling   at    the 
sacrament,  4to,  1622,  which  he  followed  up,  by  16.  **  A 
fresh  Suit  against  Roman  ceremonies/^  1633,  4to.  17.  <' A 
First  and  Second  Manuduction."     18.  Rescriptio  ad  re- 
sponsum  Grevinchovii  de  Redemptione  generali,**  Lugd, 
Bat.     1634,   8ro.      19.    '^  Christianas    Catechesis    Scio* 
graphia,"  Franek.  1635,  Svo.     20.  ^^  Lectiones  in  omnes 
Psalmos  Davidis/'  Amst.  1635,  8vo;  Lond.  1647.    These 
last  five  were  posthumous  publications.     Besides  these,  he 
wrote  some  prefaces,  &c.  to  the  works  of  others.     IJis 
Latin  works  were  reprinted  at  Amsterdam  in  1658,  5  Tob» 
8vo,  by  Matthias  Nethenus. ' 

AMHERST  (Jeffery,  Lord  Amherst),  was  the  second 
son  of  JefFery  Amherst,  of,  in  Kent,  esq.  and 
of  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Thomas  Kerrill,  of  Hadlow,  ia 
Kent,  esq.  and  was  born  Jan.  29,  1717.  He  devoted  him* 
self  yery  eariy  to  the  profession  of  arms,  having  received 
an  ensign^s  commission,  in  the  guards,  in  1731,  when  be 
was  only  fourteen^  years  of  age ;  but  about  ten  years  after* 
wards  he  was  aide-^de^cafnp  to  general,  afterwards  lord 
Ligonier,  and  in  that  capacity  vras  present  with  the  general 
at  the  battles  of  Roucox,  Dettingen,  and  Fontenoy.  He  was 
afterwards  admitted  on  the  staff  of  the  duke  of  Cumberland^ 
with  whom  he  was  present  at  the  engagements  of  LafFeld  and 
Hastenbeck.  In  1756,  he  was  appointed  to  the  command 
of  the  fifteenth  regiment  of  foot,  and  in  two  years  more 
obtained  the  rank  of  major-general  in  the  army. 

When  the  war  broke  out  between  France  and  England, 

}  Biog.  Brit.-*»Cole'8  MS^  Athene  Cantab,  in  Brit.  Mu9.— Mosheim's  £ccL 

IOC  A  M  H  E  R  S  T. 

of  which  North  America  was  the  principal  theatre,  ger 
neral  Amherst  was  appointed  to  serve  in  that  country^ 
where  he  soon  had  opportunities  of  displaying  his  talents* 
The  courage  and  mihtaiy  skill  which  entitled  him  to  the 
iru0t  thus  reposed  in  him,  were  not  long  unattested  by  the 
featrs  of  his  enemies,  and  tl^e  £clamations  of  his  country. 
In  the  summer  of  1758,  he  undertook  the  expedition 
against  Louisbourg,  which,  together  with  die  island  of 
Ciq>e  Breton,  on  which  it  is  situated,  in  the  gulph  of  St. 
Lawrence,  surrendered,  with  all  its  dependencies,  to  his 
victorious  arals,  July  26  of  that  yean  Thi^  conquest  not 
only  deprived  the  enemy  of  an  important  place  of  ^strength, 
on  which  the  prosperity  of  their  most  valuable  possessions 
in  America  depended,  as  it  was  the  guardian  and  protector 
of  their  trade  in  that  part  of  the  world,  but  it  also  put 
Great  Britain  in  possession  of  the  navigation  of  the  river 
St.  Lawrence,  cut  off  France  from  the  advantages  of  her 
fishery,  and  by  that  means  considerably  distressed  her 
West  India  islands,  and  finally  opened .  the  road  for  the 
reduction  of  Canada.  The  same  campaign  was  distib«< 
guished. by  another  very  important  atcbievement ;  for  in 
the  month  of  November  following,  a  plan  being  laid  by 
general  Amherst  for  ^e  capture  of  Fort  du  Quesne,  one 
of  the  keys  of  Canada,  situated  on  the  lakes,  and  the 
execution  being  intrusted  to  brigadier- general  Forbes,  the 
assault  proved  successful,  and  the  fortress  was  accordingly 
taken ;  measures  being  adopted  at  the  same  time  with  so 
much  spirit  and  wisdom,  that  the  liidians  were  so  far  de«> 
tached  from  the  alliance  of  the^enemy,  as  to  give  no  ob* 
slaructioii  to  the  expedition.  In  the  ensuing  campaign 
another  strong  station  was  reduced,  under  the  prudent 
auspices  of  general  Amherst.  Sir  WilUadn  Johnson,  to 
M^om  the  command  of  the  expedition  against  Niagara 
devolved,  in  consequence  of  the  accidental  death  of  bri* 
gadier  Prideanx,  on  the  24th  July,  1759,  having  defeated 
and  taken  M.  D^  Aubrey  near  that  place^  4he  fort  surreii<* 
dered  the  next  day.  This  important  victory  threw  the 
whole  of  the  Indian  fur  trade  into  the  hands  of  the  Englicdii ; 
and  also  secui-ed  the  Briti^  dominioua  in  that  quarter  from 
all  hostile  annoyance. 

Some  timie  before  this,  general  Abercrombiii  had  made 
an  unsuccessful  attempt  on  Ticonderoga,  in  which,  toge- 
ther with  a  considerable  number  of  men,  the  Sritish  army 
had  been  deprived  of  those  gallant  young  oflicers,  lord^ 


Hovtfei  aod  cd.  Roger  Townsend.     On  the  26th  July  1759^ 
bowcTer,  the  day  after  the  reduction  of  Niagara,  Ticon->> 
d^roga  surrenderedy  and  this  payed  the  way  for  the  sub* 
jectioD  of  Canada ;  accordingly,  we  find  that  on  the  i  4th 
of  the  following  month,  the  long  and  obstinately  dbputed 
post  of  Crown  Point  surrendl^ed  to  the  Britbh  forces ;  the 
18th  of  the  ensuing  September,  beheld  the  chief  settlement 
of  the  enemy  in  this  part  of  the  globe,  the  ever-to-^be-re-' 
membered  Quebec,  surrendered  upon  capitulation  to  our 
commandei»;    and  in  the  month  of  August,  1760,  the 
French  army  evacuating  Isle  an  Noix,  abandoning  the  Isle 
Gallot,  and  Picquet's  island,'  at  the  approach  of  generals 
Ajodherst,  Isle  Royale  being  taken  by  him,  and  Montreal, 
the  last  remaining  port  of  the  foe,  surrendering  oo  the  8  th 
September  following,  the  whole  provitkce  became  subject 
to  the  British  government.     In  the  mean  time,  the  island 
of  Newfoundland .  having  been  reduced  by  the  French, 
general  Amherst  projected  an  expedition  for  its  recovery* 
The  command  of  this  was  intrusted  to  the  late  major-ge- 
neral William  Amherst  (then  lieutenant  colonel),  who, 
giving  effect  and  action  to  his.  brother's  plan,  happily  re- 
stored the  island  to  its  British  owners,  and  captured  the 
various  garrisons  which  had  been  stationed  by  the  enemy 
in  the  respective  posts. 

General  Amherst  now  seeing  that  the  whole .  continent 
of  North  Ameirica  was  reduced  in  subjection   to  Great 
Britain,  returned  to  New  York,  the  capital  of  the  Britbh 
empire^  aad  was  received  with  all ,  the  respect  due  to  his 
public  services.     The  thanks  of  the  House  of  Cominons 
had  already  been  transmitted  to  him ;  and,  among  other 
honourable  testimonies  of  approbation,  in  1761,  he  was 
created  a  knight  of  the  Bath.     He  had  also  some  time  be- 
fore been  appointed  commander  in  chief  of  all  the  forces 
in  Ajaerica,  and  governor-general  of  the  British  provinces 
there.     But  shortly  after  the  peace  was  ^concluded,    he 
resigned  his  command,  and  returned  to  England,  arriving 
in  London  December   1763.     His  Majesty  received  him 
with  most  gracious  respect  and  approbation,  and  the  go-* 
vernment  of  the  province  of  Virginia  was  conferred  upon 
him,  as  the  first  mark  of  royal  favour.     In   1768,  there 
appears  to  have  been  a  temporary  misunderstanding  be- 
t^ireen  him  and  his  royal  master,  which,    however,    soon 
terminated,  as  in  the  end  of  that  year  he  was  appointed 
cpbnel  of  the  third  regiment  of  foot,  with  permission  to 


108  A  M  H  E  R  S'  *r. 


iTontinue  his  command  of  the  sixtieth;  xyr  royal  Ameriican 
leghnent^  of  four  battalions  ;*  and  in  Oct.  1770,'  h^  Wa^ 
appointed  governor  of  the  island  of  Guernsey,  and'tk^ 
castle  of  Cornet,   with  all  its  dependencies.   -  To  these 
promotions  was  added  the  office  of  lieutenant^^general  of 
the  ordnance,  in  Oct.  1772,  at  which  time  he  wassw<irti 
of  the  privy  council.     From'  this  period,  also,  ^to  the  be-* 
ginning  of  1782,  he  officiated  as  commander  in  ehcef  of 
the  English  forces,  though  he  was  not  promoted  >  to  <  the 
rank  of  general  in  the  army  till  March  1778,  from  whiob* 
period  to  the  time  of  his  resignation,  in  Murdi  1782^  be 
acted  as  eldest  general  on  the  staff  of  England.     Un(il  hw 
sailitary  promotion  in  1778,  he  had  no  higher  appointment 
in  the  army  than  that  of  eldest  lieutenant-general:  on  the 
English  staff.     In  1780,  he  resigned  the  command  of  die 
third  regiment  of  foot,  and  was  promoted  to  the  second 
troop  of  horse  grenadiers.     Besides  thesemilitary  honours, 
be  received  the  dignity  of  the  British  peerage  on  the  '20th 
May,  1776,  by  the  title  of  baron  An^erst,  of  Holmesdale, 
in  the  county  of  Kent.     His  last  public  services  were  the 
means  he  adopted  in  quelling  the  dreadful  riots  in  London 
in  the  month  of  June,  1780.     The  regulations  and  instrtic* 
tions  of  his  lordship  on  this  occasion  were  not  less  distin-^* 
guished  by  wisdom  and  promptitude  than  by  humanity. 

Itt  1782,  on  the  change  of  the  administration  usually  called 
that  of  lord  North,  the  command  of  the  aro^y,  and  the 
lieutenant-generalship  of  ordnance,  were  put  into  other 
hands.  In  1787,  he  received  another  patent  oi  peeri^ey 
as  baron  Amherst,  of  Montreal,  with  remainder  to  his 
nephew,  William  Pitt  Amherst  On  the  staff  being  re- 
established, he  was,  Jan.  22,  1793,  'again  appoint^  to 
the  conimand  of  the  army  in  Great  Britain,  although  at 
that  time,  general  Conway,  the  duke  of  Gloucester,  sir 
George  Howard,  the  duke  of  Argyle,  the  hon«  John«Fitz-- 
william,  and  sir  Charles  Montagu,  were  his  seniors.  On 
the  10th  of  February  1795,  the  command  of  the  army 
being  given  to  the  duke  of  York,  an  offer  of  earldom,  and 
the  rank  of  field  marshal,  were  made  to  lord  Amherst,  who 
then  declined  accepting  them,  but  on  the  30th  July  1196^ 
Accepted  the  rank  of  field-marshal.  His  increasing  age 
and  infirmities,  bad,  however,  rendered  him  unfit  for 
public  business  nearly  two  years  before  this  period,  and 
he  now  retired  to  his  seat  at  Montreal  in  Kent,  where  he 
died  August  3, 1797,  in  the  eighty-first  year  of  his  age^ 


A  M  H  E  R  S  r.  109 

nd  was  interred  in  the  family  vault  in  Seven  Oaka  cfaitrcii, 
on  the  10th.  .  Lord  Amherst  had  been  twice  married;  firsty 
to  Jane,  only  daughter  of  Thomas  Dfllison,  of  Mantem, 
in  Lincolnshire^  esq.  who  died  Jan.  7,  1765 ;  and  second! j^ 
to  Elizabeth,  eid^  daughter  of  general  .George  Cary, 
brother  to  viscount  Falkland,  who  survived  him ;  but  by 
neither  had  he  any  issue. .  His  two  brothers  had  dUdn** 
guished  themsdves  in  the  service  of  their  country  ;  John, 
9UI  admiral  of  the  blue,  died  Feb.  12,  1778  ;  aiid  William, 
already  mentioned,  a  lieutenantrgeneral  in  the  army,  died 
May  13,  1781*  His  son  inherits  lord  Amherst*s  title  and 
estate.  ... 

The  character  of  lord  Amherst'  may  be  collected  froai 
the  particulars  of  his  life.  His  personal  merits,  howjdvec^ 
havie  been  universally  acknowledged.  He  was  a  firm  diB-- 
ciplinarian^  but. ever  the.soldier^s  friend;'  a  inaai.of  strict 
oeconomy,  and  of  a  collected  and  temperate  mind,  .wu|^ 
ready  at  all  times  to  hear,  and  redress  the.  complaints,  of  the 
army  in  general.  No  ostentation  of  her^ip  mai^^ed  any 
of  his  action^ ;  but  the  whole  of :  his  conduct .  eviaoed  the 
firm  simplicity  of  a  brave  mimd,  animatjRci«by  the  Qonsciraa- 
aess  of  what  was.due  .to  himself  and.  to  his  /country,  la 
private  life,  .Jus  charactel:  lias  been  jretur^entied  ai  truly 


AMHUBST  (MiCHOliAS),  an  English i political  and  m»- 
cellan^ous. writer,  was  «b^  Marden.inijiCenti  but  ia 
what  year  is  uncertain,  a^pv^sage  in  his  Terjca^ 
Filtusy  it  *woald  appear  to .  be  about  1706.  Under  the 
tuition  of  his:  graii(d£atber,  .a  clergyman,  b^  >repeived  /b«s 
ipmmatical  education-  at  Mercha'ut-Taylor^s  s4ihaol  in 
Eondon ;  and  thence  was  removed  tp  ^t.  John's  college^ 
Oxford,  whence  he.  was  expelled  on  a  charge  of  UberMnism, 
irr^ularity,  and  his  insulting  behaviour  towards  the  pre<- 
sident  of  the  college.  Fromthis  o^fn  account  of,  the  matter, 
in  the  .dedication  of  his  poems  to  Dr.  Pelaune,  president 
of  St  John's,  and  in  his  ^'  Terrsa  Filius,"  we  may'^oUect 
that  he  wished  to  have  it  understood,  that  he  was  solely 
perse'cnted.for  the. liberality  of  his  sentiments,  and  his  at- 
tachment to  the  cause  of  the  Revolution  and  of  the  Hauo*- 
v^rsuQoessiofi.  Whatever  were  the  <pisf  s|  of  his  eKpulsion, 
his  j^sentment,  ,on  the  account  of  it,  although  violent,  vi{%5 

>  Gent  Hagi  1797.--^molIett'fi  CQQitmuatioQ.<>---A»nu{illleg:isterj  and  coil* 
temporary  p«riodical  pttblicatiotts.' }*  '  '        ■ 

no  AM  HUB  ST. 

r  impotent.     He  made  it  his  busaaess  to  tatftize  the  leanung 

and  discipline  of  the  unirersity  of  Oxford,  and  tm  libel 

.  the  characters  of  lis  principal  members.    Th^s  he  did  in  a 

.  poem  published  in  172^4,  called  '^  Oculus  Britamiis^'*  and 
in  his  "  Tarrae  Filius/*  a  work  in  which  is  displayed  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  wit,  intermixed  witib  intemperate  sa» 
tire.  The  foU  title  of  the  work  is,  ^^  TerrsB  Filim ;  or  the 
r  secret  history  of  the  university  of  Oxford ;  in  several  es* 
^says.  To  which  are  added,  Remarks  upon  a  late  book, 
entitled,  University  Education,  by  R.  Newton,  D.  D.  pdai- 
oipal  of  Hart  Hall,''  2  vols.  12mo,  printed  for  R,  Eraiick« 
lin,  r726.  Amidst  all  the  malignity  and  exaggeraticm  witb 
wjuch  the  Terr»  Fiiius  abound,  it  contains  some  euiious 
-aneedotes  relative  to  the  principles,  maniieys^  and  conduct 
of  several  membess  of  the  unFrersity,  for  a  few  years  after  the 
accession  of  king  George  I. ;  but  they  are  to  be  read  with 

i^caution.  It  had  been  an  ancient  custom  in  the  univennty  of 
Oxford,  at  public  acts,  for  B&me  person,  who  was  called 
Terrie  Ifilius,  to  mount  the  rostrum,  and  diveit  a  large 
crowd  of  spectators,  who  flodked  4to  hear  him  frcmi  all  parts, 
-mkh  a  merry  oration  in  th#  fescennine  manner,  inter^ 
'«persed  with  secret  histoiy,  raillery,  and  sarcasm,  as  iim 
Qcoasions  of  the  times  supplied  him  with  matter.  Wood, 
in  his  Athene,  mentions  several  instances  of  this  oustbm ; 
4iiid  hence  Mr.  Amhurst  took  the  title  of  his  work.  It  was 
4iriginally  written  in  1721,  in  a  pmodical  paper,  which 
cuue  out  twice  «  week,  and  x^onsitts  of  fifty  numbers.     • 

Soon  after  Mt  Amhurst  quitted  Oxford,  he  seems  to 
have  settled  in  London^  as  a  writer  by  profession.  He 
ipuUished  a  volume  of  ^  Miscellanies,**  (principally  writtgii 
<Qt  ihe  university),'  on  a  variety  of  subjects  ^  partly  ori^- 
'iials,  and  partly  paraphrases,  imitations,  and  translations ; 
-and  consisting  of  tales,  epigrams,  epistles,  love*verses, 
-elegies,  and  satires.  They  begin  wi^  a  beautiful  para- 
phrase on  the  Mosaic  atconnt  of  the  creation,  and>end 
with  a  very  humorous  tale  upon  the  discovery  of  that 
useftil  instrument  a^  bottle«^crew.  '  Mr.  Amhurst  was  the 
author,  likewise,  of  an  *^  Epistle  to  sir  John  Blount,"  bart. 
-one  of  the  direfetors  of  the  South-Sea  Company  in  1720; 
«f  the  ^^  BritishrO^ileral,**  a  poem  sacred  to  the  memory 
of  bis  grace  John -duke  of  Marlborough;  and -of  *' Stre- 
phon's  revenge,*'  a  satire  on  the  Oxford  toasts.    Our  poet, 

'who  had  a  great  enmity  to  the  clergy,  and  who  bad  early, 
at  Oxford,   displayed  his  zeal    against  what  he  called 

▲  M  H  U  R  S  T.  lu 

piieitlj  powtflTy  discovered  this  purticularly  in  a  pdem  en^ 
titled  the  ^  Convocatbn/*  in  five  cantos ;  ar  kind  of  satire 
gainst  all  the  writers  who  had  oppo^pd  bishop  Hoadly,  in 
the  fiuftOtts  Baiigorian  controversy*     He  translated  also, 
Mr.  Addison^s  Resurrection, '  and  some  other  of  his  l^atin 
poems*     But  the  principal  literary  undertaking  of  Mr.  Am- 
hurst  vnkj  his  conducting  <*  The  Craftsman/'  which  was 
carried  on  for  a  numb^  of  years  with  great  spirit  and 
success ;  and  was  more  r^ad  atid  attended  to  than  an v  pro^ 
duction  of  the  kind  which  had  hidierto  been  published  in 
England.     Ten  or  twelve  thousand  were  sold  in  a  day;  and 
the-  effect  wbich  it  had  in  raising  the  indignation  of  the 
people,  and  in  controlling  the  power  of  the  Walpoie  ad- 
ministration, wa^  very  considerable.    Thi$  effect  was  not, 
however,  entirely,  or  diiefly,  owing  to  the  abilities  of  Mr. 
Affihurst.     He  was  assisted  by  lord  Bolingbroke  and  Mr. 
Pulteney,  and  by  -odier  leaders  of  the  opposition,  whole 
fame  and  writings  were  ^h'e  grand  support  of  the  *'  Crafts- 
)SiaA.*'     Nevertheless,'  Mr.  An^urst^s  own  papers  are  al- 
lowed t6  tkave  been  composed  with  aUlity  and  spirit,  and 
he  conducted  the  '*  Craftiman**  in  the  very  zenith  of  its 
^  prosperity,  with  no  small  reputation  to  himself.    July  2,^ 
1737,  there  appeared  in  that  publication  an  ironical  letter, 
in  the  name  of  Colley  Cibber,  the  design  of  which  was  to 
ridicule  the  act  that  had  just  passed  for  licensing  plays* 
In  this   letter,   the  laureat  proposes  himself  to  the  lord 
chamberlain  to  be  made  ^uperintendant  of  the  old  plays,  as 
standing  equally  in  need  of  correction  with  the  new  ones  ; 
and  produces  several  passages  from  Shsikspesre,  and  othef 
poets,  in  relation  to  kings,  ^eensy  princes,  and  ministers 
*  of  state,  wiiich,  he  iays,  are  not  now  fit  to  be  brought 
on  the  stage.     The  print-er,  &c.  having  %een  laid  hold  of 
by  order  of  government,  Mr.  Amhurst  hearing  that  a  war- 
rant fr6m  the  duke  of  N^^castle  was  issued  against  him, 
surrendered  himself  to  a  messenger,  and  was  carried  be- 
fore bis  grac^  to  be  examined.    The'  crinae  imputed  to 
him  v^SLSy  that  *^  he  was  suspected  to  -  be  '  tiie  author  of  a 
paper  suspeeted  to  be  a  libel."   ,  As  no  proofs  were  alleged 
against  him,  nor  witnesses  j^toduced,  an  e:ra!mi  nation  of 
thi^  kind  could  not  Ust  iong. '   As«sebfi  as  it  was  over,  he 
was  told  tfasit  the  crime  f>^ing  baLilable,  he  should  foe  bailed 
upon  'findin^g  sufficient  secu^ies  to  answer  lor  his^appeay-i 
ance  and  trial ;  but  these  terms  being  imposed  upon  hin^ 
he  absbldtejiy  4  re£ased«     Upoo  tUs  reft»ai,  he  Ivasret* 


>14  AMHUR:ST. 

manded  back  into  custody,  and  the  next  ddf  •  l^rougfat  his 
habeas  corpus,  and  was  then  set  at  liberty ,.  by  coDsent^ 
till  the  twelve  Judops  should  determine  the  ^question, 
*^  Whether  he  was  obliged  to  give  bail  for  his  good  be-> 
baviour,  as  well  as  his  appearance,  before  he  .wa^;  entitled 
to  his  liberty .''  This  determipation  •  was  in^patiently  ex<- 
pect^d  by  the  .public,  and  several  days  wexe. fixed  for 
hearing  counsel  qp  boUi  sidesi,  but  no  proceedings  pf :  that 
kind  took  place,  and  the  questiMi  remained  undetermined 
iintil  the  days  of  Wilkep. 

,  Notwithstanding  this  show  of  firmness^  and  his  otlier  ser- 
vices, Mr.  Amhurst  was  totally  neglected  by  his  <;oadjutors  in 
the  Craftsipan,  when  they  made  their  terms  with  the  crown ; 
and  he  died  soon  after,  of  a  fever,  at  Twickepb^m.  His  death 
happened  April  27, 1742 ;  and  his  disorder  was  probably  oc- 
casioned, in  a  great  measure,  by  the  ill  usage  he  had  receiv- 
e^T^Mv.  Ralph,  in  his  ^^Case  of  AuthprB,^'sp^ak^\yith  much 
indignation  irpon  the  subject.  **  Poor  Amhty?^t,  ^fter  bav* 
ing  been  the  dri^dg^  of  his  party,  for  the  best  .par;!;  pf  tw^ty 
years  together,  was  as  piuch  forgptten  in  the  fa^ipps;  cpm* 

Eromise  of  1742,  as  if  he  had  pfver  lueen  bpijn.!,  ^4  when 
s  died  of  what  is  called  a  broken  I^eatt,  whiph  Ji^ppened 
a. few  months raftenyards,  became  indebted  to  the  ch?grify 
of  a  bookseller  for  ^  grave ;  not'  to'  be  traced^  uow,  b^ause 
then  no  otherwise  .to  be  distinguished,  than  by  the  fresh* 
i^ess  of  the  tprf,  borrowed  fron^  the  next  common  t;p  cover 
it.''  Mr.  T.  .Payi^s  the  bookseller, .  in  hi^  characvter  of 
Mr.  Pulteney^  qxpi^esses  himself  concerning  the  tireatment 
of  Mr.  Amhurst  in  the  following  terms :  ''  But  if  the  earl 
of  Bath  had  his  list  of  pensioners,  how  comes  it  that  Am- 
hurst was  forgottep  ?  The  fate  of  this  poor  man  is  singular  :• 
He  was  the  able  assoqiate  of  Bolmgbroke  aiid  Pulteney, 
in  writing  the  celebrated  weekly  paper  called  ^  The 
Craftsman.'  ,  His  abilities  were  unquestionable :  be  had 
almost  as  much  wit,  learning,  and  various  knowledge,  as 
his  two  partners  :  and  when  those  great  mas t|&r$;  chose  not 
to  appear  in  public  themselves,  he  s^upplied  < their  places 
so  ^ell,  that  his  essays  were  often  ascribed  to  them,  .Am-, 
hurst  survived  the  downfall  of  .Walpole's  power^.^and  had 
reason  to  expect  a  reward  for  his  labouri^,  ;  If  we  excuse 
Bolingbrpke,  ^who  had  only  saved  th^  shipwr^k  of  his 
fortunes,  we  shall  be  at  a  loss  to  justify  Pult^gey^  :wha 
could,  with  ease  have  given  thi&man  aconsideri^b^e  income. 
The  utmost  of  bis  generosity  to  Amhurst,  t^sx  I  je]^ pr  Ipi^ar^ 

AM  H  U  R  6  T.  llj 

]af,,w&s  SLtbogphead  of  claret !  He  died,  it  is  supposed,  of  a 
i>roken  heart,  and  was  buried  at  the  charge  of  his  honest 
printer^  Richard  FranckUn.".  Mr.  Amhurst  was,  however, 
one  bf  those  imprudent  and. extravagant  men,  whose  irre- 
f^ularities,  in  spite  of  their  talents,  bring  thetn  at  length 
into  general  disesteem  and  neglect ;  although  this  does 
not  excuse  ;the  conduct  of  his  employers.  His  want  of 
purity  in  morals  was  no  objection  to  their  connection  with 
him,  when  he  could  serve  their  purpose.  And  they  might 
ha^^  easily  provided  for  him,  and  placed  bim  above 
necessity  during  the  remainder  of  his'  days..  The  ingrati- 
tude of  statesmen  to  the  persons  whom  they  jnake  us^  of 
as  the  instruments  of  theiir  ambition,  should  furnish  an  in- 
struction to  men  of  abilities  in  future  times  ;  and  engage 
them  to  build  their  happiness  on  the  foundation  of  their 
own  personal  integrity,  discretion,  and  virtue.  ^ 

AMICO  (Antonine  d'),  of  Messina,  canon  of  the  ca* 
thedral  of  Palermo,  and  historiographer  to  Philip  IV.  king 
of  Spain,  acquired  much  reputation  for  his  knowledge  in 
the  history  and  antiquities  of  Sicily.  Of  bis  numerous 
works  on  this  subject,  some  have  been  printed,  and  the 
manuscripts  of  the  rest  were  after  his  death  deposited  in 
the  libraries  of  the  duke  of  Madonia  and  of  Palafox,  arch« 
bishop  of  Palermo.  Those  published  are,  1.  "  Trium 
orientalium  Latinorum  ordinum,  post  captam  a  duce 
Gotbofredo  Hierusalem^  &c.  notitiae  et  tabularia,**  Pa* 
lermo,  1636,  fol.  2.  ^^  Dissertatio  historica  et  chronologica 
de  antiquo  urbis  Syracusarum  archiepiscopatu,"  Naples, 
1640,  4to.  This  relates  to  the  serious  disputes  between 
the, three  churches  of  Syracuse,  Palermo,  and  Messina, 
jpespecting  the  metropolitan  title*  and  rights,  and  was  in« 
«erted,  with  the  answers,  in  the  7  th  vol.  of  the  *'  Thesaurus 
antiquitatum  SiciUae,"  Leyden,  1723.  3.  "  Series  amr 
miratorum  insulse  Siciliae,  ab  ann.  842  ad  1640,"  Paler- 
mo, .1640,  4to.  4.  ^^  De  Messanensis  prioratus  sacrse 
hospilttatis  domus  militum  sancti  Joan.  Hierosolymitani 
origine,'*  Palermo,  1640,  4to.  5.  "  Chronologia  de  los 
Virreyes,  &c.  de  Sicilia,"  Palermo,  1640,.  4to.  Amico 
died  Oct  22  in  the  year  following  the  publication  of  th« 
four  la8t«>mentioned  works. ' 

1  Biog.Brit— I^rd  Chesterfield't  Characters  revicwcidr. 
•  "*  Moferu--*Bioe.  UaiTer^ell*. 

Yot.U.  I 


lu  A  M  I  e  a. 

AMieO  (Bartboudmbw),  a  Iwmtd  JtsQit^  hmn  «l 
Anro  in  Lucaoia  in  1362,  vpu  piofes6€»r  of  pbilMopliy 
and  theology  in  the  college  at  Naples,  and  its  preiidentt 
for  some  years.  He  died  in  1649.  His  fiune^  as  fiur  aa 
he  can  now  be  allowed  a  share,  rests  principally  on  a  tOf 
luminous  work  on  the  writings  of  Aristotla,  entitled  ^.ta 
universam  Aristotelis  philosopbiam  notss  et  dispotationei^ 
quibus  illustrium  scholarum,  Averroi%  D.  ThomsB,  Sooti, 
el/KoQiinalium  yententiae  espendantui^  eanunque  titan* 
darnm  probabiles  modi  afFeruntur,''  7  voUvfoi  l^iS-*-1^4a. 
He  wrote  other  works,  of  which  a  catalogue  is  J^ymi  by 
Alegambe,  Blbl.  Script.  Soo.  Jesu.  ^ 

AMICO  (JBEaKAHDiNB),  an  artist  aad  an  author,  was  % 
Franciscan  of  Gallipoli,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  and 
prior  of  his  order  at  Jerusalem.  During  a  residmice  of  fi«# 
year^  there,  he  made  drawings  and  wrote  descriptions  of 
that  city  and  neighbourhood ;  and  on  bis  return  to  Itaiy, 
published  a  magnificent  volume,  entitled  <<  Trattato  deUe 
Piante  e  immagini  de'  sacri  edifisi  di  Terra  Santa,'* 
Rome,  1620.  The  plates  were  engraved  by  the  odehrated 

AMICO  (Vito-Maria),  a  nobleman  of  Catania  in 
Bicily,  born  in  1693,  was  for  many  years  professor  of  phi- 
losophy and  theology,  and  was  not  less  distinguished  for 
genersd  learning,  than  for  his  acquaintance  with  the  an« 
tiquities  of  Sicily.  He  was  chosen  prior  of  his  order  in  1 14&^ 
His  publications  are  :  1 .  ^^  Sicilia  sacra,  disquisitionibus  et 
notitiis  illustrata,'*  Venice,  (although  in  the  title  Palecmo^ 
1738,  2  vols.  fol.  Of  this,  however,  he  only  wrote  the 
second  part,  and  being  dissatisfied  with  this  edition,  hm 
reprinted  that  part,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Sicilis  sacrae  ^hii 
IV.  integra  pars  secunda,''  1733,  fol.  2.  <*  Catana  illui* 
trata,''  Catania,  4  vols.  fol.  1741—1746.  The  tin|e  of 
his  death  is  not  specified*  * 

AMICONI  (GiACOMO),  a  painter  well  known  in  Eiig» 
land,  was  a  native  of  Venice,  and  cams  to  fii^^and  ia 
1729,  when  he  was  about  forty  years  of  age.  He  had 
studied  under  Bellucci  in  the  Palatine  court,  and  had  beea 
some  years  in  the  elector  of  Bavaria's  service*  Hiaaianner 
was  a  still  fainter  imitation  of  that  nerveless  master  8e» 
bastian  Ricci,  an4  as  void  of  the  glow  of  life  as  the  Nea« 
politan  Solimeni.    His  women  are  mere  chalk ;  nqt  ^fts 

A  M  I  0  O  N  I.  115 

^iiis  his  worst  defect :  his  figures  are  so  entirely  without 
expression^  that  his  historical  compositions  seem  to  repre* 
sent  a  set  of  actors  in  a  tragedy,  ranged  in  attitudes  againsl 
the  curtain  draws  up.  His  Marc  Antonys  are  as  free,  from 
passipu  as  his  Scipios.  He  painted  some  staircases  o( 
noblemea's  bouses,  and  afterwards  practised  portrait-paint- 
ing with  rather  more  success.  In  1736  he  made  a  journey 
to  Paris  with  the  celebrated  singer  Farinellii  and  returned 
with  him  in  October  following.  His  por.trait  of  Farioelli 
was  ^agraved.    He  then  engaged  with  Wagner,  an  en* 

?uyer,  in  a  scheme  of  prints  from  Canaletti's  views  of 
enice,  and  after  mfirrying  an  Italian  singer,  returned  to 
his  own  <;ountry  ^n  1739,  having  acquired  h^re  about 
^OOOL  At  last  he  settled  in  Spain,  was  appointed  paiutet 
to  the^king,  and  died  in  the  63d  year  of  his  age,  at  Madrid^ 
l^eptemher  1752.  His  daughters,  the  signora  Belluomini 
^n4  the  signora  Castellini,  the  latter  a  paintress  in  crayons^ 
were  living  at  Madrid  in  1772,  as  Mc  Twi^s  informs  us  io 
his  Travels,  p.  167,  1775,  4ta 

Such  is  lord  Orford^s  account  of  this  painter.  Mr.  PiU 
kington^s  character  is  rather  mpre  favourable,  although 
perhaps  modern  coniioi^s^urs  will  place  less  dependance  on 
it  Amiconi  possessed,  says  this  writer,  a  very  fertile  in<^ 
▼entiou  ;  his  taste  of  design  was  considerably  elegant ;  and 
the  air  and  turq  of  some  g^  his  figures,  in  his  best  compo-* 
^tioofi^  were  allowed  t2>  have  somewhat  engaging,  natural^ 
IDd  even  graceful.  He  confesiedly  had  many  of  the  ac- 
^inplishments  of  a  good  painter ;  but,  although  his  merit 
must  in  many  respects  be  allowed,  and  his  drawing,  in 
particular,  is  generally  correct^  yet  his  colouring  is  ahun«? 
HJLantly  too  cold,  too  pale,  and  (as  it  is  termed  by  the  artists) 
too  mealy.  * 

AMIOT  (FATHia),  one  of  the  most  learned  French 
missrionaqes  in  China,  and  a  Chinese  historian,  was  born 
at  Tqulqp  in  1.7 1 8 .  The  last  thirty  years  of  the  last  century 
have  be^n  those  ia  which  we  have  ao(}uired  most  knowledge 
Qf  Chilli*  The  French  missionaries  during  that  time  have 
tf^en  every  pains  to  he  able  to  answer  the  multitude  of 
inquiries  sent  to  them  from  Europe,  and  among  them 
fi^ister  Amiot  mu^t  be  coi^sidered  as  the  fli^t  in  point  of 
^uracy,  and  extensive  knowledge  of  the  antiquities, 
|M^cy>  languages,  and  arts  of  China.    Thb  learn<^Q  Jesuit 

1  9rf«ra*i  Wwka,  toI.  IU<--.pilkiiigto«» 

I  2 

U«  A  M  I  O  T.  - 


arrived'at  Macao  in  1750;  and  at  Pekin,  to  which  be  wa# 
invited  by  order  of  the  emperor,  in  August  1751,  and  re- 
maiined  in  that  capital  for  the  long  space  of  forty-three 
years.  In  addition  to  the  zeal  which  prompted  him  to  be- 
come a  missionary,  he  was  indefatigable  in  his- researches, 
and  learned  in  those  sciences  which  rendered  them  useful. 
He  understood  natural  history,  mathematics;  had  some 
taste  for  music,  an  ardent  spirit  of  inquiry,  anda  retentive 
memory;  and  by  continual  application  soon  became  fa- 
miliar with  the  Chinese  and  Tartar  languages,  which  en- 
abled him  to  consult  the  best  authorities  in  both,  respecting 
history,  sciences,  aind  literature.  The  result  of  these  la- 
bours he  dispatched  to,  France  from  time  to  time,  either  in 
Volumes,  or  memoirs.  His  principal  communications  in 
both  forms,  were :  1.  **  A  Chinese  poem  in  praise  of  the 
city  of  Moukden,"  by  the  emperor  Kien  Long,  translated 
into  Ffencb,  with  historical  and  geographical  notes  and* 
plates,  Paris,  1770,  8vo.  2,  ^*  The  Chinese  Military- 
Art,*'  ibid.  1772,  4t05  reprinted  in  vol.  VII.  of  "  Memoires 
sur  les  Chinois  ;'*  and  in  vol.  VIII.  is  a  supplement  sent 
afterwards  by  the  author.  The  Chinese  reckon  six  clas- 
sical works  on  the  military  art,  and  every  soldier  who 
aspires  to  rank,  mu^st  undergo  an  examination  on  them  alL 
Aniiot  translated  the  first  three,  and  some  parts  of  the 
fourth,  because  these  alone  contain  the  whole  of  the  Chi- 
nese principles  of  the  art  of  war.  3.  "  Letters  on  the- 
Clrintese  characters,"  addressed  to  the  Royal  Society  of 
Ldidon,  and  inserted  in  vol.  I.  of  the  ^^  Memoires  sur  left 
Chijiois,"  and  occasioned  by  the  following  circumstance : 
in  176'!,  the  ingenious  Mr.  Turberville  Needham  pub» 
lished  some  coBJectures  relative  to  a  supposed  connectiorr 
between  the  hieroglyphical  writing  of  the  ancient  Egyp* 
tians,  and  the  characteristic  writing  now  in  use  among  the 
Chinese ;  founded  ppon  certahi  symbols  or  characters  in- 
ftcfibed-  dn  the  celebrated  bust  of  Isis,  at  Turin,  wbich 
appeared  to  hrm  to  resemble  several  Chinese  characters^ 
Frotti  this  he  conjectured  ;  firsts  that  the  Chinese  charac* 
terl  are  the  same,  in  many  respects,  as  the  hieroglyphics 
of  tgyptj  and  secondly,  that  the  sense  of  the  hiero-» 
gtyphics  may  be  investigated  by  the  eotnparative  and  ap- 
propriated '  signification  of  the'  Chinese  characters.  But 
as  tbe>  similarity  b^etween  the  two  species  of  writing  was 
.:.*-^on tested,  ixn  appeal  was  made  to  the  literati  of  China, 
ATud  the  secxetary  of  the  Boyal  Society,  Dr.  Charles  Morton, 

A  M  I  O  T.  m 

addressed,  himself  on  tbe  subject  to  the  Jesuits  at  Pekin^ 
who  appointed  Amiot  to  return  an  answer,  which  may  be 
seen  in  the  Phil.  Transactions,  vol.  LIX.  It  in  general 
gives  the  negative,  to  Needhani's  opinion,  but  refers  the 
complete  (i|^cision  of  the  question  to  the  learned  socie^ty, 
which  he  furnishes  with  suitable  documents,  copies  of  in* 
scriptions,  &c« 

His  next  communication  was,  4.  ^'  On  the  music  of  the 
Chinese,  ancient  and  modern,^'  which  fills  the  greater  part 
of  vol.  VI.  of  the  "  Mempires  sur  les  Chinois."  5.  "  The 
Life  of  Confucius,"  the  most  accvii*ate  history  of  that  phi- 
losopher,  and  taken  from  the  most  authentic  sources,  with 
a  long  account  both  of  his  ancestors  and  descendants,  who 
yet  exist  in  China^  a  genealogy  which  embraces  four  cen* 
turies.  This  life,  which  is  illustrated  with  plates  from 
Chinese  designs,  occupies  the  greater  part  of  vol.  XII.  of 
the  "  Memoires,  &c.'*  6.  "  Dictionnaire  Tatarmant- 
cheou-Fran9ais,"  Paris,  1789,  3  vols.  4to,  a  work  of  great 
value,  as  this  language  was  before  unknown  in  Europe. 
The  publication  of  it  was  owing  to  the  spirit  and  liberality 
of  the  deceased  minister  of  state,  M.  Bertin,  who  bore 
the  expence  of  the  types  necessary,  and  employed  M. 
Langles,  a  learned  orientalist,  to  superintend  the  press. 
Amiot  also  sent  over  a  grammar  of  that  language,  which 
is  printed  in  the  Xlllth  volume  of  the  "  Memoires."  lie 
pubhshed  in  the  same  work,  a  great  many  letters,  pb*| 
servations,  and  papers,  on  the  history,  arts,  and  sgiexices; 
of  the  Chinese,  some  of  which  are  noticed  in  the  Montbly^ 
Review  (see  Index),  and  in  the  index  to  the  "  Memoires,'' 
in  which  his  contributions  fill  many  columns.  He  died  at 
Pekin,  in  1794,  aged  seventy -seven.  * 

AMMAN  (John  Conrad),  a  Swiss  physician,  born  at 
SchaiFhausen  in  1669,  applied  himself  particularly  to  the 
leaching- of  those  to  speak  who  were  born  deaf,* 
quired  great  reputation  for  this  talent  both  in  France  and 
Holland,  as  well  as  in  his  own  country.  He  publisl^ed 
the  method  he  had  employed,  in  two  small  tracts,  which 
are  curious,  and  much  sought  after :  one  under  the  title  of 
"  Surdns  loquens,''  Harlemii,  1692,  8vo ;  the  other, 
"De  Loquela,"  Ainst  1700,  12mo.;  which  last,  translated 
into  French,  is  inserted  in  Deschamps'  "  Cours  d' education 

1  Biog.    Universelle.— Monthly   Review  ubi  lupra.— •Phllot.  Trewtacttons, 

lis  AMMAN. 

des  sourds  et  muets/*  1779,  l2mo.  Amman  also  pub^ 
lisfaed  jt  gbod  edition  of  the  works  of  Cofelius  Aorelianus, 
1709,  4to,  with  Janson  D'Almeloveen*s  notes.  He  died 
at  Marmund,  in  Holland,  in  1724.  His  son,  John,  borii 
in  J  707,  was  also  a  physician,  but  particnlarly  skilled  in 
Botany,  on  which  he  gave  lectufes  at  Petersburgh^  whet^ 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  academy  of  sciences. 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London. 
Being  desirous  of  extending  the  knowledge  of  those  plants 
which  CJmelin  and  other  travellers  had  discovered  in  thfe 
different  countries  of  Asiatic  Russia,  he  published  **  Stir- 
pium  rariorum  in  imperio  Rutheno  sponte  provenientium 
ifcones  et  descriptiones,"  Petersburgh,  ITS 9,  4to,  which 
would  have  been  followed  by  another  Vbliime,  if  the  author 
had  not  died  in  the  prime  of  life,  in  1740.  * 

AMMAN,  (JosT,  or  Justus),  a  painter  and  engraver, 
was  bom  at  Zurich,  June  1539.  His  youth  and  studies 
are  involved  in  obscurity,  ttnA  tbte  first  notice  Wfe  have  of 
him  is  in  1560,  when  he  went  to  Nuremberg,  where  he  was 
admitted  a  burgess,  and  where  he  died  in  1591.  Here  he 
began  in  designs  on  wood,  paper,  and  copper,  that  career 
ci  incessant  and  persevering  exertion  ^ich  bver-rtm  all 
Germany.  Histoty,  allegoty,  emblem,  «fcienc<is,  trades, 
arts,  i]frofe8sions,  rural  sports,  heraldrVt  portrait,  fashions, 
were  all  served  in  their  turns,  and  onen  served  so  well, 
dxat  his  inventions  may  still  be  consult^  by  the  artist  with 
advahtage.  He  painted  with  great  brHliaticy  on  g)ass« 
Slis  drawings  hatched  with  the  pen,  or  washed,  have  Italian 
characteristics  ot  style  and  execution. 

The  multitude  of  designs  which  h^  m&de,  and  the  num- 
ber of  plates  which  he  engraved,  are  incredible.  He  lived 
at  a  time  when  almost  every  book  Which  made  its  appear « 
ance  was  drnamented  with  prints,  and  he  was  employed 
mostly  by  the  great  booksellers,  especially  by  Feyeraband. 
There  are  editions  of  Livy,  Tacitus,  Diogenes  Laertius, 
and  many  other  classics,  with  his  prints.  His  portraits  of. 
the  kings  of  France,  with  short  methoirs,  appeared  in 
1576.  He  engraved  also  for  the  New  Testament,  and  a 
**Theatrum  nmlierum,*'  Francfort,  1586,  4to.  One  of 
his  most  curious  works  is  the  *^  Panoplia  omnium  liberalhim, 
mechanicarum  et  sedentiarium  artium  genera  continens," 
Francfort,  1564,  a  collection  of  one  hundred  and  fifteen 

1  Biog.  UniTenelle.— Diet.  Hist-^Hah.  Bibl.  Med. ' 

AMMAN.  115 

|^)Mi%  €9cliU»fting  the  T«rioiis  artificers  at  work.    In  the 
plate  of  the  art  t>f  engraving,  he  introduced  k  portrait  of 

AMMAN  (Paul),  a  learned  German  physician  aod 
bottauti  vna  bora  at  Breslaw  in  1634.  After  studying  in 
JrariQUs  Genoum  universities,  he  travelled  to  Holland  and 
Skif^md^  received  his  doctor's  degree  at  Leipsic,  and  was 
adodtned  a  aaember  of  the  society  of  natural  history 
(racadeoiie  de  cuiiettx  de  la  nature)  under  the  name  dF 
Orjrander.  3n  1674,  an  eKtraordinary  professorship  was 
eslaMidiad  ^  him,  from  which  he  was  promoted  to  that 
of  botanj,  and  in  i6S2,  to  that  of  physiology.  Amman 
mm  It  man  of  a  lively  and  somewhat  turbtrient  cast,  and 
Althongti  idl  h»  writii^s  discover  great  learning  and  talents 
IB  his  {irofession,  yet  he  is  often  harsh  in  his  remarks  on 
dtherst  ^^^^  of  paradox,  and  affects  a  jocular  humour  not 
Very  well  suited  to  die  nature  of  the  subjecu  on  which  he 
treats.  His  first  work  was  a  critical  extract  from  the  dif * 
ferent  decisions  in  the  registers  of  the  faculty  of  Leipsic, 
Erfwt^  1670,  4t0 ;  on  /vi^ich  they  tliought  proper  to  pass 
a  public  censure,  in  their'  answer  published  in  the  same^ 
j^ar,  under  the  title  '^  ilacultatis  medic9&  Lipsienns  ex- 
cusatio,  «&€»"  His  otfaenr  productions  were,  1.  <^  Parasnesis 
ad  docentes  occUpata  circa  institutionum  noedicarum  eraen«> 
dationen,'^  Audulstadt,  1673,  12mo,  a  vehement  invec* 
tive  against  medical  systems,  especially  the  Galenic,  in 
whiph  he  certainly  points  out  errors  and  abuses ;  hut,  as 
Haller  observes,  without  pointing  out  any  thing  better. 
iieichner  and  others  wrote  against  this  work,  whom  he  an«* 
sweredy  in  2.  ^^  Arcbaeas  syncopticus,  £coardi  Leichneri, 
&c.  oppositus,"  1674,  12ma  3.  <'  Irenicum  Numse  Fom- 
pilii  com  Hippocrates  quo  veterum  medicorum  et  philo«> 
sophorum  hypotheses,  &c.  a  prteconceptis  opinionibus 
vindioa&tur,"  francfort,  1689,.  8vo,  a  work  of  a  satirical 
cast,,  and  much  m  iiie  spirit  of  the  former.  4.  ^^  Praxis 
vulnerum  letbalium,"  Francfort,  1690,  8vo.  As  a  bo<> 
tanist,  he  publ^hed  a  description  of  the  garden  at  Leipsic, 
and  ^<  Charaoter  naturalis  plantarum,'*  1676,.  a  work  which 
eatitles  him  to  rank  among  those  who  have  most  ably  con* 
tributed  to  the  advancement  of  the  science  of  botany  as 
we  now  have  it  Nehel  published  an  improved  edition  of 
this  work  in  1700.    Amman,  who^m,  we  mayadd;|  Ualler 

}  StruU  and  Pilkington^s  DiclioiMiries. 

120  AMMAN. 

characterises  as  a  man  of  a  caustic  turn^  and  som6What 
conceited,  died  in  1691,  in  bis  fifty-fifth  year.  ^ 

AMMANATI  (Bahtholomew),  a  celebrated  architect' 
and  sculptor,  was  born  at  f'lorence  in  1511,  and  was  at  first 
the  scholar  of  Baccio  Bandinelli,  and  then  of  Sansoviao 
at  Venice ;  but  on  his  return  to  his  own  country,  he  studied 
with  much  enthusiasm  the  sculptures  of  Michael  Angelo  in 
the  chapel  of  St.  Laurence.  His  first  works  are  at  Pisa ; 
for  Florence  he  executed  a  Leda,  and  about  the  same  time^ 
for  Naples,  the  three  figures,  large  as  hfe,  on  the  tomb  »t^ 
the  poet  Sannazarius.  Meeting  with  some  unpleasant  cir- 
cumstances here,  he  returned  to  Venice,  and  made  the 
colossal  Neptune,  which  is  in  St.  Mark^s  place.  At  Padua 
he  made  another  colossal. statue,  of  Hercules,  which  is  still 
in  the  Montava  palace,  and  has  been  engraved.  He  then 
went  to  Rome  to  study  the  antique,  and  pope  Julius  IIL 
Employed  him  in  works  of  sculpture  in  th6  capitol.  Some 
time  after,  in  conjunction  with Vasari,  he  erected  the  tomb 
of  cardinal  de  Monti,  which  ddded  very  considerably. to" his 
fame..'  Besides  these,  he  executed  a  great  number,  of 
works  for  Rome,  Florence,  and  other  places.  The  porti- 
coes of  the  court  of  the  palace  Pitti  are  by  him,  as  well  as 
the  bridge  oft^e  Trinity,  one  of  the  finest  structures  that 
have  been  raised  since  the  revival  of  the  arts,  the  facade  of 
the  Roman  college,  and  the  palace  Rupsoli  on  the  Corso» 
This  architect  composed  a  large  work,  entitled  "  La  Cita,** 
comprising  designs  for  all  the  public  edifices  necessary  to  a 
great  city.  This  book,  after  having  passed  successively 
through  several  hands,  was  presented  some  time  in  the 
eighteenth  century  to  prince .  Ferdinand  of  Tuscany,  and 
it  is  now  among  the  collection  'of  designs  in  the  gallery  of 
Florence,  after  having  been  long  inquired  after,  and  sjup- 
posed  to  be  lost.  After  the  death  of  his  wife,  he  devoted 
the  greater  part  of  his  wealth  to  pious  purposes,  and  died 
himself  in  1592.  His  .wife,  Laura  Battiferri,  an  Italian 
lady  of  distinguished  genius  and  learning,  was  the  daugh- 
ter of  John  Antony  Battiferri,  and  was  bora  at  Urbino  in 
1513.  She  spent  her  whole  life  in  the  study  of  philosophy 
and  polite  literature,  and  is  esteemed  one  of  the  best  Ita- 
lian poets  of  the  sixteenth  century.  The  principal  merit 
of  her  poems,.  "  L'Opere  Toscane,"  1560,  consists  in  a 
Aohle  elevation,  their  being  filled  with  excellent  momU^ 

}  Biog.  UnWerseile.— H»U«r  BU)L  Med^^Maaget  Bibl. 

A  M  M  A  N  A  T  I.  121 

«ad  dieir  breathing  a  spii^it  of  piety.  The  academy  of  In- 
tronati,  at  Sienna,  chose  her  one  of  their  members.  She 
jdied  in  November  1589,  at  seventy-six  years  of  age.  ^ 

AMMIANUS  (Marcellii^s),  a  Roman  historian  of  the 
fourth  centttry>  was  a  Greek  by  birth,  as  we  may  collect 
from  aeveral  pass^es  in  bis  history;  and  from  a  letter 
which  the  sophist  Libanius  wrote  to  him,  and  #hich  is  still 
extant,  he  appears  to  have  b^en  born  at  Antioch.     In  bis 
youth  he  followed  the  profession  of  arms,  and  was  enrolled 
among  the  /^  proiectores  domesticiy^'*  a  species  of  guards 
consisting  of  young  men  of  family.     From  the  year  350  to 
359,'  he  served  in  the  East,  and  in  Gaul,  under  Urficinus, 
master  of  the  horse  to  Cpnstantius.     In  the  year  363,  he 
was  with  Julian  in  his  Petsian  exj^edition,  after  which  he 
5eems  to  have  continued  in  the  £ast,  and  to  have  lived  ge- 
nerally at  Antioch.     In  the  year  374,  hov^ever,  be  left  An- 
tioch, and  went  to  Rome,  where  he  wrote  his  history  of  the 
Roman  affairs  from  Nerva  to  the  death  of  Valens  in  the 
year  378.     This  consisted  of  thirty-one  books,  but  the  last 
eighteen  only  remain,  which  begin  at  the  seventeenth  year 
of  Constantius,  A.  D.   353.     His  style  is  rough,  which  is 
not  perhaps  extraordinary  in  a  soldier  and  a  Greek  writ- 
ing in  Latin,  but  there  are  many  splendid  passages,  and  he  is 
allowed  to  be  faithful  and  impartial.  From  the  candid  manner 
in  which  he  speaks  of  Christianity,  some  have  thought  him 
a  Christian,  but  there  being  no  other  foundation  for  such  a 
supposition,  the  question  has  been  generally  decided  in'tbe 
negative,'  especially  in  the  preface  to  Valesius's  edition  of 
his  works,  and  in  his  life  in  the  General  Dictionary  by 
Bayle.     Lardner  is  of  opinion,   that  as  he  wrote  under 
Christian  emperors,  he  might  not  judge  it  proper  to  pro- 
fess bb  religion  unseasonably,  and  might  think  fit  to  be 
somewhat  cautious  in  his  reflections  upon  Christianity. 
Mosheim  thinks  that  Ammianus,  and  some  other  learned 
men  of  his  time,  were  a  sort  of  neuters,  neither  forsaking 
the  religion  of  their  ancestors,  nor  rejecting  that  of  the 
Christians;  but  in  tliis  Dr.  Lardner  cannot  coincide.     It  is 
evident  that  he  defended  idols  and  the  worshippers  of  them, 

that  he  makes  Julian  the  apostate  his  hero,  and  appears  to 
be  unfriendly  to  Constantius.     It  is   generally  allowed, 

however',  that  he  deserves  the  character  which  he  gives  of 
himself  at  the  conclusion  of  his  work,  that  of  a  faithful 

*  Baldiaacciy  notiziode'  prof«iiori  del  disegQO.«-More^i.««-Biog.  UnWtrsolle. 
T«-Dict.  Hist. 

i2a  A  MM  lATS  V  & 

hidtiDirim.  Lnrdnet  hay  qooted  «om«  impoftenl  |9liAagMi 
Irom  hiflD)  ia  bis  '^  TemmMies  ^  Ancient  Heathen^.* 
His  death  is  supposed  to  bave  taken  place  abmt  the  ftM 

Tfaene  are  m^y  editioBs  of  Ammiani^s :  the  first,  Roixi^, 
1474,  a  rare  book,  was  edited  by  Sabiftiis,  with  scrtrpalbtisr 
fidelity  to  the  maauscripts  €aisteUi!»  publiiAied  one  i'fi 
1517,  at  Bologna,  and  Frobenicis  iiMtber  ftt  Baril,  tSI^, 
all  in  folio,  but  comprising  only  thirteen  books.  The  other 
five  were  added  to  Accnvsim!  edition,  15BS,  in  wbicfa  he 
boasts  of  having  corrected  five  hundred  ^errors.  1%^  best, 
perhaps,  is  that  of  Grenovius,  Leyden,  169S,'{bl.  and  4t6. 
There  at«  differences  of  opinion  among  bibliographers  re- 
specting the  early  editions,  which  we  have  not  been  ablets 
reconcUe,  some  making  the  frineeps  editie  to  f^on^sl  x>nly 
of  eleven  books.* 

AMMJRATO,  or  AmwibAtTI  (Scipio),  an  eminent  hi$to« 
rian,  was  bom  at  Lucca,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  the  ^th 
of  September  1531.  'He  studied  first  at  Poggiardo,  after- 
wards at  Bfundusinm:;  and^  in  1547,  he  went  to  Kaples, 
in  order  to  go  through  a  course  of  civil  lew.  Whenlte  was 
at  Barri  with  ibis  father^  he  was  deputed  by  that  city  to 
manage  some  a&drs  at  Naples,  which  he  executed  widi 
great  success.  Some  time  irfber,  he  determined  to  enter 
into  the  church,  and  was  acc<mling)y  ordained  by  the 
bishop  of  Luoca,  who  conceived  so  high  an  esteem  for 
him,  as  to  give  him  a  canonry  in  his  church ;  'but  ttot  meet- 
ing afterwards  with  the  preferment  he  expected,  be  formed 
a  design  of  going  to  Venice,  and  entering  into  tdie  service 
of  some  ambassador,  in  order  to  visit  the  ^veral  coorts  of 
Europe.  Alexander  Contarini^- however,  dissuaded  bfan 
from  this  resolution  of  travelling,  and  engaged  Mm  to  con« 
tinue  with  him  at  Venice ;  where  he  had  an  opportunity  ot 
contracting  a  friendship  with  many  learned'  men.  But  he 
was  prevented  by  a  very  singular  circumstance.  The  wife ' 
of  Contarini,  who  used  to  take  great  pleasure  in  AmnriratO^s 
conversation,  having  sent  him  a  present  as  a  token  of  het 
friendship,  some  ill-natured  persons  represented  this  civi* 
lity  in  a  light  suiBcient  to  excite  the  resentment  tff  a  jea- 
lous husband,  and  Ammirato  was  obliged  immediately  t<» 
fly,  in  order  to  save  his  liie»     He  tetumed  td  'Lucca,  and 


I  Moreri.— -Biog.  Uiiiverselle. — Lardner'B  Works,  voL  VUI.— Carr,  vol  Lr— 
Saxii  OnomasticdB. 

A  M  M  I  R  A  T  Q.  its 

bk  fa.Att  being  tteh  at  Bani^  he  wimt  tUther  10  Uti,  irat  ' 
ntbt  with  a  terjr  cool  receptioii^  as  he  wot  dissatisfied  ix> 
find  him  in  no  probable  vray  of  making  a  fortune^  from 
having  neglected  the  study  of  the  law ;  and  wtth  this  he 
reproached  him  very  frequently. 

Mareellus  Mareiei  being  chosen  pope  in  1  ^i^h,  luider 
the  name  of  Marcelles  il.  Ammirato,  who  knew  dist  Ni«« 
cobo  Majorano,  bishop  of  Molfetta,  a  city  near  Banri,  haii 
been  formerly  a  friend  of  the  pope^s^  persuaded  him  to  ga 
to  Rome,  and  congratulate  him  upon  his  election,  with  a 
vieWi  by  attending  the  bishop  in  his  journey,  to  procurer 
some  place  under  the  nephews  of  that  pope 4  bat,  as  tbef 
were  preparing  for  this  journey,  the  death  of  Mareellus 
put  a  stop  to  their  intended  scheme,  and  destroyed  their 
hopes ;  upon  which  Ammirato  retired  to  a  country <-seat  of 
his  father's,  where  he  applied  himself  closely  to  his  studies. 
At  last  he  was  determined  to  return  to  Naples,  in  order  t0 
engage  again  in  the  study  of  the  law,  and  to  take  his  de* 
grees  in  it;   his  relish  for  this  profession  was  not  in  the 
least  increased,  but  he  thoaght  the  title  he  might  procure 
would  be  of  advantage  to  iu^.     He  bad  not,  however, 
been  six  months  at  Naples,  before  he  grew  weary  of  it^ 
and  entered  successively  into  the  service  of  several  nobie-* 
men  as  secretary.     Upon  his  return  to  Lucca,  he  was  $f^ 
pointed  by  this  city  to  go  and  present  a  petition  to  pope 
Pius  IV.  in  their  favour,  which  office  he  discharged  widi 
success.     Upon  his  return  to  Lucca,  he  was  appointed  by 
the  city  of  Naples  to  settle  there,  and  write  the  histoty  of 
that  kingdom ;  but  the  cold  reception  he  met  with  from  the 
governors  who  had  sent  for  him,  disgusted  him  so  much, 
that  he  left  the  city  with  a  resolution  to  return  no  more,- 
and  although  they  repented  afterwards  of  their  neglect  of 
him,  and  used  all  possible  means  to  bring  him  baek^  b^ 
continued  inflexible.     He  then  went  to  Rome,  where  be 
pr6cttied  a  great  many  friends ;  and,  having  travelled  over 
p«rt  of  Italy,  visited  Florence,  where  be  resolved  td  settle^ 
being  engaged  by  the  kind  ret;eption  which  the  Grand 
Dnke  gave  to  men  of  letters^     He  was  appointed  to  write 
the  history  of  Florence,  and  recmed  many  iostamces  of  that 
prince's  bounty,  which  he  increased  after  this  pnMicatron^ 
by  presenting  him  veith  a  canonry  in  the  cathedral  of  Flo<^ 
rence.     This  easy  situation  now  gave  him  an  opportuniqr 
of  applying  himself  more  vigorously  to  his  stuaies,  and 
writing  the  greatest  part  of  his  works.     Ha  died  at  Fie- 

124  A  MM  I  R  A  T  O. 

rence  the  30th  of  January,  1601,  in  the  69th  year  of  hb 
age.  His  works  are  as  follow :  1.  ^'Arguments,''  in  ka- 
lian verse,  of  the  cantos  of  Ariosto^s  Orlando  FuriosOji 
which  were  first  published  in  the  edition  of  that  poem  at 
Venice,  in  1548,  in  4to.  2.  "II  Decalione  dialogo  del 
poeta,"  Naples,  1560,  8 vo.  3.  "  Istorie  Florentine  dopo 
la  fondatione  di  Fierenze  insino  alP  anno  1574,*'  printed 
at  Florence,  1 600,  in  2  vols,  folio.  4.  ^^  Discorsi  sopra 
Comelio  Tacito,"  Florence,  1598,  4to.  5.  "  Delle  fa- 
miglie  nobili  Napolitane,''  part  I.  at  Florence,  1580^ 
in  folio;  part  II.  at  Florence,  1651,  folio.  6.  **  Dis- 
corsi delle  famiglie  Paladina  et  TAntoglietta,"^  Florence, 
1605,  in  4to.  7.  *^  Albero  et  storia  della  famigtia  de  conte 
Guidi,  col?  agiuntc  de  Scipione  Ammirato  Giovane,"  Flo- 
rence, 1640  and  1650.  8.  *<  Delle  famigiie  Fiorentine/* 
Florence,  1615,  folio.  9^.  "  Vescovi  de  Fiesoli  di  Volterra, 
e  d'  'Arezzo,  con  Taggiunta  di  Scipione  Ammirato  il  Gio« 
Tane,"  Florence,  1637,  4to.  10.  "  Opuscoli  varii,"  Flo- 
rence, 1583,  in  8vo.  II.  "  Rime  varie,"  printed  in  a 
collection  of  poems  by  different  authors.  Venice,  1 553^  in 
8vo.  12.  «  Poesi  Spirituali,"  Venice,  1634,  in  4to. 
13.  ^^  Ahnotazioni  sopra  la  seconde  parte  de  Sonetti  di 
Bernardino  Rota  fatti  in  ijaorte  di  Porzia  Capece  sua  mog- 
lia,V  Naples,  1560,  in  4to.  He  left  a  manuscript  life  of 
himself,  which  is  said  to  have  been  deposited  in  the  library 
of  the  hospital  of  St.  Mary.  He  made  his  secretary,  Del 
Bianco,  his  heir,  on  condition  of  taking  his  name,  who 
accordingly  called  himself  Scipio  Ammirato  the  younger. 
He  was  editor  of  some  of  his  benefactor's  works,  particu- 
larly of  bis  history  of  Florence,  a  performance  of  great 
accuracy  and  credit.  ^ 

AMMONIUS,  son  of  Hermias  the  peripatetic  philoso- 
pher, flourished  at  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century,  and 
was  the  disciple  of  Proclus.  He  is  said  to  have  excelled 
in  mathematical  learning,  and  wrote  a  '^  Commentary  on 
Aristotle  De  Interpretatione,''  which  was  printed  by  Aldus 
at  Venice,  1503;  and  a  ^^  Commentary  In  Isagogen  Por* 
.phyrii,'*  first  printed  in  1500,  and  often  reprinted.  He 
has  been  sometimes  confounded  with  Ammonius  the  gram* 
marian,  but  the  latter  flourished  in  the  fourth  century,  and 
wrote  a  valuable  work  on  Greek  Synonymes,  which  may 
be  seen  in  Stephens^s  Thesaurus  and  Scapula*%  Lexicon.  ^ 

1  Gen.  Dict.->-Moreri.-~Siixii  Onomasticoiu 

A  M  M  O  N  I  tr  S.  123 

AMMONIUS  (Andrew),  a  native  of  Lucca,  born  in 
1477,  was  educated  in  all  the  polite  literature  of  Italy,  and 
became  apostolic  notary,  and  collector  for  the  pope  in 
England.  Here  he  spent  the  latter  years  of  his  life,  in  the 
society  and  intimacy  of  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  that 
time,  as  Colet,  Grocyn,  Erasmus,  &c.  and  studied  with 
them  at  Oxford.  He  was  also  Latin  secretary,  and  in 
much  favour  with  Adrian  de  Castello,  bishop  of  Bath  and 
Wells,  who  is  said  to  have  made  such  interest  as  procured 
him  the  secretaryship  to  Henry  VIU.  He  was  also  made 
prebendary  of  Compton-Dunden  in  the  church  of  Wells, 
and,  as  some  report,  rector  of  Dychiat  in  the  same  diocese. 
By  the  recommendation  of  the  king  he  was  also  made  a 
prebendary  of  Salisbury,  and  in  all  probability,  would  have 
soon  attained  higher  preferment,  had  he  not  been  cut  oflf 
by  the  sweating  sickness,  in  the  prime  of  life,  1517.  Eras* 
mos,  with  whom  he  corresponded,  lamented  his  death  in 
most  affectionate  terms.  •  He  is  mentioned  as  a  writer  of 
poetry,  but  his  poems  do  not  exist  either  in  print  or  manu- 
script, except  one  short  piece  in  the  ^*  Bucolicorum  auc- 
tores,''  Basil,  1546,  8vo.  There  are  some  of  his  letters  in 
Erasmus's  works.  According  to  Wood  he  was  buried  in 
St  Stephen's  chapel,  Westminster.  * 

AMMONIUS,  surnamed  Saccas,  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated philosophers  of  his  age,  was  born  in  Alexandria, 
and*  flourished  about  the  beginning  of  the  third  century. 
His  history  and  his  opinions  have  been  the  subject  of  much 
dispute  among  modern  writers,  to  some  of  whom  we  shall 
refer  at  the  close  of  this  article,  after  stating  what  appears 
to  be  the  probable  account.  In  the  third  century,  Alex- 
andria was  the  most  renowned  seminary  of  learning.  A 
set  of  philosophers  appeared  there  who  called  themselves 
Eclectics,  because,  without  tying  themselves  down  to. 
any  one  set  of  rules,  they  chose  what  they  thought  most 
agreeable  to  truth  from  different  masters  and  sects.  Their 
pretensions  were  specious,  and  they  preserved  the  appear- 
ance of  candour,  moderation,  and  dispassionate  inquiry, 
in  words  and  declarations,  as  their  successors,  the  modern 
free- thinkers,  have  since  done.  Ammonius Saccas  seems 
to  have  reduced  the  opinions  of  these  Eclectics  to  a  sysr 
t«m.  Plato,  was  his  principal  guide ;  but  he  invented  many 

'  '  Gcih  Dict.-p-Ath.  Ox.  toI.  I.— JortiQ's  Life  of  Erastnui.— Ilo$coc*i'L«).-*- 

»3$  AMMONIUa 

things  of  which  Plato  never  dreamed.  What  bis  religkmt 
profession  was,  is  disputed  among  the  learned.  Undpubt^ 
^ly  be  was  educated  a  Christian  ;  and  although-  P^hT'^ 
fhyry^  in  his  enmity  against  CbrisLianity^  observes  that  he 
ibrsook  the  Go^el,  and  returned  to  Gentilism,  yet  the  tes« 
^mony  of  Eusebius,  who  mnst  have  known  the  iact,  proipes 
Ijdat  he  continued  a  Christian  s^l  bis  days.  His  tracts  on 
'^e  agreement  of  Moses  and  Jesus,  and  his  harmony  of  th€^ 
46ur  gospQJ^,  dciinanstrate  that  he  desired  to  be  considered 
as  a  Christian.     (lis  opinion^  however,  w^s,  that  all  rail* 

J;ions,  vulgar  and  philosophical,  Grecian  a^d  barbarousj^ 
iewish  and  Qentile,  mei^nt  the  same  thing  at  bottom.  H^ 
uiidertook,  by  allegorizing  and  svibtilizing  various  fables 
and  sy^tems^  to  make  up  a  coalition  of  all  sects  and  reli-* 
^Qn$ ;  aqd  from  his  labours,  continued  by  his  disctpl^^ 
spme  of  whose  works  still  remain,  his  followers  were  taugh* 
tp  Ipok  on  Jev^f,  philosopher,  vulgar  Pagan,  and  Christian^ 
^s  a|l,  of  the  ^me  creed.  Longinus  and  Plotinos  appear 
to  have  been  the  disciples  of  Ammonius,  who  is  supposed 
to  have  die4  abont  the  year  24S.  His  history  i^d  prin- 
^les  are  discussed  by  Dr«  Lardlner,  in  his  Credibility^ 
^d  by  Mosheim  in  his  history,  the  translator  of  which  dif*^ 
fers  from  Dr.  Lardner  in  toio^  and  has  been  in  this  respect 
followed  by  Mihaer  in  his  Church  History  recently  pi^b* 

AMNER  (Richard),  sl  diss^ting  divine,  was  born  ^% 
Hinckley  in  Leicestershire  in  1736,  and  was  for,  manjf 
years  ^  preaqher  at  Hampstead,  near  London,  and  after^^ 
wards  at  Cpseley,  in  Staffordsbi^ e^  f>^in  which  he  retirt4 
UK  his  latter  ^3.y&  to  his  t^ative  towim  where  he  died  June  9« 
)803«  He  was  a  naanof  some  learning  in  biblical  criticism^. 
^8  appears  by  his  various  publications  on  theological  sub- 
j^ts.  Hq  wrote,  1.  ^^  An  account  of  the  occasion  a^ci 
design  of  the  positive  Institutions  of  Christianity,  extracted 
from  the  Scriptures  only,''  1774,  8vo<,  2.  ^^  An  essay  to* 
wards  ap  interpretation  of  the  Prophecies  of  Daniel,  witl% 
occasional  remarks  upon  spine  of  the  most  celebrated  corn^ 
mentaries  on  them,"  1776,  $vo.  3.  <<  Considerations  ooit 
the  doctrine  of  a  Future  State,  aud  ^e  Resurrection,  as  re« 
sealed,  or  supposed  to  be  so,  ij^  tb^  Scriptures  }  .oa  thfi| 
inspira^on  and  authority  of  the  Scripture  itself;  on  sqsaa 

— G«n.  Diet— Saxii  ODOoiMficoB, 

A  M  N  £  It,  Ut 

yw^tiil^Dii.  in  8l.  Pwl'a  Epistles ;  on  the  propbeci^s  of 
Staiffl  9ficl  St.  Jobn,  &p.  Tq  which  are  added,  some  stric** 
tmi^  Vk  tbe  propbf!<;i^  of  Isaiah/'  1798,  8vo.  In  tbi« 
work)  which  ia  aa  devoid  of  elegance  of  style,  as  of  strength 
of  argwnoiU,  and  which  ^hows  how  far  a  man  may  gp,  to 
wh^m  «I1  eaiablished  belief  is  obaoxious,  the  inspiration  of 
Itm  Iji^if  Testament  writers  is  questioned,  the  geni;ine« 
msa  of  the  Apocalypse  is  endeavoured  to  be  invalidated  ; 
and  the  evangelical  predictions  of  Isaiah  are  transferred 
fr«an  the  Messiah  to  the  political  history  of  our  own  timet^ 
The  most  aiogalar  circumstance  of  the  personal  history  of 
Mjc-  Amner^  was  his  incurring  the  displeasure  of  George 
Sceevensy  the  celebrated  commentator  on  Shakspeare^ 
This  tie  probably  did  very  innocently,  for  Mr.  Steevens 
was  one  of  those  meii  who  wanted  no  motives  for  revengo 
or  malignily  but  what  he  found  in  his  own  breast.  He  bad^ 
bftwever,  contracted  a  dislike  to  Mr.  Amner,  who  was  his 
neighbour  at  Hampstend,  and  marked  hiip  out  as  the  vie* 
iioi  of  a  species  of  malignity  which,  we  believe,  has  no 
pauaUeL  This  was  his  writing  several  notes  to  the  tnde« 
«ent  passages  in  Sfttak^peare,  in  a  gross  and  immoral  style^ 

d  {facing  Mr»  Amner's  name  to  them.  These  appeared 
in  the  edition  of  1793,  and  are  still  continued.  ^ 
AMONTONS  (WiJLLUM)^  an  ingenious  French  me^ 
ebanic^  waa  bom  in  Normandy  the  last  day  of  August, 
M63.  Hia  father  haidug  removed  to  Paris,  William  re- 
f>eiv^  the  first  part  of  his  education  in  this  city.  He  was 
in  the  third  form  of  the  Latin  school,  when,  after  a  con-^ 
sUerable  illness,  he  contracted  such  a  deafness  as  obliged 
lum  to  renounce  almost  all  conversation  with  mankind.  In 
this  situation  he  began  to  think  of  employing  himself  in 
Ihe  invention  of  machines :  he  applied  therefore  to  the 
study  of  geometry ;  audit  is  said,  that  he  would  not  try  any 
remedy  to  eyre  his  deafness,  either  because  he  thought  it 
incurable^  or  because  it  increased  his  attention.  He  stu« 
died  also  jdie  arts  of  drawing,  of  surveying  lands,  and  of 
building,  and  in  a  short  time  he  endeavoured  to  acquire  a 
knowledge  of  those  more  sublime  laws  which  regulate  the 
universe.  He  studied  with  great  care  the  nature  of  baro^ 
aetem  and  thermometers;  and,  in  1687,  he  presented  a 
new  bygroscope  to  the  royal  academy  of  sciences,  which 
was  very  much  ap{)toved.    He  conununitated  to  Huhin^ 

1  Gent  Maf.  119%,  1803. 

121  A  M  O  N  T  O  N  S. 

a  famous  enameller,  some  thoughts  he  bad  c&nC^ived^  coti^ 
cerning  new  barometers  and  thermometers ;  but  Hubin 
had  anticipated  him  in  some  of  his  thoughts,  and  did  not 
much  regard  the  rest,  till  he  made  a  voyage  into  England, 
where  the  same  thoughts  were  mentioned  to  him  by  some 
fellows  of  the  Royal  Society.  Amontons  found  out  a  me^ 
thod  to  communicate  intelligence  to  a  great  distance,  in  a 
very  little  time,  which  Fontenelle  thus  described:  Let 
there  be  people  placed  in  several/  stations,  at  such  a  dis- 
tance from  one  another,  that  by  the  help  of  a  telescope  a 
man  in  one  station  may  see  a  signal  made  in  the  next  be- 
fore him ;  he  must  immediately  make  the  same  signal, 
that  it  may  be  seen  by  persons  in  the  station  next  after 
him,  who  is  to  communicate  it  to  those  in  the  following 
station ;  and  so  on.  These  signals  may  be  as  letters  of  the 
alphabet,  or  as  a  cypher,  understood  only  by  the  two  per«* 
sons  who  are  in  the  distant  places,  and  not  by  those  who 
make  the  signals.  The  person  in  the  second  station  making 
the  signal  to  the  person  in  the  third  the  very  moment  he 
sees-it  in  the  first,  the  news  may  be  carried  to  the  greatest 
distance  in  as  little  time  as  is  necessary  to  make  the  signals 
in  the  first  station.  The  distance  of  the  several  stations, 
which  must  be  as  few  as  possible,  is  measured  by  the  reach 
of  a  telescope.  Amontons  tried  this  method  in  a  small 
tract  of  land,  before  several  persons  of  the  highest  lank  at 
the  court  of  France.  This  apparently  is  the  origin  of  the 
telegraph  now  so  generally  used  ;  but  there  exists  a  book, 
entitled  "De  Secretis,"  written  by  one  Weckerus  in  1582, 
where  he  gives,  froni  the  authority  of  Cardanus,  who  flou- 
rished  about  1 530,  the  following  method  by  which  the  be^ 
sieged  party  in  a  city  may  communicate  their  circumstances 
to  'the  surrounding  country :  Suppose  five  torches  to  be 
lighted,  and  held  in  a  horizontal  line  ;  the  first  torch  upon 
^be  left  hand  of  the  looker-on  to  represent  A,  the  second 
E,  and  so  on  for  the  five  vowels.  The  consonants  arc  per- 
formed thus  ;  inclining  the  first  torch  to  the  left  represents 
.  B,  to  the  right  C,  elevating  it  above  the  line  D,  and  de- 
pressing it  below  F.  By  the  second  torch  brandished  in 
the  same  manner,  the  four  succeeding  consonants  may  be 
represented^  &c.  which  will  comprehend  in  all  twenty  let- 
ters. Cardanus  says,  that  the  historian  Polybius,  who 
flourished  above  a  century  before  Christ,  in  one  of  hit 
fragments  gives  an  obscure  and  mutilated  description  of^a 
method  to  effect  the  above"  purpose.     Probably,  adds  the 

A  M  O  N  T  O  N  S.  i29 

gentleman  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  this  comtslunjca-* 
tioti,  a  copy  of  this  De  Secretis,  or  the  obscur6  description 
of  Polybius,  might,  unacknowledged,  have  ihfused  Anion* 
tons  with  the  idea  of  the  modern  telegraph  ;  and,  after  the 
primary  hint  was  given,  the  application  of  the  telescope 
might  easily  occur.  What,  however,  is  most  remarkable, 
is,  that  in  neither  case  was  the  invention  followed  up,  but 
lay  dormant  until  the  commencement  of  the  revolutionary 
war  of  France  in  1 7  9  3. 

In  1695,  Aroontons  published  "  Remarques  et  expe- 
riences physiques  sur  la  construction  d^une  nouvelle  clep- 
isydre,  sur  les  barometres,  thermometres,  et  hygrometres  ;'* 
and  this  is  the  only  book  he  wrote,  besides  the  pieces  which 
he  contributed  to  the  Journal  des  Sgavans.  Though  the 
bour-glasses  made  with  water,  so  much  in  use  among  the 
ancients,  be  entirely  laid  aside,  because  the  clocks  and 
watches  are  much  more  useful,  yet  Amontons  took  a  great 
deal  of  pains  in  makit^g  his  new  hour-glass,  in  hopes  that  it 
might  serve  at  sea,  bein^  made  in  such  a  manner,  that  the 
most  violent  motion  could  not  alter  its  regularity,  whereas 
a  great  agitation  infallibly  disorders  a  clock  or  watch. 
When  the  royal  academy  was  new  regulated  in  1699, 
Amontons  was  admitted  a  member  of  it,  and  read  there  his 
new  theory  of  Friction,  in  which  he  happily  cleax^ed  up  a 
very  important  part  of  mechanics.  He  had  a  particular 
genius  for  making  experiments :  his  notions  were  precise 
and  just :  he  knew  how  to  prevent  the  inconveniences  of 
his  new  inventions,  and  had  a  wonderful  skill  in  executing 
them.  He  enjoyed  perfect  health,  and,  as  he  led  a  regu- 
lar life,  was  not  subject  to  the  least  infirmity,  but  was 
suddenly  seized  with  an  inflammation  in  his  bowels,  which 
occasioned  his  death,  11th  of  October,  1705,"  aged  42. 

The  eloge  of  Amontons  may^  be  seen  in  the  volume  of 
the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  for  the  year  1705, 
Hist.  p.  150.  And  his  pieces  contained  in  tha  different 
irolumes  of  that  work^  which  are  numerous,  and  upon 
various  subjects,  as  the  air,  action  of  fire,  barometers^ 
thermometers,  hygrometers,  friction,  machines,  heat,  cold, 
rarefactions,  pumps,  &c.  may  be  seen  in  the  volumes  for 
the  years  1696,   1699,   1702,   1703,   1704,  and  1705.  > 

AMORT  (EusEBius),  a  canon  regular  of  the  order  of 
St  Augustine,  distinguished  himself  in  Bavaria  by  the  putk)** 

t  Gen.  Dict.i-«>Moreri.—-Foniettell«  Hist,  dt  i'Aqad.  dss  Scieocei,  1T0^,«* 
Button's  Mathematical  Dictf 

Vol..  IJ.  K 



ber  and  vdine  of  bis  writings,  ^though  ooeny  of  tbem  vixc 
pa  subjects  tbft);  will  not  now  be  thought  interesting.  He 
was  esteemed  9>  wise  and  modest  man^  but  rather  singular 
in  some  points.  He  published,  i^mong  other  works,  ^<  Phir 
Josophia  Pollingana/'  Augsburg,  1730,  fol,  at  the  end  of 
which  is  m  extraordinary  attempt  to  deny  the  earth^s  mo-* 
tion ;  ^^  A  theological  history  of  Indulgences,^'  fol. ;  a 
supplement  to  **  Poatas's  Dictionary  of  cases'  df  Con- 
science ;''  ^^  Rules  from  holy  scripture,  councils,  and  tha 
fathers,  res$pecting  revelations,  apparitionsy  and  visions,'' 
2  vols.  17^4,  4to ;  "  A  dissertation  on  the  author  of  The 
imitation  pf  Jesus  Christ,  usually  attributed  to  Thomas  ^ 
Kempis.''  All  these  works,  of  which,  except  the  first,  we 
Jiave  not  been  able  to  recover  the  exact  titles,  were  written 
in  Liatin.  Amort  died  Nov.  25,  1775,  at  the  age  of  eighty i- 
two.  * 

AMORY  (Thomas),  a  dissenting  minister  of  consider- 
9ble  note,  was  the  son  of  a  grocer  at  Taunton  jn  Somerset-^ 
shire,  where  he  was  born  Jan.  28,  1701 ;  and  at  that  place 
acquired  bis  classical  learning,  under  the  care  of  Mr,  Cha,d^ 
wick.  From  Taupton  he  w^s  removed  to  Exeter,  that  he 
might  be  instructed  in  the  f  rench  language  by  M^  Mar 
jendie,  a  refugee  minister  in  that  city.  After  this,  he  re-* 
turned  to  Mr*  Chadwick,  where  be  had  for  his  schoolfellow 
Mr.  Micaiab  Towgood ;  and  at  Lady-day  1717,  they  were 
l>oth  put  under  the  academical  instruction  of  Mr,  Stephen 
James  and  Mr.  Henry  Groyen  the  joint  tutors  at  Tauntoii 
for  bringing  up  young  persons  to  the  dissenting  ministry. 
Under  these  preceptors,  Mr.  Amory  went  through  the  usual 
preparatory  learning ;  s^nd  in  the  summer  of  1722  was  ap-r 
proved  of  as  a  candidate  for  the  ministry  *.  Being  desirous 
pf  improvement,  be  removed,  ip  the  November  following^ 
$0  London,  and  attended  a  course  of  experimental  {Philo- 
sophy, under  Mn  John  Eames,    Upon  his  return  tf)  Taudr 

*  When  young  men,  among  the  dig-' 
I  fillers,  have  passed  through,  or  neaiiy 
flnUhed  tli^eir  academical  course,  they 
^dergo  an  examination  either  of  the 
trustees  and  tutors  of  the  seminaries  in 
irbicti  they>baTe  been  educated,  or  of 
some  other  mii^isters  fixed  upon  for 
that  purpose.  Upon  the«e  occasions, 
they  usually  deliver  a  sermon,  mm-* 
tain  a  thesis,  and  submit  to  such  ezer- 
eiies  besides  as  are  thought  needful 

and  proper^  If  their  qualifications 
and  moral  characters  be  approved  o^ 
they  receive  a  testimonial  signifyinf 
that  approbation,  accompanied  with  ^ 
recommendation  of  them  to  those  so- 
cieties among  whom  tbey  may  b« 
called  to  oilicjate.  Tbis  method  Qif 
proceeding  may  be  considered  as  an- 
swering, in  a  great  measure,  to  the 
conferring  of  deacon's  orders  in  Uif 
church  of  England. 

i.Dlat.  Hi9t.-^Bk)g.  Universeile. 


AMORT.  l»i 

loS)  he  preached  alternately  at  sereral  places  in  the 
neighbourhood;  till,  upon  Mr.  James's  death  in  1724  or 
1725,  Mr.  Amory  was  fixed  as  a  stated  assistant  preacher 
to  Mr.  Datch  of  Hull  Bishops ;  besides  which,  he  had  one 
monthly  turn  at  Lambrook  near  South  Petherton,  and  ano- 
ther at  West  Hatch,  four  miles  from  Taunton.  At  the  same 
time,  he  was  requested  by  his  uncle,  Mr.  Grove,  to  take  a 
part  in  the  instruction  of  the  pupils,  in  the  room  of  Mr. 
James,  with  which  request  he  complied.  The  business 
assigned  bim  he  discharged  with  great  ability  and  dili* 
gence  ;  being  well  qualified  for  it  by  his  profound  acquaint- 
ance with  the  Greek  and  Roman  languages,  his  correct 
taste  in  the  classics,  and  by  his  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
best  and  latest  improvements  in  sound  philosophy.  In 
1730,  he  was  ordained  at  Paul's  meeting  in  Taunton,  and 
from  this  time  was  united,  in  the  congregation  at  Taunton, 
with  Mr.  Batsen ;  but  that  gentleman  keeping  the  whole 
salary  to  himself,  several  of  the  principal  persons  in  the 
society  were  so  displeased  with  him,  that,  early  in  th^ 
spring  of  1732,  they  agreed  to  build  another  meeting** 
house,  and  to  choose  Mr.  Amory  for  their  pastor.  In  the 
beginning  of  1738,  on  the  death  of  Mr.  Grove,  he  became 
chief  tutor  in  the  academy  at  Taunton,  and  conducted  the 
business  of  it  with  the  same  abilities,  and  upon  the  same 
principles.  He  had  the  advantage  of  the  lectures  and  ex^ 
perience  of  his  excellent  uncle,  added  to  his  own  :  and 
many  pupils  were  formed  under  him,  of  great  worth  and 
distinguished  improvements  in  literature.  In  1741,  he 
married  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Baker,  a  dissenting  minister  in 
Southwark;  an  excellent  lady,  who  survived  him,  and 
'with  whom  he  lived  in  the  greatest  affection  and  harmony. 
By  tbid  lady  he  had  several  children,  four  of  whom  sur- 
vived him.  During  his  residence  in  Taunton  he  was  held 
in  the  greatest  esteem,  not  only  by  his  own  society,  but 
by  all  the  neighbouring  congregations  and  ministers ;  ^nd 
even  those  who  differed  the  most  from  him  in  religious 
opinions,  could  not  avoid  paying  a  tribute  of  respect  to  the 
integrity  and  excellence  of  his  character.  He  was  much 
respected,  likewise,  by  the  gentlemen  and  clergy  of  the 
established  church, '  and  was  particularly  honoured,  when 
fety  young,  with  the  friendship  of  Mrs.  Rowe,  with  whom 
he  kept  up  a  correspondence  by  letters.  Orfe  instance  of 
Ae  respect  entertained  for  hrm,  and  of  his  own  liberal  and 
honourable  conduct,  cannot  be  omitted.     When  tome  .  of 

K  2 

^Sfi  A  M  O  R  Y. 

the  priiioipal  persons  of  the  Baptist  society  in  Tftunton, 
.^owingto  the  disgust  they  bad  received  at  their  then  pastor, 
would  have  deserted  him,  and  coiumunicaiXed  to  Mr.  Amqiy 
their  intention  of  becoming  his  stated  hearers,  be  gene"- 
rously  dissuaded  them  from  the  execution  of  their  design^ 
as  a  step  which  would  prove  highly  injurious  to  the  reputa^ 
tion,  ipembers,  and  interest  of  the  congregation  they  ior 
tended  to  leaye.  Mr.  Aipory  was  so  happy  with  bis  people 
ixt  Tauutpn,  and  so  generally  respeCJted  and  beloved  hqth 
in  the  town  and  the  neighbourhood,  tb^it,  perhaps^  it  may 
be  deemed  strange  that  hie  should  be  induced  to  quit  bis 
jsituation,  This,  howeveri  he  did,  in  October  1759,  at 
which  time  he  repioved  to  London,  to  be  afternoon  preacher 
to  the  sopiety  in  the  Old  Jewry,  belonging  to  I)r«  Saiyiuel 
Chandler,  But  the  grand  mptive,  besides  the  hope  of 
inore  extensive  usefulness,  seems  tp  h^ve  been^  th^t  he 
plight  advantageously  dispose  pf  his  children,  in  whiqii 
respect  he  succeeded.  It  must,  indeed*  be  sicknowleilged;^ 
that  h^  did  not,  in  the  metropolis,  meet  with  all  that  po^ 
pularity,  as  ^  preacher,  tp  Vrhich  he  w^s  entitled  by  bi^ 
rea)  merit.  His  delivery  was  clear  and  distinct,  and  his 
discourses  excellent ;  but  his  voice  was  npt  powerful  enough 
to  rouse  the  bulk  pf  mankind,  who  are  struck  with  poise 
jfand  parage:  jand  his  sermon^,  though  practical,  serious, 
and  affecting  to  the  attentive  hearer,  were  rather  too  phi- 
losophical for  the  common  run  of  congregations,  But  Mr. 
Ajpoiy  enjoyed  a  general  respect;  and  he  received  every 
piark  of  distinction  which  is  usually  paid,  in  London,*  tQ 
the  if^ost  eminent  ministers  of  the  presbyterian  denominaT 
^ion.  In  1767>  be  wasi  chosen  QM^  of  the  trustees  to  tb^ 
charities  of  Dr.  Daniel  Williani^.  Jn  1768^  the  uniYersity 
qf  Edinburgh  ponferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  p,  D,  aft4 
in  the  same  year  be  was  elected  one  of  the  six  Tuesday 
lecturers  at  Salter's  Hall.  It  ought  to  have  been  oientioped, 
that  previouis  to  these  last  events,  he  was  ebosen,  s^t  the 
death  of  Dr.  Chandler,  in  1766,  a  pastor  of  the  society  ai 
^he  Pld  Jewry ;  in  which  situa^tion  he  continued  tiU  bis; 
decease.  In  J  770,  he  becanie  mq|-ning-prejicher  fit  New? 
pgton  f^reen^  and  colleague  yviih  the  tcv*  Pr.  .Ilichar4 
Price.  When  the  dissenting  minister?^  in  1772,  formed  ^ 
de§igp  of  pndeavouring  to  propure  ?in  ^nla^rgement  of  the 
Jqleratipn  act,  Pr.  Aniory  ^as  one  of  the  conimittee  ap- 
ppin|:ed  fo^r  tb^t  purpose ;  and  none  co^dd  b^  Xf^ors  zealouui 
for  the  prosecution  of  the  scheme. 

Di*.  Amory  had  the  felicity  of  being  able  td  continue  hig 
public  services  nearly  to  the  last.  June  16th,  1774,  he  was 
seized  with  a  sudden  disorder  which  left  him  nearly  in  a 
state  of  insensibility  till  his  death,  which  happened  an  the 
24th  of  that  mouth,  and  in  the  74th  year  of  his  age^  He 
was  interred  in  Bunhill  Fields,  on  the  5th  of  July ;  and  his 
funeral  was  attended  by  a  respectablie  number  of  ministers 
and -gentlemen.  The  discourse,  on  the  occasion  of  his 
death,  was  preached  in  the  Old  Jewry,  on  the  10th  of  tbo 
sam<e  month,  by  the  rev.  Dr.  Roger  Flexman  of  Rother- 
hithe,  who  had  been  connected  with  him  in  an  intimate 
friendship  for  more  than  40  years ;  which  friendship.  Dr. 
Flexman  assures  us,  had  never  once  been  interrupted  by 
distaste,  or  darkened  with  a  frown. 

Dr.  Amory's  character  was.  excellent  in  every  view.  It 
seems,  says  Dr.  Kippis,  to  have  been  formed  upon  that  of 
his  uncle,  Mr.  Grove ;  with  whom  he  had  been  closely 
connected  from  his  infancy,  and  his  connection  with  whom 
he  considered  as  the  principal  felicity  of  his  life.  His  piety 
was  equally  rational  and  fervent.  It  was  founded  on  the 
most  enlarged  sentiments  concerning  the  divine  pi*ovidetice 
and  government ;  and  was,  therefore,  displayed  in  a  spirit 
of  cheerful  devotion,  love,  and  confidence!  None  could 
excel  him  as  a  husband,  a  father,  a  master^  and  a  friend. 
He  was  distinguished  for  his  general  benevolence  and  hu« 
inanity ;  and  as  a  companion  he  was  remarkably  pleasing 
and  engaging.  He  abounded  with  a  number  of  short 
stories,  drawn  from  an  extensive  knowledge  of  books  and 
men,  which,  while  they  were  entertaining,  were  calculated 
and  designed  to  convey  instruction. 

In  his  public  character,  as  a  teacher  of  religion,  Dn 
Amory  was  greatly  respectable.  The  devotional  part  of 
worship  was  conducted  by  him  with  admirable  propriety, 
seriousness,  and  fervour.  His  sermons  were  close,  9ccu* 
rate,  solid,  and  affectionate.  *  He  never  devoted  the  pulpit 
to  trifling  subjects.  If  any  thing  disputable  was  ever  in- 
troduced by  him,  it  was  to  expose  the  doctrines  of  rigid 
Calvinism  ; '  as  his  sentiments,  with  regard  to  both  natural 
and  revealed  religion,  nearly  agreed  with  those  of  Dr. 
Slimuel  Clarke,  and  of  the  divines  who  were  his  coadjutors. 
As  to  )iis  learning,  it  was  solid,  judicious,  and  extensive. 
He  was  well  acquainted  with  every  part  of  theology,  and 
much  conversant  with  ethics,  natural  and  experimental 

IS4  A  M  O  K  Yi 

philosophy,  tnd  tk^  best  an^^ents^  espficiaUy  their  moral 
writings.  Nor  was  he  above  amusing  himself  with  histoiypr 
books  of  travels,  poetry,  and  other  entertaining  species  of 
composition.  But  his  general  application  was  to  thoM 
more  serious  and  important  parts  of  study,  that  were  im- 
mediately suited  to  his  profession. 

His  works  consist  principally  of  Sermons  preached  on 
various  occasions,  some  of  which  were  after  their  first  pub-^; 
lication  collected  into  volumes,  and  a  volume  was  published 
after  his  death.  Besides  these  be  published  ^  A  Dialogue 
on  Devotion,"  1733 ;  "  Forms  of  Devotion  for  the  closet^" 
1763,  8vow  JHe  was  also  the  editor  of  Dr.  Grove's  post* 
humous  worksji  and  wrote  his  life,  and  the  Life  of  Dr.  Ben* 
sou,  and  of  Dr.  Samuel  Chandler.  Some  poetical  pieces, 
have  been  attributed  to  him,  particularly  a  poem  on  die 
praises  oS  Taunton^  the  place  of  his  birth,  pubhshed  itk 
1724.  * 

AMORY  (TaoMAS),  esq*  the  son  of  counsellor  Amory^ 
who  attended  king  William  in  Ireland,  and  was  appointed 
secretary  for  the  forfeited  estates  in  that  kingdom,  where 
he  was  possessed  of  a  very  extensive  property  in  the  county 
of  Clare.     Our  author  was  not  bom  in  Irdand,  aa  it  hair 
been  suggested.     It  has  been  conjectured  that  he  was  bred* 
to  some  branch  of  the  prclessionof  physic^  but  it  is  not 
known  that  he  ever  followed  that  or  any  other  pro&tsion. 
About  1757  he  lived  in  a  very  reduse  way  on  a  small  for** 
tune>  abd  his  remdence  was  in  Orchard  street,  Westmhi-/ 
ster..    At  that  tie^^  ako  he  had  a  country  lodging  for  occav* 
sional  retiremi^iit  in  the  suomaer,  at  Belfont,  near  Hoon- 
slow.     He  had  then  a  wi{e>  who  bore  a  very  vespectaUe. 
character,  and'  by  whom  he  had  a  son,  who  practised 
nasny  years  ae  a  physician  in  tbe  north  of  En^nd.    On 
tjie  saaae  au^thority  we  tx»  told,  that  he  wa^.  a  maot  q£  a 
very  peculiar  look  auji  aspect,  though  at  the  same  tine  he 
bore  <^ite  the  ap^deavaMO  of  a  geaitkaoiAO*.  He  read  much, 
an4  scaree  e^er  stixredi  abroad ;  bat  in  the  dusk  of  the 
jpvening  wotadd  take  bis  usual  walk,  and  seemed  alweys  to 
he  ruminating  en:  speculative  subjects,  eveu  wbcB  passing 
along  the  fldoat  crowded  streets. 

lu;  1751,  oa  due  publication  of  Wd  Orrery's  remarks  oit 
the  life  and  writings  of  Dc.  Swift,,  the  fdSioning  adwr* 

1  Biog.  Brit. 

A  M  O  A  V*  l3i 

lis^ment  ±ppetted  In  tht  Whitehall  Svening  Post,  Dec; 
12,  1751 ;  hurt  we;  have  tiot  been  able  to  diseover  that  the 
pkmphlet  was  etet  printed : 

"Soon  Will  be  published,  A  Letteif  to  lord  Ofrery,  in  an- 
swer to  what  bii  lordship  say^  in  Ms  late  refnarks  iti  praise  of 
Swift's  sermon  on  the  Trinity ;  being  an  attempt  to  vindi-- 
cate  the  divinity  of  God,  the  Father  Aintiighty ;  aild  to  cbn^ 
vince  his^  lordship,  if  he  has  a .  mind  open  to  conviction, 
that  the  tritheistic  discoarse  preached  by  the  dean  of  St* 
Patrick^s,  is  so  far  from  being  that  masterpiece  ofiy  lord 
Orrery  calk  it,  that  it  is  in  reality  the  most  seitseless  a.hd 
despicable  perfarmance  t^t  ever  was  produced  by  ortho"* 
doxy  to  corrnpt  the  divjtie  religion  of  the  bfessed  Jesus* 
By  Thomas  Amory,  esq.'* 

In  175#  he  published  "Memoirs,  Containing  the  lives  of 
several  ladies  of  Great  Britain*"  "  A  history  of  antiquities, 
productions  of  nature,  and  monuments  of  aft."  *^  Observiai- 
tions  on  the  Christian  religion,  as  professed  by  the  esta;-^ 
blished  church  and  dissenteris  of  every  denomination.'* 
^  Remarks  on  the  writings  of  the  greiatest  English  divines  : 
and  a  review  of  the  Works  of  the  writes  called  Infidels^ 
from  lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury  to  the  late  lord  viscount 
Bolingbroke.  With  a  variety  of  disquisitions  and  opinions 
relative  to  criticism  atid  mannei;s ;  and  many  extraordinary 
actions*     In  several'  letters,"  8Vo» 

The  characters  of  the  ladies  celebrated  in  this.Virork  are 
truly  ridiculous,  and  probably  the  offspring  of  fiction.  They 
are  not  only  beautiful,  learned,  ingenious,  and  religious 
but  they  are  all  zesiildus  Unitarians  in  a.  very  high  degree  i 
as  is  the  author  hiinself.  At  the  eud  of  the  history  of  these 
memoirs,  he  promised  a  continuation  of  them, ,  which  was 
Co  contain  what  the  public  would  then  have  received  with 
great  satisfaction,  and  certainly  ^ould  still,  should  the 
MSS.  luckily  remain  in  being.     His  words  are  as  follow : 

"  N.  B.  In  an  appendix  to  the  second  volume  of  this 
work,  the  reader  will  -find  an  account  of  two  very  extraor- 
dinary persons,  dean  Swift,  and  Mrs.  Constantia  Grierson^ 
of  Dublin. 

"  As  to  the  dean,,  we  have  four  histories  of  him,  lately 
put>lrshed  :  to  wit,  by  lord  Orrery,  the  Observer  on  lord 
Orrery,  Deane*  Swift,  esq.  and  Mrs.  Filkington  ;  but  after 
all  the  man  is  not  described.  The  ingenious  female  writer 
comes  nearest  to  his  character,  so  far  as  she  relates  j  but 
Iter  relation  Lsr  an  imperfect  piece.    My  lord  and  the  re* 

136  A.pO,  R  Y. 

marker  bn  his  lordship^iiave  given  us  mere  critiques  on  bis^ 
writings,  and  not  ^^|^isfactory  as  one  could  wish.  They 
are  not  painters.  4[pd;^s  to  Mn  Swift,  the  dean's  cousin^ 
his  essay  is  an  odd  ^i^i.  of  history  of  the  doctor's  family, 
and  vindication  of  the  dean's  high  birth,  pride,  and  pro- 
ceedings. His  true  character  is  not  attempted  by  this 
writer.  He  says  it  never  can  he  di^j^  up  with  any  degree 
of  accuracy,  iso  exceedingly  sire^i^gfe^' various,  and.  per-* 
plexed  it  was ;  and  yet  the  materiajl  are  to  be  gathered 
from  his  Writings.  All  this  I  deny,  I  think  I  can  draw  bis 
/  cbaracter;  not  from  his  writings,' but  from  my  own  near 
observations  on  the  man. .  I  "knew  him  well,  though  I  never 
was  within-side  of  his  house;  because  t  could  not  flatter, 
cringe,  or  meanly  humour  the  extravagancies  of  any  man. 
I  am  sure  I  knew  him  better  than  .any  of  those  friends  he 
entertained  twice  a  week  at  the  deanery,  Stella  excepted. 
I  had  him  often  to  myself  in  hi^  rides  and  walks,  and  have 
studied  his  soul  when  be  little  thought  what  I  was  about. 
As  i  lodged  for  a  year  within  a  few  doors  of  him,  I  knew 
his  times  of  going  out  to  a  minute^  and  generally  nicked 
the  opportunity.  He  was  fond  of  company  upon  these 
Occasions ;  and  glad  to  have  any  rational  person  to  talk  to  : 
for,  whatever  was  the  meaning  of  it,  he  rarely  had  any  of 
his  friends  attending  hiin  at  his  exercises.  One  servant 
only  and  no  companion  he  had  with  him,  as  often  as  I  have 
met  him,  or  came  up  with  him.  What  gave  me  the  easier 
access  to  him,  was  my  being  tolerably  well  acquainted  with 
our  politics  and  history,  and  knowing  many  places,  thingi^ 

1)eople  and  parties,  civil  and  religious,  of  his  beloved  Eng* 
and.  Upon  this  account  he  was  glad  I  joined  hinv  We 
talked  generally  of  factions  and  religion,  states  and  revo- 
lutions,  leaders  and  parties.  Sometimes  we  ha^  other  sub-* 
jects.  Who  I  was  he  never  knew;  nor  did  I  seeim  to  know 
he  was  the  dean  for  a  long  time  ;  not  till  one  Sunday  even- 
ing that  his  verger  put  me  into  his  seat  at  St  Patrick's 
prayers,  without  my  knowing  the  do.ctor  sat  there.  Then 
I  was  obliged  to  recognize  the  great  man,  and  seemed  in 
a  very  great  surprise.  This  pretended  ignorance  of  mine 
as  to  the  person  of  the  dean  had  given  me  an  opportunity 
of  discoursing  more  freely  with,  and  of  receiving  more  ia^ 
formation  from  the  doctor  than  otherwise  I  could  have  en- 
joyed. The  dean  y/as  proud  beyond  all  other  mortals  I 
have  seen,  and  quite  another  man  when  he  was  known. 
'^  This  may  appear  strange  to  many ;  but  it  must  be.  to 

A  M  O  R  Y.     '  1ST 

those  vAjLO  are  not  acquainted  with  nie«  I  was  so  fat  from 
having  a  "(-anity  to  be  known  to  Dr.  Swift,  or  to  be  seen 
among  the  fortunate  at  his  bouse  (as  I  have  heard  those 
who  met  there  calledy^  that  t  am  sure  it  would  not  have 
been  in  the  power  of  any  person  of  consideration  to  get  me 
there.  What  I  wanted  in  relation  to  the  dean  I  had,  TliU 
was  enough  for  me.  I  desired  no  more  of  him.  I  was  en- 
abled by  the  means  related  to  know  the  excellencies  and 
the  defects  of  hi$  understanding ;  and  the  picture  I  have 
dra^n  of  his  mind,  you  shall  see  in  the  appendix  afore* 
named;  with  some  remarks  on  his  writingS|  and  on  the 
cases  of  Vanessa  and  Stella. 

**  As  to  Mrs.  Grierson,  Mr.  Ballard^s  account  of  her  in 
his  memoirs  of  some  English  ladies,  lately  published,  is  not 
worth  a  rush.  He  knew  nothing  of  her ;  and  the  impertect 
relation  he  ^t  from  Mrs.  Barber  is  next  to  nothing.  I  wasi 
intimately  acquainted  with  IV^rs.  Grierson,  and  have  passed 
a  hundred  afternoons  with  her  in  literary  conversations  ia 
her  own  parlour.  Therefore  it  is  in  my  power  to  give  a 
very  particular  and  exact  account  of  this  extraordinary 
woman.     In  the  appendix  you  shall  have  if 

These  promised  accounts,  however^  have  not  yet  appealed. 

The  monthly  reviewers  of  the  time  having  given  an  ac- 
count of  this  work  unsatisfactory  to  the  author,  he  publislied 
(for  there  can  be  little  doubt  but  he  was  the  author)  a 
pamphlet  entitled  ^'  A  letter  to  the  Reviewers,  occasioned 
by  their  account  of  a  book  called  Memoirs.  By  a  lady.'* 
Svo.  1755.  This  lady  signs  herself  Maria  de  Large;  and 
subjoined  are  some  remarks  signed  Anna  Maria  Cornwallis. 

In  1756  he  published  the  first  volume  of  '^  The  life  of 
John  Buncle,  esq.  containing  various  observations  and  re- 
flections made  in  several  parts  of  the  world ;  and  maiiy 
extraordinary  relations,*'  8vo,  which  may  be  considered  in 
some  measure  as  a  supplement  to  the  Memoirs;  and  in 
1766  appeared  the  second  volume.  Both  parts  exhibit  the 
same  beauties,  the  same  blemishes,  and  the  same  eccen- 
tricities*  It  has  been  thought,  that  in  the  character  and 
adventures  of  Mr.  Buncle,  the  author  intended  to  sketch 
his  own  picture ;  and  perhaps  there  may  be  some  truth  in 
the  conjecture.  Both  die  Memoirs  and  Life  have  been  re- 
printed in  12mo,  the  former  in  two  volumes,  the  latter  in 
four.  It  is  said  also  that  he  published  many  political  and 
religious  tracts,  poems,  and  songs. 

Counsellor  Amory,  t,he  grandfather  of  the  doctor,  and 


A  M  O  R  Y. 

father  of  our  author,  was  the  youngest  brother  of  Affioryi 
or  Darner,  the  miser,  whom  Pope  calls  the  wealthy  and  the 
wise ;  from  whom  came  lord  Milton,  &c.  He  married  the 
daughtei"  of  Fitz  Maurice,  earl  of  Kerry ;  sir  William  P^tty^ 
another  daughter;  and  the  grandfather  of  the  duke  of 
Leinster,  a  third.     He  died  at  the  age  of  ^7,  in  17S9*. 

AMOUR  (St.)    See  St.  AMOUR. 

AMPHIBALUS,  one  of  our  early  confessors  in  tihe  third 
century,  of  whom  all  the  accounts  we  have  seeii  appeal*^ 
doubtfal,  is  said  to  hare  converted  our  British  proto-martyf 
St.  Alban  to  the  Christian  faith,  and  both  suffered  in  the 
tenth  persecution  under  the  emperor  Dioclesian,  some 
think  aboilt  the  latter  end  of  his  reign,  but  Cressj^,  on 
better  authority,  fixes  it  in  the  third  year  of  that  emperor's 
reign,  or  286.  Boethius,  with  other  Scotch  historians, 
msd^e  Amphibalus  to  be  bishop  of  the  Isle  of  Man;  but 
Gyraldus  Camhrensis,  with  many  of  the  writers  of  out 
church  history,  say  he  was  by  birth  a  Welchman,  and 
bishop  of  the  Isle  of  Anglesea ;  and  that,  after  converthig 
Alban  he  fled  from  Verulam  into  Wales  to  escape  the  exe-» 
cution  of  the  severe  edict  made  by  Dioclesian  against  the 
Christians,  and  was  there  seized  and  brought  back  to  Red- 
barn  in  Hertfordshire,  where  he  was  put  to  death  in 
the  most  cruel  manner.  Archbishop  Usher,  however^ 
explodes  this  story  as  a  piece  of  monkish  fiction,  and 
says  his  name  no  where  occurs  till  Jeffery  of  Monmouth's 
time,  who  is  the  first  author  that  mentions  it.  Fuller,  in 
his  usual  quaint  manner,  wonders  how  this  compounded 
Greek  word  came  to  wander  into  Wales,  and  thinks  it  might 
take  its  rise  from  the  cloak  in  which  he  was  wrapped,  or 
fronv  changing  vestments  with  his  disciple  Alban,  the  better 
to  disguise  his  escape.  It  is  certain  that  the  venerable 
Bede,  who  was  a  Saxon,  and  to  whom  most  of  our  monkish* 
historians  are  indebted  for  the  history  of  St.  Alban,  makes 
.  no  mention  of  his  name,  only  calling  him  presbyter,  d 
priest,  or  clerk.  He  is  said  to  have  written  several  ho- 
milies, and  a  work  ^'  ad  instituendam  vitam  Christianam,'* 
and  to  have  been  indefatigable  in  promoting  Christianity, 

\  "^  This  account  is  mach  abridged 
from  the  preceding  edition  of  this  work; 
but  the  editor  hesitated  long  in  adtnit- 
ing  even  what  is  now  given.  If  we  may 
jadge  from  Mr.  Amory's  writings,  the 
amusement  they  may  afford  cannot 
fail  to  be  checked  by  the  recoUectkm 

that  tiwy  are  the  effutioni  of  a  mind; 
evidently  deranged.  He  appears  t» 
have  travelled  in  search  of  Unitarians, 
as  Don  QuisCote  in  search  of  ehivalroas' 
adventures,  and  probably  from  a  simi- 
lar degree  of  insanity.— -See  Gent.  Mag. 
vol.  LVHI.  1062,  LIX.  107,  Zn,  S7t. 

A  M  P  H  I  L  O  C  H  I  U  S,  iSf 

but  Mthentic  particBlan  of  his  life  are  now  beyond  wd 
resbcfau ' 

AMPHILOCHIUS,  a  native  of  Cappadocia,  bishop  of 
Iconium  ia  the  fourth  century,  was  the  friend  of  St  Gre^ 
gOfy  Nazianzen  and  St.  Basil,  He  assisted  at  the  first  ge- 
neral council  of  Consti^ntinople  in  the  year  381,  and  pre- 
sided at  the  council  of  Sidae.  In  the  year  383,  he  contrived 
the  following  method  of  persuading  the  emperor  to  profaibii; 
the  assemblies  of  the  A  nans :  observing  that  Theodosius 
encouraged  the  Arians,  he  went  to  his  palace,  and  ap^ 
proacbing  Arcadius,  his  son,  caressed  him  as  if  he  had 
been  an  infant,  but  did  not  treat  him  with  the  customary 
respect.  Theodosins,  enraged  at  an  affront  offered  to  him^ 
self  in  the  person  of  his  son,  ordered  the  bishop  to  be  thrast 
Qut  of  the  palace,  when,  turning  to  Theodosius,  he  cried, 
*\  My  lord,  you  cannot  bear  that  your  son  should  be  injured, 
and  are  dupleased  at  those  who  do  hot  treat  him  with  re-* 
^pect ;  can  you  then  doubt,  that  the  God  of  the  universe 
also,  abhors  those  who  blaspheme  his  son?"  Theodosius, 
upon  this,  called  back  the  bishop,  begged  his  pardon,  and 
soon  after  published  severe  laws  against  the  assembliea 
of  the  Arians.  St  AmpUlochius  died  about  the  year  394. 
V^y  few  of  his  works  remain.  Jerome  mentions  but  one, 
GOQceraing  the  '*  Divinity  of  the  Holy  Spirit,*'  which  is 
Mt  exiam.  The  principal  is  an  Iambic  poem  of  consi- 
derable length,  in  which  is  inserted  a  catalogue  of  the. 
hooka  of  the  Old  a^d  New  Testament.  Cave  and  Dupin 
say  that  it  was  the  production  of  Gregcury  Nazianzen,  but 
Coeabesis  and  TiUcsnont  contend  for  its  belonging  to  Am^ 
philochiiks.  The  fragments  which  remain  of  his  other  worka 
are  ia  the  Bshl.  Patinm,  and  there  is  a  letter  of  his  con- 
GC^rning  synods,  published  by  Cotelerius.  Father  Com- 
besis,  pttUltthed  all  be  could  collect,  in  L644,  foL  Greek  and  ^ 
La^,  biit  he  has  inseifted  some  pieces  on  very  doubtful 

I  AMPSINGIUS,  or  AMPSING  (John  Assuerus),  a  na-^ 
tive  of  the  'pcovioce  of  Ovec-yssel,  was  first  a  clergyman  at 
Haarlem,  hot  afterwards  studied  medicine  and  practised 
in  Lower  Saxoay,  having  also  been  appointed  medical  pro* 
feasor  atRoatock,  and  physixian  to  the  duke  of  Mecklen- 

^  BoetlMUS  Hist.  Scot.  Hb.  e.— 'Pitts.—- Tanaer,  &c. 

^  CttNfft'vol.  I.»«*Morerii — lArduer's  Works^  vol.  IV* — ^SaxU  Onomastican*- 

140  A  M  P  S  I  N  G  I  U  S^ 

Imrgfa^  He  died  at  Rostock  in  1642,  aged  eighty-thm^^ 
He  wrote^  1.  '^  Dissertatio  iatromathematica,'*  Rostock^ 
1602,  16iS,  4to;  1629,  &vo.  In  this,  after  preferring  me- 
dicine and  astronomy  to  all  other  sciences,  he  contendsr 
for  the -necessity  of  their  union  in  the  healing  art.  2.  "  De 
Theriaca,  otatio,"  1618,  4to.  3.  "  De  Morborum  dif- 
ferentiis,^^  1619^  and  other  works,  in  which  his  practice  ap^ 
pears  rather  more  rational  than  his  theory.  ^ 

AMSDORF  (Nicholas),  an  associate  of  Lather  in  the 
reformation,  was  born  in  1483,  near  Wurtzen  in  Misnia, 
d  a  noble  family^  After  studying  divinity,  he  became 
one  of  the  clergy  of  Wittemberg,  and  preached  also  at 
t^gdebnrgh  and  Naumburgh.  In  1527,  he  accompanied 
Lu^er,  to  whose  doctrines  he  was  zealously  attached,  to 
the  diet  of  Worms,  and  on  his  return,  was  in  the  same 
carriage  with  that  reformer,  when  he  was  seized  by  order 
©f  the  elector  of  Saxony,  and  conducted  to  Wartburgh.  In 
1573^  he  concurred  in  drawing  up  the  articles  of  SmaU 
calde,  and  was,  in  1542,  appointed  bishop  of  Naumburgh 
By  the  elector  John  Frederick,  who  disapproved  of  the 
choice  which  the  chapter  had  made  of  Julius  de  Pflug. 
But,'  five  years  after,  when  his  patron  was  taken  prisoner 
by  Charles  V.  he  was  obliged  to  surrender  the  bishopric 
to  Pfiug,  and  retire  to  Magdeburgh.  He  afterwards  assisted 
iu  founding  the  university  of  Jena,  which  was  intended  as 
.a  rival  to  that  of  Wirtemberg,  and  died  at  Eisenach, 
May  14,  1565.  The  principal  thing  objected  to- him  by 
the  popish  writers,  and  by  some  of  his  biographers,  is, 
thiit  in  a  dispute  with  G.  Major,  he  maintained  that  good 
works  were  hurtful  to  .salvation :  but  however  improper 
this  expression  in  tl|e  heat  of  debate,  it  is  evident  from  his 
writings,  that  he  meant  that  good  works  impeded  salvation 
'  by  being  relied  on  as  the  cause  of  it,  and  that  they  were 
the  fruit  and  efi^ct  of  that  faith  to  which  pardon  is  pro- 
•  mised.  He  was  one  of  the  boldest  in  his  time  in  asserting 
the  impiety  and  absurdity  of  the  principal  popish  doctrines, 
but  from  his  bigotted  adherence  to  Lutheran  principles, 
had  too  little  respect  for  the  other  reformers  who  were  of 
different  sentiments  in  some  points.  Moreri  is  wrong  in 
asserting  that  he  formed  a  sect  called  by  his  name.  The^ 
same  principles  were  held  by  many  of  the  Lutheran  di- 

^  Biog.  Uoivenelle.— Manget.  Bibl.  Script  Med.— »Haller.  Bibl.  Med.  Pnd. 

A  M  S  D  O  A  F.  14t 

irln^s.  He  wrote  On  the  '*  Lord's  Supper,**  and  som^ 
other  controTersial  pieces  enumerated  by  Melchior  Adam, 
Joecfaer,  and  Adelung.  ^    ' 

AMTHOR  (Christopher  Henry),  a  Danish  political 
«ad  miscellaneous  writer,  was  born  at  Stolberg  in  1678, 
W2»  educated  at  Riindsburgh  by  one  of  his  uncles,  and  in 
1704,  was  appointed  professor  of  law  and  politijaal  science 
at  Kiel,  where  he  acquired  great  reputation.  Some  verses 
which  he  wrote  in  praise  of  tlie  Danish  ministers  having 
given  offence  to  the  court  of  Holstein-Gottorp^  he  entered 
into  the  service  of  Denmark  in  1713,  and  was  appointed 
•historiographer  to  the  king,  and  counsellor  of  the  chancery 
of  the  duchy  of  Holstein  Schleswic.  Iil  this  situation  i^ 
wrote,  at  the  king's  request,  several  pamphlets  on  the  dif^ 
jFerences  which  existed  between  Denmark,  Sweden,  and 
the  duchy  of  Holstein* Gottorp,  which  were  published  itt 
German,  1715,  4to.  These  were  so  much  approved  of^ 
jtbat  in  1715  he  was  invited  to  Copenhagen,  appointed 
'  (Counsellor  of  justice,  and  had  apartments  in  the  royal  castle 
pf  Eosembouj^  until  liis  death,  Feb.  21,1721.  He  wrote 
jBilso  ^^  Meditationes  philosophical  de  justitia  divinaet  ma<* 
jtedis  cum  ea  connexis;''  and  a  volume  of  ^^  poems  and 
laudations,"  in  German,  Flensburgh,  1717.^ 

AMULON,  AMOLON,  or  AMOLO,  was  archbishop 
pf  Lyons,  and  illustrious  for  his  learning  and  piety ;  he 
wrote  against  Godeschalkus,  and  against  the  Jews,  and 
^me  pieces  on  free-will  and  predestination,  which  were 
printed  by  P*  Sirmond,  1 645,  8 vo,  ainl  are  also  in  the 
^^  Bibliptbeca  Patrum."     He  died  in  the  year  854.  ^ 

AMY  (N.)^  an  advocate  in  the  parliament  of  Aix,  who 
died  in  1760,  is  known  by  some  works  in  natural  science: 
1.  ^^  Observations  experimentales  sur  les  eaux  des  riTieres 
de  S^inCi  de  JVfarne,  &c."  1749,  12mo.  2.  ^*  Nouvelles 
fon^ines  SUrantes,"  1757,  12mo.  3.  <^  Reflexions  sur  les 
vaisseaux  decuivre,  de  plomb,  et  d'etain,"  1757,  l2mo.  &c. 
His  works  discover  the  author  to  have  been  a  great  friend 
to  fuankiudy  employing  his  knowledge  in  the  investigation 
of  whatever  may  prove  useful  or  noxious  to  his  fellow* 

AM YN-AHM£D,  Jiaifyf  or  native  of  the  city  of  Rey  in 
A^^bf44i^^  ^^^f^  ^  ^^T  l^^ned  Persian  who  flourished 

1  Melchior  A^<ini.r— Bios*  UiuvenelIe.<«-»FuUer>8  Abel  RediTiTU8.-!f7Moreri.i<-^ 
^axii  Onomasticon. 
*Biog.  Uaivei9tl(e*  >  Oen.  pMt.— >Morfn«  *  Diet.  Histarique^ 

142  A  M  Y  N  .  A  H  M  E  D. 

iiboiitthe  comaieaeement  ctf  the  elerenth  ocntttry  of  the 
Jbegira,  or  the  seyenteeuth  of  the  Christian  »r».  We  hare 
no  particulars  of  his  Ufe,  but  his  extensive  learning  is  ap- 
parent from  a  geographical  and  biographical  work,  com- 
posed by  hun,  under  the  title  ^^  Heft  iclym/'  the  *'  Seven 
clioaates,"  containing  a  description  of  the  principal  coun- 
tries and  cities  of  the  East,  with  biographical  notices  of  the 
most  eminent  persons.  The  dates,  and  the  lists  of  the 
works  of  each  author  are  said  to  be  very  correct.  It  con- 
cludes with  the  year  1002  of  the  begira.  There  is  a  very 
fine  copv  of  it  in  the  imperial  library  of  Paris,  a  large  folio 
of  582  leaves,  copied  in  the  year  1094  of  the  hegira,  or 
1683,  A.  D.  M.  Langles  gave  several  extracts  from  it 
in  the  notes  to  his  French  translation  of  the  Asiatic  re- 
searches, and  some  also  in  the  new  edition  o£  Chardin*t 
voyages.  * 

.  AMYOT  (James),  bishop  of  Auxerre  and  grand  almoner 
of  France,  was  born  Oct  1514,  of  an  obscure  family  at 
Melun.  The  following  particulars  of  his^  origin  are  from 
various  authors.  Varillas  affirms,  That  at  the  age  often 
years>  Amyot  was  found  lying  sick  in  a  ditch  oh  the  road  to 
P^s,  by  a  gentleman,  who  was  so  singularly  compassionate, 
as  to  set  him  upou  his  horse,  and  carry  him  to  a  house,  where 
he  recovered,  and  was  furnished  with  sixteen  pence  to  bear 
h^  ,charges  home.  This  goodness  met  with  an  ample 
reward,  as  Amyot  left  to  the  heirs  of  this  earty  benefactor 
the  sum  of  1600  crowns  a  year.  It'  is  also  saidj  that  as 
Henry  II.  was  making  a  progress  through  his  kingdom,  he 
stopt  at  a  small  inn  in  Berry  to  sup.  After  supper  a  yoang 
man  sent  in  to  his  majesty  a  copy  of  GredL  verses.  The 
king)  being  no  scholar,  gave  them  to  his  chancellor  to 
read,  who  was  so  pleased  with  them,  that  he  desired  him 
to  order  the  boy  who  wrote  them  to  come  in.  On  inquiry 
he  found  him  to  be  Amyot,  the  son  of  a  mercer,  and  tutor 
to  a  gentleman's  spn  in  that  town.  The  chancellor  recom- 
mended his  majesty  to  take  the  lad  to  Paris,  and  to  make 
him  tutor  to  bis  children.  Thi»  was  complied  with,  and 
led  to  his  future  preferments. 

By  what  means  he  was  educated  is  not  certaihly  known, 
but  be  studied  philosophy  at  Paris  in  the  college  of  the 
cardinal  le  Moine,  and  aUbongh  naturally  of  slow  capacity, 
his  uncommon  diligence  enabled  him  to  accumulate  a  larg« 

^  Bi9f .  Uaiv«r8«U«. , 

AM  Y  O  T.  148 


itock  of  cfosskal  and  general  knowledge^  Having  taken 
the  degree  of  master  pf  arts  at  ninieteen,  he  pursued  his 
Studies  under  the  royal  professors  es^blisbed  by.Fr9»iei5  I. 
viz.  James  Tuseh,  who  explained  the  Greek  poets ;  Peter 
Pon^s,  professor  of  rhetoric  ;  and  Oronce  Fin^  professor 
of  mathematics.  He  left  Paris  at  the  age  of  twenty*-tbree, 
Itnd  went  to  Bourges  with  the  sieur  Colin,  who  had  the 
abbey  of  St;  Ambrose  in  that  city.  At  the  recomo^endation 
of  this  abbot,  4^  secretary  of  state  took  Amyot  into  his 
house,  to  be  tutor  to  his  children.  The  great  improve«^ 
pients  they  made  under  his  direction  induced  the  secre- 
tary to  veeommend  him  to  the  princess  Margaret  duchess 
pf  Berry,  only  sister  of  Francis  I. ;  and  by  means  of  this 
recommendation  Amyot  was  made  public  professor  of  Greek 
and  Latin  in  the  university  of  Bourges :  he  read  two  lec« 
jtures  a  day  for  ten  years ;  a  Latin  lecture  in  the  morning, 
and  a  Greek  one  in  the  afternoon.  It  was  during  this  time 
he  trantdated  into  French  the  '^  Amours  of  Theagenes  and 
Cbariclea,"  with  which  Francis  L  Was  so  pleased,  that  he 
conferred  upon  him  the  abbey  of  Bellosane.  The  death  of 
this  prince  happening  soon  after,  Amyot  thought  it  ^rould 
be  better  to  tiy  his  fortwie  elsewhere,  than  to  expect  any 
preferment  at  the  cpurt  of  France ;  he'  therefore  accom* 
panied  Morvillier  to  Venice,  on  his  embassy  from  Henry  IL 
to  that  republic.  ^When  Morvillier  was  recalled  from  his 
embassy,  Amyot  would  not  repass  the  Alps  with  him ; 
choosing  rather  to  go  to  Rome,  where  he  was  kindly  re<^ 
ceived  by  the  bishop  of  Mirepoix,  at  whose  house  be  lived 
two  years.  It  was  here  that,  looking  over  the  manuscripts 
of  the  Vatican,  he  discovered  that  Heliodoros^  bishop  of 
Tripca,  w^  the  author,  of  the  Amours  of  Theagenes ;  and 
.finding  also  a  manusqript  m^re  correcit  and  complete,  than 
that  which  he  had  transjl^ited,  be  was  enabled  to  give  a 
betteir  edition  of  this  work.  His  labours,  however,  in  this 
w^y,  did  not  engage  him  so  as  to  divert  him  irom  im« 
proving  his  situation,  and  he  in^nuated  himself  so  for  into 
the  favour  of  cardinal  de  Tournon,  that  his  eminence  re^ 
commended  him  to  the  king,  to  be  preceptor  to  his  two 
younger  sons.  While  he  was  in  this  employment  he  finish-* 
ed  his  translation  of  ^^  I^lutarch's  Lives,^'  which  he  dedi-( 
cated  to  the  king ;  and  afterwards  undertook  that  of  ^'  Plu«> 
tarch^s  Morals,''  which  he  finished  in  the  reign  of  Charles 
)X.  and  dedicated  to  that  prince.  Charles  conf^rediipoti 
him  the  abbey  of  St.  Cornelius  de  CoQxpeigne,  although 

U4  -        AMY  0 .7": 

much  against  theificHnation  of  the  c^ueen,  whd  had  another 
person  in  hef  eye;  and  he  also  made  him  grand  almoner  of 
France  and  bishop  of  Auicerre ;  and  the  placel  of  gi-and 
atmoner  and  that  6f  curator  of  the  nniversity  of  Paris  hap- 
pening to  be  vacant  at  the  saine  time,  he  was  also  invested 
.in  both  these  employhients,  of  which  Thuatins  complains. 
Henry  III.  perhaps  vrould  have  yielded  to  the  pressing  so- 
licitatio^ns  of  the  bishop  of  St.  Flour,  who  had  attertded  him 
on  his  journey  into  Poland,  and  made  great  interest  for 
the  post  of  grand  almoner;  but  thfe  duchess  of  Savoy,  the 
ling'saantjPecommfehdedAmyot  so  earnestly  to  him,  when 
he  passed  through  Turin,  On  his  return  from  Poland,  that 
he  was  not  only  continued  in  his  employment,  but  a  new 
honour  was  added  to  it  for  his  sake  :  for  when  Henry  IIL 
named  Antyot  commander  of  the  order  of  the' Hoiy  Ghost, 
he  decreed  at  the  same  time,  as  a  mark  of  respect  to  him, 
that  all  the  grand  almoners  of  France  shonld^  be  of  "course 
commanders  of  that  ordef.  '  Amyot  did  not  neglect  his 
atudies  in  the  midst  of  his^  hononrji,  but  revised  all  bis  trans- 
hiti<M!)s  with  great  care,  compared  them  with  the  Greek 
text,  and  altered  mahy  passages:  he  designed  to ^ve  a- 
more  complete  edition  of  them,  trith  the  various  readings 
of  divers  manuscripts,  but  died  before  he  had  finished  that 
work*  He  died  the  6th  of  February,  1593,  in  the  79th 
year  of  his  age. 

His  character  has  been  variously  represented.  He  has 
been  accused  of  ambition,  from  his  many  promotions,  and 
of  avarice,  from  the  riches  he  left  behind  him ;  but  these 
are  equivocal  proofs,  and  we  have  given  one  instance  of 
gratitude  which  marks  something  more  estimable  in  his 
character.  Another  proof  may  be  brought  from  his  will, 
that  his  preferments  had  not  elevated  him  beyond  the  re- 
collection of  his  mean  origin.  In  his  will  is  the  following 
dause  :  **  I  leave  1200  crowns  to  the, hospital  of  Orleans, 
in  acknowledgment  of  the  relief  I  formerly  received  there.** 

It  is  generally  allowed  that  Amyot  contributed  essen* 
tially,  in  his  translation  of  Plutarch^  towards  the  polish  and 
refinement  of  the  French  language.  Vaugelas,  a  very 
competent  judge,  gives  him  this  praise;  and  adds,  that  no 
writer  ^uses  words  and  phrases  so  purely  French,  withont 
any  mixture  of  provincialisms.  It  has  been  said,  however, 
that  he  was  a  plagiarist,  and  there  are  two  opinions  on 
this  subject ;  the  one,  that  he  took  his  Plutarch  from  ai> 

Italiau  trapsls^tioQ ;  the  other,  that  the  work  was  ei^egut^d 

ky  a  Idwiis^'  ^V^  V^^^  ^^^9  whptn  he  hired;  But  both 
these  of>iaioo6  w^ra  caatisidicted  by,  an  hi^p^ction  of  the 
copies  of.  Fhitarch  in  his  possessions  I9afiy  of  which  »re 
BMxkedwith  notQ&'aia,d  various  readings,  which  shew^  an 
intimate  acquainti^Qce  with  the  Qreek.  It  may,  hpweyer^ 
be  aliowed^  that  his  tcans^icui  is  not  always  faithful,  and 
tha  learned  Meziriao  pretends  to  have  discovered  nearly 
two  thpi^and  errors  in  it.  Yet  it  has  not  been  eclipsed 
by  any  subsequent  altei^pt,  and  notwithstandiDg  many 
of  his  expressions  are  obsolete,  Racine  pronounced  that 
there  is  a  peculiar  charm  in  his  style  which  is*  not  surpassed 
by  the  modern  French. 

His  worlds  are,  I.  His  translation  of  ^'  Heliodorus,"  1547, 
foL  and  1549,  8yo,  republished  and  retouched  in  1559,  foL 
in  consequence  of  his  meeting  with  a  complete  manuscript 
of  Heliodorus  in  the  Vatican;  and  from  this  Ja^t  edition 
all  those  of  Lyons, ;  Paris,  and  Rouen  have  been  copied. 
2.  ^^Pio.doptts  Sicuhi£,'^  Paris,  1554,  fol.  and  1587,  con* 
tainkig  only  seven  books,  via.  book  XI.  to  XVII.  3  /<  Daph« 
nis  f^nd  Cioe,^'  from  Longus,  1559,  Svo,  of  which  there 
have  been  many,  and  some  very  splendid  editions,  ftas* 
ti^idarly  that  cc^lled  the  Regent's  edition,  1718,  12mo,  cme 
by  J>idot,  I7d8.,  large  ^^to,  and  one  at  Florence,  1810, 
large  8^vo>  by  M^  Courier.  4.  ^*  Plutarch's  Lives  and  Mo- 
rals," I55i^,  2  vols.  fol.  Va^osan's  edition  in  13  vols.  12mo9 
1567r— 1574>  lyas  long  in  the  highesit  estimation ;  the  Lives 
occuf^  six  €d  these,  and  the  -  Morals  seven, ,  but  vol.  VI* 
oQghA  to  contain  the  Uk^es  of  Hannibal  and  Scipio  by 
L'Ecluse, , which  is.  not  the  case  in  all  the  copies.  There 
have  sijace,  however,  appealed  two  more  valuable  editions^ 
the  pne  m)i2  vols.  8vo,  1 7 83-^87,  with  the  notes  of  Brottier 
and  Vauvilliers,  and  the  other  in  25  vols.  1801 — 1806, 
edil;ed  by  M*  Clavier,  with  considerable  additions.  6.  ^^  Let- 
tre  ^  M.  d0  MorvUUer,"  dated  Sept.  8,  155i,  containing 
an.  acopu^  of  the  author's  journey  to  Trente.  This  is 
printed  in  Vargas  and  Dupuy's  histories  of  the  Council  of 
Trent.  7.  *^  CEuvres  ro6l6es,"  1611,  8vo,  is  mentioned  in 
!^j[ic^ran,  but  it  is  doubtful  whedier  such  a  coUection-existtf. 
8.  "  Projet  de  F Eloquence.  ro3^ale,  compost  pour  Henry  III 
roi  de  francei"  printed  for  the  first  time  in  1805,  Svo  and 
4to.  Not  long  before  his'  death  be  was  solicited  to  write 
the  history  of  his  country,  but  bis  answer  was»  ^  I  lave 
n^y  spwreigi^S' too  well  to  writetheir^ liv^s." * 

>  Gen.  Diet— Moreri.--'Q»a«fepie.— Biog.  UnivewUe.— W^^iJMf  ^^^» 
rdi  h  p.  53. 

VoL.IL  L 

U^  AMY  R  A  JJ  r. 

AMYRAUT  (Moses),  an  eminent  French  diviiie,  wail 
born  in  September  1596,  at  Bourgtieil,  a  small  town  of 
Touraine,  of  an  ancient  family  originally  from  Orleans. 
Having  gone  through  his  course  of  philosophy,  he  was  sent 
to  Poictiers,  to  read  law ;  to  which  he  applied  himself  with 
great  assiduity,  and  is'  said  to  have  spent  fourteen  hourd  a 
day  in  that  study.  At  the  end  of  his  first  year,  h6  took  the 
degree  of  licentiate ;  but  Mr.  Botichereau,  minister  of  Sau- 
mur,  advising  him  to  study  divinity,  and  the  reading  of 
Calvin's  Institutions  having  strongly  inclined  him  to  foUowr 
this  advice^  he  acquainted  his  father  that  he  earnestly 
desired  to  be  a  clergyman,  and  obtained  his  assent,  though 
liot  without  difficulty.  He  then  Went  to  study  at  Saumur, 
where  he  continued  a  considerable  time  as  student  of  di-^ 
vinity.  Upon  his  admission  into  orders,  he  was  presented 
to  the  church  of  St.  Agnau,  in  the  country  of  Mayne,  and 
eighteen  months  after,  he  was  invited  to  Saumur,  to  suc- 
ceed Mr.  I)aill6,  appointed  minister  of  Charenton.  About 
the  same  time  that  the  church  of  Saumur  desired  him  for 
their  minister,  the  academic  council  fixed  upon  him  for 
professor  of  divinity ;  and  his  admission  to  the  professorship, 
his  previous  examination,  and  his  inaugural  thesis  *^  De 
sacerdotio  Christi,'^  redounded  much  to  his  reputation. 

In  1631,  he  was  sent  deputy  to  the  national  council  at 
Charenton ;  and  by  this  assembly  was  appointed  to  address 
the  king,  and  lay  before  his  majesty  their  complaints  con^ 
cerning  the  infraction  of  the  edicts :  he  was  particularly- 
charged  not  to  deliver  his  speech  upon  his  knees,  as  the 
deputies  of  the  former  national  synod  had  done.  He  ma* 
naged  this  afiair  with  so  much  address,  that  be  was  intro* 
duced  to  the  king  according  to  the  ancient  custom,  and  in 
the  manner  that  was  agreeable  to  the  assembly  :  and  it  wag 
on  this  occasion  that  he  became  acquainted  with  cardinal 
Richelieu,  who  conceived  a  great  esteem  for  him,  and  im^ 
parted  to  him  the  design  he  had  formed  of  re-uniting  the 
two  churches.  The  Jesuit  who  conferred  with  Mr.  Amyraut 
upon  this  subject  was  father  Audebert.  Mr.  de  Villeneuve, 
lord  lieutenant  of  Saumur,  having  invited  them  both  to 
dinner,  took  care  they  should  confer  in  private,  but  Mr. 
Amyraut  protested,  thiit  he  could  not  forbear  imparting  to 
his  colleagues  all  that  should  pass  between  them.  The 
Jesuit  told  him  he  was  sent  by  the  king  and  his  eminence^, 
to  propose  an  agreement  in  point  of  religion ;  that  the  Ro« 
man  catholics  were  ready  to  sacrifice  to  the ,  public  tran* 
quilfity  the  invocation  of  saints^  purgatory,  and  the  merit 


^tgooA  works ;  that  tbey  would  set  bounds  to  the  pope^ii 
power,  and  in  case  they  met  with  opposition  from  the 
couit  of  Rome,  they  would  lay  hold  on  that  occasion  to 
create  a  patriarch ;  that  the  laity  should  be  allowed  the 
communion  in  both  kinds ;  and  that  they  would  give  up 
aereral  other  points,  provided  they  found  in  the  Protes- 
tants a  sincere  desire  of  peace  and  union.  But  he  de« 
clared,  when  Mr.  Amyraut  touched  upon  the  doctrines  of 
the  eucharist,  that  no  alteration  would  be  admitted  there ; 
and  Amyraut  immediately  answered,  that  then  they  could 
come  to  no  agreement  This  conference  lasted  about  four 
hours :  the  Jesuit  still  required  secrecy ;  but  Mn  Amyraut 
protested,  according  to  the  declaration  he  had  made  first 
to  Mr.  Villeneuve,  that  he  would  communicate  the  whole 
matter  to  his  colleagues,  and  that  he  would  be  answerable 
for  their  prudence  and  discretion.  About  this  time  he 
published  a  piece,  in  which  he  explained  the  mystery  of 
predestination  and  grace,  according  to  the  hypothesis  of 
Camero,  which  occasioned  a  kind  of  civil  war  amongst 
the  protestant  divines  of  France.  Those  who  disliked  the 
hypothesis,  derided  it  as  a  novelty,  especially  when  they 
saw  themselves  joined  by  the  great  du  Moulin,  who  ac* 
cused  Amyraut  of  Arianism.  The  authority  of  tbi^  fa* 
mous  divine,  to  whom  the  people  paid  a  great  respect 
and  veneration  on  account  of  the  many  books  of  contro- 
versy he  had  published,  made  so  deep  an  impression  in 
the  minds  of  many  ministers,  that,  though  Amyraut  had 
published  a  piece,  wherein  he  maintained  Calvin  to  have 
held,  universal  grace,  yet  many  deputies  at  the  national 
synod  of  Alengon  came  charged  with  instructions  against 
bim,  and  some  were  even  for  deposing  him.  The  depu- 
ties of  the  provinces  beyond  the  Loire  were  the  most  vio* 
lent  against  him  ^  but  the  synod,  after  having  heard  Amy- 
raut explain  his  opinion,  in  several  sessions,  and  answer 
the  objections,  honourably  acquitted  him,  and  enjoined 
silence  in  respect  to  questions  of  this  nature.  This, 
however,  was  not  strictly  observed  by  either  side ;  for 
complaints  were  made  against  Amyraut,  in  the  national 
synod  of  Charenton,  for  having  acted  cpntrary  to  the  re- 
gulations concerning  that  silence ;  and  he,  in  his  turn, 
complained  of  infractions  of  the  same  nature.  The  assem- 
bly, by  a  kind  of  amnesty,  suppressed  these  mutual  com- 
plaints ;  and  having  i^enewed  th^  injunction  of  silence,  sent 
.back  Aipyraut  (^  lus  employment,  permitting  him  to  op«t 

I.  2 

14*  AMV-R^UT. 

posa  flifetgiMrs  w1k>  should  attac):  bim,  in  i^t-  mmfter 
the'  sjnod  of  Anjon  sbouM  tbmk  proper^  and  this  synod 
allowed  him  to  puhlisb  an  answer  to  the  three  i^olumes  <&§ 
Spanhetnius  upon  univecsal  grace^  which  occasioned  the 
writing  of  several  others. 

•  SuctI  was  the  consequence  of  hi^  interference  in  thi« 
controversy ;  but  as  the  history  of  opinions  is  perhaps  one 
of  the  most  interesting  branchos  of  biography,  we  shall 
more  particularly  state  Amyraut's  hypothesis :  It  may  be 
briefly  summed  up  in  the  following  propositioBS :  ^  Thab 
God  desires  the  happiness  of  all  men,  and  that  no  mortal 
is  excluded  by  any  divine  decree,  firom  the  beneiite  ihsit 
are  procured  by  the  death,  sufferings,  and  gospel  of 
Christ !  That,  however,  none  can  be  made  a  partaker  of 
the  blessings  of  the  gospel,  and  of  eternal  salvation,  unless 
be  believe  m  Jesus  Christ :  That  such  indeed  is  the  immense 
and  universal  goodness  of  the  Supreme  Being,  that  he  re^ 
fuses  to  none  the  power  of  believing ;  though  he  does  not 
grant  ukito  all  his  assistance  and  succour,  that  they  may^ 
wisely  improve  this  power  to  the  attainment  of  everlasting 
salvation ;  and  That,  in  consequence  of  this,  multitudas 
perish,  through  their  own  fault,  and  not  from  any  want  of 
goodness  in  God."  Mosheim  is  of  opinion  that  this  is 
only  a  species  of  Arminianism  or  Pelagianism  artfully  dis* 
guised  under  ambiguous  expressions,  and  that  it  is  not 
very  consistent,  as  it  represents  God  as  desiring  salvation 
for  allj  which,  in  order  to  its  attainment,  requires  a  degree 
of  his  assistance  and  succour  which  he  refuses  to  marn/, 
Amyraut's  opinion  was  ably  controverted  by  Rivet,  Span- 
heim,  De  Marets,  and  others;  and  supported  afberwards 
by  Daille,  Blondel^  Mestrezat,  and  Claude* 

Amyraut,  beuig  a  man  well  acquainted  with  the  world^ 
Was  very  entertaining  in  conversation,  which  contributed 
no  less  than  the  reputation  of  his  learning  to  render  him 
the  favourite  of  many  persons  of  quality,  though- of  opposite 
principles  in  religious  matters  :  among  those  who  particu- 
larly distinguished  him,  were  the  marshals  de  Brez6  and  de 
la  Meilleriac,  Mr.  le  Goux  de  la  Berchere,  first  president 
of  the  parliament  of  Burgundy,  and  cardinal  Maasarin. 
What  gained  him  the  favour  of  this  cardinal  was,  in  all 
probability,  his  openly  declaring  in  favour  of  the  obedience 
due  to  sovereigns,  which  proved  very  advantageous  to  the 
court  of  France  during  th^  troubles  of  the  league  againat 
cardinal  Maaarin,  calkd  de  la  Fitmde*    In  his .  Ap^gy^ 

^bUfdied  in  1647,  in  behalf  of  the.protestknts^  he  ex« 
Qtrtes  very   plausibly  the  civil  wars  of  France ;  but  he 
declates  at  the  same  time,  that  he  by  no  means  intends 
to  justify  the  taking  up  of  arms  against  the  lawful  so- 
vereign upon    any    pretence   whatsoever;   and  that   he 
always  looked  upon  it  as  more  agreeable  to  the  nature  of 
tike  gospel  and  the  practice  of  the  primitive  church,  to  use 
BO  otlier  arfns  but  patience,  tears,  afid  prayers.     Yet,  not* 
withstanding  his  attachment  to  this  doctrine,  he  was  not  . 
for  obeying  in  matters  of  conscience,  which  plainly  ap- 
peared when  the  seneschal  of  Saumur-  imparted  to  him  ati 
order  from  the  council  of  state,  enjoining  all  those  of  the 
reformed  religion  to  hang  the  outside  of  their  houses  an 
Corpus  Christi  day.     The  seneschal  notified  this  order  to 
him  the  eve  of  that  holiday,'  entreating  him  at  the  same 
time  to  persuade  the  protestants  to  comply  with  it.     To 
this  Amyraut  made  answer,  that,  (m  the  contiary,  he  would 
go  directly  and  exhort  his  parishioners  against  tomplying 
with  it,  as  he  himself  was  resolved  not  to  obey  such  orders: 
that  in  all  his  sermons  he  had  endeavoured  to  inspire  his 
hearers  with  obedience  atid  submission  to  superior  powers*! 
but  not  when  their  consciences  were  coocerndd.     Having 
thus  acquainted  the  seneschal  with  his  resolution,  he  went 
from  house  to  hq-use,  laying  before  his  parishioners  the 
reasons  why  he  thought  they  ought  not  to  obey  the  order 
of  the  council,  and  the  hinges  lieutenant  not  thinking  it 
proper  to  support  the  seneschal,  the  mliitter  «nded  without 
disturbance.     , 

Amyraut  was  a  man  of  such  charity  tin^  compassion^  that 
he  bestowed  on  the  poor  his  whole  salary  ddring  the  last 
ten  years  of  his  life,  without  distinction  of  catholic  or  pto* 
testant.  He  died  the  8th  of  February  1664,  and  was  in* 
terred  with  the  usual  ceremonies  of  the  acadertij'.'  .H«  left 
but  one  sbn,  who  was  one  of  the  ablest  advoc^ates  of  the 
parliament  of  Paris,  but  fled  to  the  Hague  after  the  rev(>- 
catioo  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  :  he  had  also  a  daughtier,  who 
died  in  l€45^  a  year  and  a  half  after  she  had  been  married* 
His  works  are  dhiefly  theologioal,  arid  very  voluminous ; 
but,  notwithstanding  hife  fame,  few  of  them  were  printed  a 
aecmid  tihie,  and  they  ar6  now  therefore  scarce,  and  per-r^ 
haps  we  may  add,  not  in  much  request.  He  published  in 
t  Q$  1  his  ^<  Traite  des  Religions,"  agaitist  those  ^ho  think 
alt-religions  indifferent,  and  five  years  after,  six  "  Sermons 
upofi  the  nature,  extent,  &c.  of  the  Gospel^**  •and  several 


others  at  different  times.  His  book  of  the  exaltation  of 
Faith^  and  abasement  of  Reason,  ^'De  ^elevation  de  la  foi^ 
&c."  appeared  in  1641 ;  and  the  same  year  was  published 
in  Latin  the  **  Defence  of  Calvin  with  regard  to  the  doc- 
trine of  absolute  reprobation,^'  which  in  1644  appeared  in 
French,  He  began  his  *♦  Paraphrase  on  the  Scripture"  in 
1644:  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans  was  paraphrased  the 
first;  then  the  other  Epistles ;  and  lastly  the  Gospel :  but 
like  Calvin,  he  did  not  meddle  with  the  Revelations,  nor 
did  he  prefix  his  name  to  his  Paraphrases  lest  it  should 
deter  the  Roman  Catholics  from  perusing  them.  He  pub- 
lished in  1647  an  "Apology  for  the  Protestants,*'  "A  treatise 
of  Free  Will,"  and  another  "  De  Secessione  ab  Ecclesia 
Romana,  deque  pace  inter  Evangelicos  in  negotio  Reli* 
gionis  constituenda."  But  he  treated  this  subject  of  the 
re-union  of  the  Calvinists  and  Lutherans  more  at  length  in 
his  **  Irenicon"  published  in  1662.  His  book  of  the  "  Vo- 
cation of  Pastors"  appeared  in  1649.  He  had  preached  on 
thia  subject  before  the  prince  of  Tarento,  at  the  meetings 
of  a  provincial  synod,  of  which  he  was  moderator.  The 
prince  desired  the  sermon  might  be  printed,  and  the  sub- 
ject  treated  more  at  length,  it  being  then  the  common 
topic  of  all  missionaries.  Mr.  Amyraut,  therefore,  not  only 
printed  his  sermon,  but  published  a  complete  treatise  upon 
that  important  controversy,  and  dedicated  them  both  to 
ike  said  prince.  His  Christian  Morals,  *^  Morale  Chre-^ 
tienne,**  in  six  vols.  8vo,  the  first  of  which  was  printed  in 
1652,  were  owing  to  the  frequent  conferences  he'had  with 
Mr.  de  Villornoul,  a  gentleman  of  an  extraordinary  merit, 
and  one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  Europe,  who  was  heiv 
|n  this  respect  also  to  Mr.  du  Plessis  Mornai  his  grandfather 
by  the  mother^s  side.  He  published  also  a  treatise  of 
dreams,  "Traits  des  Songes;'*  two  volumes  upon  <*the 
Millenium,'*  wherein  he  rentes  an  advocate  of  Paris,  called 
Mr,  de  Launoi,  who  was  a  zealous  Millenarian ;  the  <^  Life 
of  the  brave  \sl  Nou6,  surnamed  Iron-arm,"  from  156^0  to 
the  time  of  his  death  in  1 59 1,  Leyden,  1661,  4to ;  and  several^ 
other  works^  particularly  a  poem,  entitled  <<  The  Apology 
of  St,  Sitephen  to  hia  Judges.'^  This  piece  was  attacked 
by  the  missionaries,  who  asserted  that  the  author  had  spoke 
irreverently  of  the  sacrament  of  the. altar ;  but  he  published 
ft  pamphlet  in  which  be  defended  himself  with  great  ability,^ 

A  M  Y  R  U  T  Z  E  a  If  I 

AMYRUTZES,  a  peripfttetic  philoioph^r,  of  the  fifteentli, 
century,  and  a  native  of  Trebi^ond^  was  at  first  in  grea^ 
esteem  at  the  court  of  the  emperor  David  his  niaster,  and 
signalized  himself  by  writing  in  favour  of  the  Greeks 
against  the  decisions  of  tbe  council  of  Florence ;  bu);  at 
last  forfeited^  by  his  apostacy,  all  the  reputation  he  had 
gained.  He  was  one  of  tho9e  who  accompariied  the  ^ax* 
peror  David  to  CSonstantinopie,  wbither  th«it  prince  was 
carried  by  ordi&r  of  MahcMinet  <  IJ,  after  the  reduction  of 
Trebizond,  in  I46il,  and. there^; seduced  by  the  promise^ 
of  the  Sultan>  be  .renounced  the  Chiristiap  r^iigion^  and. 
embraced  Mahometi^mi  togetlier  vr ith  his  <;hi}dr0n,;one.of 
which/  under  thet.nam^  of;Mehemet-Beg^  tjran*«lated  many, 
books  of  the  Christians  into  Arabic,  by  the  orc^lcr  of  Ma-» 
jbometll.  That  prince  honoured  AmyrutZjes  with  consi-» 
^lerable  employments  in  the  set^aglio,  aod  used  som^timef 
to  discourse  with  bioB  and  his  s<>n  about  poiuts  of  learning 
and  religion.  By  the  manner.  Allatiu$» .  expresses  himself^ 
it  would  appear  tha^  this  philosopher  had  b<;^rne  tbe  e^iploy* 
xaent  of  prptoff^stiarius  jn  tbe  cQuft  pf  the  emperor  of  Tre-r 
bizond,  but  this  emperor  was  not  the  first  priQce  that  shewed 
aparticulaiC  v^lue  for  An^yrut^es,  as  be  bad  l^een^greatly 
esteemed  at  the  court  of  Constantinople  long  b^forcj 
He  was  oneof  the  learned  men>  with  whom  the  /emperor 
John  Paleologus  advised  about  his  journey,  into  Italy,  and 
he  attended  him  in  that  jpurney,  Of  his  death  we  have 
po  account}  and  Bayle  «e^ms  tp  think  tber^  w^re :  two  of 
the  name.  ^.  , 

ANACHAR8IS,  a  famous .  philosopher^  .was  born,  in 
ScyUiia*  He  w^^.  brotbcfi:,  tp  .Cadovides  king  Qf  Scythia^ 
ana  the  <soi^'i;)fQnuru3  by  a,!Cfe.ek  womatn^;  vv^hich  gave  bir^ 
th^  opportunity  of  learningbpth  lapgij^ges  to  p^rfectioiif 
Sosicvates,  L^i^rtins;  afi[iraijBd>  that  h^  came 
po  Athens  in  the  forty-sevepth  olympiad,  or .391?  Bi,C.  unde? 
Eucratea  tbe  Archon»  And  tierpijppus  tell?  us,..U^at.$^ 
f^on  ap  h^  a^ived, there,  be  went  to  SoIqU'S  bouse,  and 
{^nocked  at  hia  di^^r,  and  bid,  the  servant,  who  opened  it, 
go  >n4  tell  his.  niasteri  tbj^t  An^ohafsis  was  tberoy  i^^d  «vai 
^0m^  on  puppqsf^  tQ  .•e^  him,  and  continue  with  hiip  fox 
some  tinie«f.  Sqlon  returned  him  an  answer,,  tha^t  it  wa4 
l^ettef  to  contact  friendship  at;  h^^^^v  •  An^barsis  wwt  jj} 
fifOJ^  <^.s,  imd  mi  \Q  SqIoUi  Hk^^  ^inpe  h^:WS^$  th^^  it\  bii 

r, .        c  .^ 

.}  tttn,  Pkt.-»Allatias  deFerpetuo  Con«6qsu,  pp,  183,  9^1^ 

]j^  A  N  A  C  H  ]KX  9rt«. 

dwii  ^UTitry  ^ad  in  hiiov^nhdnrnf  it  was  his  (itty  Ibb  6n« 
tJ^tiain  hirn  as  bis  guest^  ^m^  therefore  he  :  desired  him  to 
^tier  into  to  intimdte  ftieiidship  with  him.'  Soton,  sur- 
prized at  the  vivacity  of  his  tepart^ge,  itnmddiMely  engaged 
ih  a  friendship  widi  him,  which  lasted  as  long  as  they 
lived.  Solon  instrndteS  hitA  in  <^'bedt  discipline,  fe- 
commended  him  to  the  faviDcnr  of  the  noblest  persons^  and 
sought  all  mean§  of  givii^g^hitn' (respect  and 'honour.  Ana* 
cihatsis  was  kindly  'receivisd  {>j  ^ev^iy-  oiie  for  his  sake,  and, 
as  Theoxenias  atteite,  was  Ih^  only  stranger  whom  they 
incorporated  into  theii^  cityj  H^  mus  a*  mistn  of  a  very 
quick  and  lively  'genius,  and  of  H  istrong  and  masterly 
eloquence,  and  Was  resolute  in  whsft^Ver  he  undertook. 
He  constantly  wore  a  coarse  double  -garment.  He  was  very 
temperate,  and  his  diet  wa^  nothiD*^  bat  milk  and  cheese. 
His  speeches  were  delivered  in  a  ooncise  andpathetic  style, 
tad  as  he  was  inflexible  in^tte  pui<stiit^  his  pointy  he  never 
failed  to  gain  it,  tod  his  resolute  nmd  eloq^ient  manner  of 
speaking  passed  into  a  proverb  ;  ^nA  %hbse  who  imitated 
him  were  said  to  speak  in  tiie  Scythian  phrase.  He  wan 
extremely  fond  of  poetry,  and  Wrote  the  laWs  of  the  Scy- 
thians, and  of  those  things  which  he  had  observed  among  the 
Greeks^  and  a  poem  of  900  verses  upOn  'war.  Croesus, 
having  lieard  of  his  repdlia^n^  sent  to  efSer  him  money) 
tod  to  desire  him  to  come  to  see  Mm  tit  8'ardis ;  but  the 
{ihi)oik)i>her  answered,  that  he  was  cohie  to  Greece  in  Otd^ 
to  learn  ^he  language,  ma'toe^s,  'and'ia#s'<^'tlBiateoufiFtry, 
that  he  had  no  occasion  for  gold  or  silver,  and  idiat  it 
would  be  suffi£fieht  for'l£m<l0  return  to  Soythia abetter 
lAan  and  moi^iinteiKgenttfaftaiiJ  ^h^ti  ke  ^iMAeiAim  «hence& 
He  told  the  king>  however,  i)^  hfi  ^vOuld  take  to  e^pot^ 
tensity  of  ^eein«^  Hitti^  mnce  h^^»d«L  «trMg.d«sire  of  beinj^ 
tanked ^n ^h^  number  oiMi  Mebd^.  Aft^  fee  h#d ^xa^ 
tinned  a^ldi^  while  ih  Greee^^H^^ptttedtd  tetu^n  heme^ 
tod^sah^  th^^i^h  Cyrlemnj'^  found  th4  pec^Ie^thatt 
feity  -eetebratihg  in  a 'Ve¥y  soteftm 'nktfne^'  i$ie  fta^t  ^• 
Oybe)^.  :'Thi^ 'excited  hitn  to' mkt?e%  v^e^Ue^tiblift  ^Odde»si 
thM' be  w6^id  '^erforito  the  ^alne'sa^i'ifte^,  'Mnldi^Atfblisj^ 
lhfe«ttriie4\BHs%to  honotit^^f^herih  'his  ^oWfi^tJWhtry,  if  h% 
A6uU  ]?e.tiini  «itther4ft  artftfty.  IPpoAhte  arrival  InSeyiha 
hfe^i^tttffJtedte'cljange^hfe  toeitot  cusfcoiil*ctf  ^httt^iftrtfiyi 
Md  to^^s^bMAi  ^d^of  Greece,  butthi^^jii^oViRl  ek^ei^ 
displeasing  to,  the  Scythians.  an4  fatal  to  himsel£  As  he 
had  one  day  entered  mto  a  thick  wood  called  Hylsaa^  in 

A  N  A  €  H  A  R  IS  I  S.  15-3 

Qprdte  to  accomplish  his  vow  to  Cjrbele  in  Che  Kxiost  $ecr^ 
manner  possible,  and  was  performing  the  whole  ceremony 
before  an  image  of  that  goddess,  he  was  discovered  by  a 
Scythian,  who  went  and  informed  king  Saulius  of  it.  The 
king  came  immediately,  and  surprised  Anacharsis  in  the 
midst  of  the  solemnity,  and  shot  him  dead  with  an  arrow. 
Laercius  tells  us, .  that  he  was  killed  by  hh  brother  with  an 
lOiDW  as  he  was  bunting,  and  that  he  expired  with  these 
words  :  ^*  I  lived  in  peace  and  safety  in  Greece,  whither  1 
went  to  inform  myself  of  its  language  and  manners,  and 
edvy  has  destroyed  me  in  my  native  country .'*  Great  re- 
spect, however,  was  paid  to  him  tffter  his  death  by  the 
erection  of  statues.  <He  is  said  to  have  invented  the 
potter's  wheel,  but  this  is  mentioned  by  Homer  Jong  before 
keliv^,  yet  he  probably  introduced  it  int-o  his  country. 

The  apophthegms  related  of  Anacharsifi  are  numerous, 
and  in  general  shrewd  and  apposite,  but  ^me  are  of  a 
strong  satirical  cast.  He  used  to  say,  that  the  vine  pi^- 
daoed  diree  cioptts  of  grapes,  the  first  of  pleasure,  the  se- 
cond Vif  drunkenness,  and  the  third  of  repentance.  He 
ex^nbssed  his  surprize,  that  in  all  the  public  as^embliek 
at  Athens,  wise  meti  should-  propose  business,  and  fools 
df^:eviivine  it.  lie  could  not  comprehend  the  reason  why 
thwe  were  punished,  who  abused  others  with  their  tongue, 
aiyd  yet  gveat  rewards  were  given  to  the  wrestlers,  who 
tnsaitsed  oitfe  'another  witAi  the  utmoi^  611^  and  barbarity. 
Ife  imiR  u4i  l«ess  cLStonisbed  that  the  Greeks  at  tiie  begins 
Bidg  of  itbeir  banquets  should  mak^  use  of  'glasses,  which 
^Bte  of  amodterate  size,  ^ftud  yet  ^louid  call  for  very  larg^ 
oMs  at  the  ^lose  of .  thtt  f eaiM;,  when  tihey  ha^^  dtunk  suf-* 
ficianily^  ^He-  cbnld  h^  no^m^ans  appj*<>v^  of  the  liberties 
wUah  >&i^Ty  parson  thoitgiit  were  aliowa^blfe  m  t>anquets. 
Being^^ftsked  one  day  what  method  was  to  be  tkken  in  ordeir 
to  fifttvent  one  from  m^t  drinking  wine,  h^  r^lii>d,  "Ther^ 
xnio'^bei^ier  means  than  H^  vkw  a  drunken  man  wi^  all  hi^ 
estrnvagimce  of  behayMMHr.^  As  he  was  one  day  considering 
tlte  thidkiMit»  of  the  ptaaks  of  a  ship,^  he  cx4ed  tout,  Alas ! 
tkoie  wbo  go  t6tsea,  ar€l  km.  four  inehcfs  distant  from  d^th. 
ftstn^'  'aidc^  what  %asi  the  mo^t  secUr^  ship,  he  replied, 
fllfcat  ^iih  it  amved  in  «he  port.  He  vci*y  often  repeated 
it,  that  'e40ty  man  sfaduld  uk^  a  particular  care  to  make 
himself  master  of  his  tongue  and  hi§  belly.  He  had  always 
Whcfh  l^e  sliept  his  right  l>and  upon  his  mouth,  to  shew  that 
there  is  nothing  which  we  ought  to  be  so  cautious  of  as  the 

154  ,   A  JTA  C  fl  A  R  S  I  S. 

tongue.  An  Atfaehiaa  reproaching  him  one  day  with  bcin^ 
a  Scythiai),  he  replied.  My  country  is  a  disgrace  to  me; 
but  you  are  a  disgrace  to  your  country.  Being  asked  what 
was  the  best  and  what  the  worst  part  of  a  man,  he  an* 
&weredy  The  tongue.  It  is  much  better,  said  he,  to  have 
but .  one  friend,  if  he  be  but  faithful  to  us,  than  a  great 
Dumber,  who  are  always  ready  to  follow  the  change  of  for-* 
tune.  When  he  was  asked,  whether  there  were  more  per^ 
^ns  living  than  dead,  he  answered.  In  which  number  do  ye 
rank  those  who  are  at  sea  i  He  used  to  say,  that  the  forum 
was  a  place  which  men  had  established  in  order  to  impose 
upon  each  other.  It  remains  to  be  noticed,  that  the  letters 
published  under  his  nam9>  Bari$,  1552,  Greek  and  Latin» 
4to,  are  unquestionably  spurious.  *  , 

ANACREONj  a  Greek  poet  of  great  celebrity^  wat^ 
boru  at  Teqs,  ^  siea-port  of  Ionia,  Madam  Dacier  endea- 
VQursi  to  prove  from  Plato,  that  he  was  a  kinsman  of  Solon's^ 
and  consequently  allied  to  the  Codridas,  the  noblest  family 
IP  Athens;  but  this  is  not  sufficiently  supported.  The 
time  when  he  flourished  is  uncertain  ;  EusebiuS' placing  it 
in  the  62d,  Suidas  in  the  52d,  and  Mr.  le  Fevre  in  the 
72d  olympiad.  He  is  said  to  have  been  about  eighteen 
years  of  age,  when  Harpagus,  the  general  of  Cyrus,  came 
with  an  ai*my  against  the  panfederate  cities  of  the  Ionian^ 
and  iEolians.  The  Milesians  immedif^t^ly  submitted  them^. 
selves ;  but  the  Phocaeans,  when  they  found  themselves 
unaBle  to  withstand  the  enemy,  chose  rather  to  abandon 
their  country  than  their  liberty;  and  getting  a  fleet  to- 
gether, transported  themselves  and  families  to  the  qQ8|St  oi 
France,  where,  being  hospitably  received  by  Nannus  the 
Jting  of  the  country,  they  built  Marseilles.  The  Teians 
soon  followed  their  example ;  for,  Harpagus  having  toade 
himself  master  of  their  walls,  they  unanimously  w^nt  on 
board  their  ships,  and,,  sailing  to  Thrace,  .flxed  themselves 
in  the  city  Abdera.  They  had  not  been  there  long,  when 
the  Thracians,  jealous  of  theii:  new  neighbours,  endear 
vovired  to  give  them  disturbance;  and  in  these  conflicts 
it  seems  to  be,  that.  Anacreon  lost  thpse  friends,  wham  he 
celebrates  in  his  epigrams.  This  ppet  had  much  wi^  but 
was  certainly  too  fond  of  pleasures^  for  love  and  wine  had 
th^  disposal  of  all  his  hoyrs.     In  the  edition  of  AnacrcQiv 

'  Diogenes  Laertius. — Bruckcr. — Gen.  Diet— rFenelon's  I^ives  of  t^ie  lfh^gb 
vo^keri,  vol,  I,— Fabric.  Bibl,  Griec.'criSaxu  Onomasticgi, 

A  N  A  C  R  E  O  N.  155 

andSappho published  in  1789  by  Fred.  6.  Qorn,  of  Leipsick^ 
this  editor  endeavours  to  defend  Anacreon  against  the 
charges  of  inebriety  and.  unnatural  lust,  and  with  consi- 
derable success.  These  imputations^  hQwever,  have  been 
cast  on  his  memory  by  Ihe  majority  of  wiiters,  except, 
perhaps^  ^lian.  How  long  Anacreon  continued  at  Samos 
is  uncertain,  but  it  is  probable  he  remained  there  during^ 
the  greatest  part  of  the  reign  of  Poly  crates ;  for  Herodotus 
assures  us,  that  Anacreon  was  with  that  prince  in  his 
chamber,  when  he  received  a  message  from  Oraetes  gover« 
nor  of  S^rdis,  by  whose  treachery  Polycrates  was  soon 
after  betrayed  and  inhumanly  crucified.  It  seems  to  have 
be^en  a  little  before  this,  that  Anacreon  left  Sanios  and 
removed  to  Athens;  having  been  mvited  thither  by  Hip« 
.parchus  the  eldest  son  of  Pisistratus,  one  of  thp  most  vir- 
tuous aud  learned,  princes  of  bis  time  ;  who,  as  Plato  as« 
sures  us,  sent  an  obliging  letter,  with  a  vessel  of  fifty  oars 
to  convey  him  over  the  £gean  sea.  After  Hipparchus 
was  slain  by  the  conspiracy  of  Harmodius  and  Aristogiton, 
Anacreon  returned  to  Teos,  where  he  remained  till  the 
revolt  of  HistisBUs,  when  he  was  obliged  once  more  to  re* 
move  to  Abdera,  where  he  died.  The  manner  of  his  deaths 
is  said  to  have  been  very  extraojrdinary ;  for  they  tell  us  he 
was  choaked  with  a  grape-stone,  which  he  swallowed  as  he 
was  drinking  some  new  wine.  A  small  part  only  of  Ana^* 
creon^s  works  remain*  Besides  odes  and  epigrams,,  he 
composed  elegies,  hymns,  and  iambics  :  the  poems  which 
$ire  extant,  consist  chiefly  of  bacchanalian  songs  and  love* 
sonnets;  and  with  respect  to  such  subjects,  they  have 
been  long  regarded  as  standards  of  excellence.  They  are 
distinguished  by  their  native  elegance  and  grace  from 
every  other  kind  of  poetical  composition  :  and  the  volup* 
tuous  gaiety  of  all  his  songs  is  so  characteristic,  that  his 
style  $md  manner  have  produced  innumerable  imitation^ 
called  Anacreontics,  Little  can  be  said^  however,  of  the 
iQoral  purity  of  his  sentiments,  and  it  is  to  be  feared  that 
the  fascinations  of  the  Anacreontic  school  have  been  most 
destructive  to  the  mor^ils  and  prudence  of  the  young  and 

The  pd^tiqns  of  Anacreon  are  too  numerous  to  be  spe«- 
cifted  here.  They  were  printed  fgr  the  j&rst  Mnie  by  Henry 
Stephens,  Paris,  1554,  4to,  who  had  found  the  eleventh  ode 
on  the  cover  of  an  old  book.  Until  then  we  had  nothing 
cif  Anacreon  but  what  was  in  Aulus  Gellius^  or  the  Antbo* 

15$  AN  AC  R  EON. 

logy.    Stephens^  hc^werer,  had  the  good  forti»»etdWl<t 
with  tmo  manuscripts,  which  he  compared  trkh  skfirtipuloiak 
citre.  These  were  the  only  MSS.  known  for  «i  long  period  % 
but  as  Stephens,  who  some  time  before  his  death  fell  int6 
mental  decay,  neglected  to  ooftimunicate  to  ^tfy  {yersoi!! 
where  they  were,  they  are  snppo^d  to   have  bee<i   de- 
stroyed with  many  o^er  valuable  origitiate.     This  circum- 
stance was  the  ca:u9e  of  some  ^uspictoti  attaching  to  the 
Editio  Prtnceps  as  deficient  in  actthemieity.  _  It  was,  how^ 
ever,    generally  followed  in  the  sttbs^^uent  editions,    of 
which  those  of  Madame  Dacier  and  Barnes  were  loi^g  es- 
teemed the  best.     But  the  most  stngalii^r  and  Oi^gnmeent 
edition  of  modem  times  is  l^at  of  Jodefih  Spaletti,  y/Adi^ 
was  printed  at  Rome  in  1781,  in  ii»peti^^uano,  \dth  3t» 
fine  plates,  exclusive  of  Id  plates  m\fii^simigte.    In  tifi6 
preface,  the  editor  remarks,  that  some  hy^efr-critiics,  ias  L^ 
Fevre^  Dacier,  and  Baxter,  had  dodbt^  liie  ti^tb^ticit^ 
of  Anacreon :  and  that  Cornelius  Pau  had  even  Suspected 
Jiis  odes  to  have  been  productions  of  fiJie  isixteent'h  «ent«ftry. 
To  confatethis,  iSpaletti  now  published  di^  p<)^ms  Y)f  Ana* 
creon  in/ac^simile,  from  a  MS.  in  th^  Vatican,  hf(  Ae  tenti 
centiary,  as  is  psdipable,  from  its  oatiigraphy^  to  toy  pet^oh 
ftcquainted  with  GnE?ck  archieiolbgy.    The  Latin  trtinsfetion 
by  Spaletti  is  said  to  be  muck  more  %iccutste  than  tin^ 
other. -^  There  ane  liialiy  Enghsh  tran^hctiot^^  of   Ana- 
cceon,  who  has  ever  t^en  a  fevourit*  with  yoting^ets. 
Cowley  is  thought  to  faiaure  been  the  first  9ilc«es^fi!^lti*ans- 
laton     The  Fi«nah  also  have  many  translators,  and  som^ 
of  diem  faithful  and  spirited.^ 

ANANIA,  or  AON  AN  V  {iom  «'),  ^as  ^  taWy^  <tf 
much  refnrtsKtioii  in  tbe  ^teenth  c^maiy.  Ilk  origin  ^^ 
obscure,  and  «ms  that  ikccofifft)  k  is  suid,  Ue^odk  the  n)Mh^ 
of  Anania,  a  to«^  6f  the  ancient  Latium,  instead  of  thiit'ctf 
bis  family.  Hebteoame  afterwdlrdi^  ptofe^i^oi*  6f  cl^il  and 
canon  law  ^  Bologna^  and  archdeacon^  and  "^^  highly  «s'^ 
tetoiedfbt  piety  and  learning.  Hi*  *<  Cdmmfentiwies  oh 
the  fifth  Book  of  the  Decretals,'*  a  voluttie  of  "'  Cbnsulta^ 
kions,'*  and  his  treatise  oh  feudal  rights^  "  D^e  t^Tocatlbn^ 
feudi  alienati,"  Leyden,  1546,  4to,  are  among  his  prin- 
cipal worl*.  Jt  iu  rather  suprifeing  that  a  man  of  his 'leitrn- 
ing  and  sens^  should  have  alsb  writVeh  bti-  the  subject  tX 

1  Gen.  Bict^— Barnes's  AtwcreOn.-^]PiML  yiiiT.er0eUe.«r-V««iui^-H^tbDi«i 
«ibl.  Gr«c» 

A  N  A  N  I  A.  U1^ 

xMgi^  andk  demosia^  '^JDe  magia  et  malefi^its,  LeyAeoy 
L66d^  4 to;  if  indeed  this  belongs  t<^  hkn,  and  not  to  the 
dufaffect  of  the  Allowing  aiticle.  He  «kied  in  1458^  at  an 
adxABced^age.  ^ 

ANcAKIA  (John  Lorenzo  n'),  a  native  of  Tarama  in 
Qalabrisy  Hred  abo<U>  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
lie  wrote  a  hook  of  geographjit  in  Italian ;  and  a  woik  in 
Latiai,  ensiled  ^^  £>e  iiatora  Deemonuih/*  which  was  print-* 
ed  at  Veoice  iu  15^,  Svow  The  other  work  bearai  the 
tkle  f^^Cosknographia,  overo  P  universale  Fabrica  del  Mon- 
do,"  and  was  published  at  Venice  in  15T6,  4to.  This  au- 
thor is  not  mesitioned  by  Vossius  in  his  catalogue  of  geo- 
grapke¥& ' 

ANASTASIU'S.  Bibliothecarius,  so  called  because  he 
was  Mfbrariad  of  the  church  of  Rome,  was  a  native  of  Greece, 
and  one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  his  age.    He  flourished 
ilboat  themiddlie  of  the  ninth  century,  and  was  abbot  of 
St»  Mary^^s  trans  Tiberim.     His  chief  work,   the.  ^*  Liber 
Poatiificali^/'  ov  the  lives  of  the  Popes  from  St.  Peter  ta. 
Nicholas  I.  is  of  a  doubtful  character :  Blondel  and  iSal^ 
masiiis^  bestow  great  encomiums  on  it,   while  Hailing,   a 
]ftoman  catholic  writer  of  note,  depreciates  it  as  much.     To 
thekist  edition  of  this  book  is  joined  Ciampinius'^  exami- 
nation  of -the  validity  of  the  facets  therein  mentioned ;  and 
fisom  thii^  -we  learn  thckt  he  wrote  only  the  lives  of  Gregory 
IV.  Sergius  IL  Leo  IV.  Benedict  III.  and  Nicholas  I.  and 
that  the  lives  of  the  other  popes  in  that  book  were  done  by 
diff^reiit  aoUftors*    Anastasius  is  said  to  have  assisted  at  the 
eigjhtb  general  council  held  at  Constantinople  in  the  year 
869y  of  whieh  he, translated  the  acts  and  canons  from  Greek 
mto  Latin.     The  time  of  his  death  is  a  disputed  point,  as 
indeed  are  many  pisirticulars  relating  to  him.     Bayle  has  a 
veiry  elaborate  article  on  bis  history,  which  Cave  had  pre- 
viously examined,  and  Blondel,  in  his  "  Familier  eclaircisse- 
nient/'  and  Boeder  in  bis  "  Bibl.  critica,'*  have  likewise 
entered  deeply  into  the  controversy.     He  wrote  a  great 
numbier  of  translations,  more  valued  for  their  fidelity  than 
eleganciE;,  yet  they  have  all  been  admitted  into  the  popish 
CoUections  of  ecclesiastical  memoirs  and  antiquities.     The 
first  edi4aon  of  the  **-  Liber  Pontifiealis**  was  printed  at 
ISS^^ntZf  1602  f  4t0,  and  two  more  editions  appeared  in  the  la^t 
century,  one  in  four  vols.  fol.  by  Francis  and  Joseph  Bian«* 

I  BIqi;.  UniverseUe.  •  Gen.  Dkt. 

15«  A  N  A  S  T  A  S  I  U  S. 

cbiniy  171^^—1735,  and  the  other  in  three  vok.  4t09  by  the 
abbe  VigQoli,  }  724-^1 753,  besides  an  edition  by  Mura^ 
tcrri,  in  his  collection  of  Italian  writers,  enlarged  by  leam^ 
ed  dissertations,  from  would  appear  that  AnHsto* 
siuswas  rather  the  translator^  or  compiler  of  thosielive8»  and 
that  he  took  them  from  the  ancient  catalogues  of  the  pc^es, 
the  acts  of  the.  martyrs,  and  other  documents  preserved 
among  the  archives  of  the  Roman  church*  The  Vatican 
library  then  consisted  of  little  eke,  although  it  appears  that 
there  was  before  his  tiiQe  a  person  honoured  with  the  title 
of  librarian.' 

ANASTASIUS,  caHed  the  Sinaite^  because  he  was  a 
monk  of  mount  Sinai,  flourished  in  the  seventh  century. 
We  have  several  writings  of  this  recluse :  1.  •*  Odegos,*' 
or  the  Guide  on  the  true  way,  in  Gr.  and  Lat.  Ingoldstadt,* 
1606 j  4ta.  2.  ^^  Contemplationes  in  Hexameron^''  Graeeo- 
Lat»  Londini,  1682,  4to,  published  by  AUix.  3.  ^^  Cinq 
Kvres  dogmatiques  de  Theologie^'*  4.  "  Some  sermonsi.*' 
His  works  were  published  at  Ingolstadt,  1606,  4to,  by  the 
Jesuit  Gretser,  and  inserted  in  the  Bibliotb.  PP.  * 

ANATOLIUS,  St.  born  at  Alexandria,  bishop  of  Lao- 
dicea  in  Syria,  in  269,  cultivated  successfully  arithmetic, 
geometry,  grammar,  and  rhetoric.  Some  works  of  his  are 
still  remaining ;  among  others,  a  tract  on  Easter,  printed 
in  the  Dpctrina  temporum  of  Bucherius,  Antwerp,  1634, 
folio. » 

ANAXAGORAS,  of  Clazomene,  one  of  the  most  emi- 
nent of  the  ancient  philosophers,  was  bom  in  the  first  year 
of  the  seventieth  olympiad,  B.  C.  500,  and  was  a  disciple 
of  Anaximenes.  He  inherited  from  his  parents  a  patri« 
mony  which  might  have  secured  him  independence  and 
distinction  at  home ;  but  such  was  his  thirst  after  know- 
ledge, that,  about  the  twentieth  year  of  his  age,  he  left  his 
country,  without  taking  proper  precautions  concerning  his 
estate,  and  went  to  reside  at  Athens.  Here  he  diligently 
applied  himself  to  the  study,  of  eloquence  and  poetry,  and 
was  particularly  conversant  with  the  works  of  Homer,  whom 
he  admired  as  the  best  preceptor,  not  only  in  style,  but  in 
morals.  Engaging  afterwards  in  speculations  concerning 
nature,  the  fame  of  the  Milesian  school  induced  him  to  leave 

^  Gen.  Diet. — Biog.  Universellc— Ginguenc  Hist.  Litt.  d'ltalle,  Yol.  I. p.  97-^ 
too.— Saxii  Ono(na8tic»ii. 
»  Moreri.— -Cave.— Fabr.  BibU  Or.— Saxii  OMniMticttt. 
3  Gen.  Dict.«-C9Te. 

A  N  A  X  A  G  0  R  A  S.  15» 

Athens^  that  he  might  attend  upon  the  public  instructions 
of  Anaximenes.  Under  him  he  became  acquainted  with 
his  doctrines,  and  those  of  his  predecessors,  concerning 
natural  bodies,  and  the  origin  of  things.  So  ardently  did 
he  engage  in  these  inquiries,  that  he  said  concerning  him^ 
self  that  he  was  bom  to  contemplate  the  heavens.  Visiting 
his  native  city,  he  found  that,  whilst  he  had  been  busy  in 
the  pursuit  of  knowledge,  his  estate  had  run  to  waste,  and 
remarked,  that  to  this  ruin  he  owed  his  prosperity.  One 
of  his  fellow-citizens  complaining  that  he,  who  was  so  welt 
qualified,  both  by  rank  and  ability,  for  public  offices,  had 
shown  so  little  regard  for  his  country,  he  replied,  "  My 
first  care  is  for  my  country,"  pointing  to  heavien.  After 
remaining  for  some  years  at  Miletus,  he  returned  to  Athens^ 
and  there  taught  philosophy  in  private.  Among  his  pupils 
were  several  eminent  men,  particularly  the  tragedian  Eu- 
ripides, and  the  orator  and  statesman  Pericles ;  to  whoni 
some  add  Socrates  and  Tbemistocles. 

The  reputation  Which  he  acquired,  at  length  excited  the 
jealousy  and  envy  of  his  contemporaries,  and  brought' upon 
him  a  cruel  persecution.  It  is  generally  agreed,  that  he 
was  thrown  into  prison,  and  condemned  to  death ;  and  that 
it  was  with  difficulty  that  Pericles  obtained  from  his  judges 
the  milder  sentence  of  fine  and  banishment ;  but  the  nature 
of  the  charge  alleged  against  him  is  variously  represented. 
The  most  probable  account  of  the  matter  is,  that  his  offence 
was,  the  propagation  of  new  opinions  concerning  the  gods, 
and  particularly,  teaching  that  the  sun  is  an  inanimate 
fiery  substance,  and  consequently  not  a  proper  object  of 
worship.  As  he  was  indefatigable  in  his  researches  into 
nature,  on  many  occasions  he  might  contradict  the  vulgar 
opinions  and  superstitions.  It  is  related  that  he  ridiculed 
the  Athenian  priests,  for  predicting  an  unfortunate  event 
from  the  unusual  appearance  of  a  ram  which  had  but  one 
horn  ;  and  that,  to  convince  the  people  that  there  was  no- 
thing unnatural  in  the  affair,  he  opened  the  head  of  the 
animal,  and  showed  them,  that  it  was  so  constructed,  as 
necessarily  to  prevent  the  growth  of  the  other  horn. 

After  his  banishment,  Anaxagoras  passed  the  remainder 
of  his  days  at  Lampsacus,  where  he  employed  himself  in 
instructing  youth,  and  obtained  great  respect  and  influence 
among  the  magistrates  and  citizens.  Through  his  whole 
life  he  appears  to  have  supported  the  character  of  a  true 
philosopher.     Superior  to  motives  of  avarice  and  ambition. 

iea     '  A  K  A  X  A  G  6  R  A  S« 

tioa  of  tiih  air;  that  tbe^ rainbow  is  ti^e  effect  of  tbe*  re« 
flection  of  the  solar  ray sr  from  a  thick  cloudy  placed  oppa- 
site  to  it  like  a  mirror ;.  that  the  moon  is  an  opaque  body, 
enlightened  by  the  snu^  and  an  habitable  region,  divided 
into  bills,  vales,  and  waters;,  that  the* comets  are  wander* 
ing  stars;  and  that  the  fixed  stars  are  in  a  region  exterior 
to  thosiB  of  the  ^un  2Xkd  mocm.  But  the  .writers  who  report 
Uiese  pai:ticulaFs  hav^  mixed  with  them  such  strange  absur<- 
.ditiesjtas'  weaken  the  jCire^it  bf>their  whole  relation.  When 
we  ajle  told,  that  Anaxagora^  thought,  the  sun:  to  be  a  flat 
circular  mass  of  hot  iron,  somewhat  bigger  than  the  Pelo* 
ponnesus  }  aiul  the  £tars  to  have  been  ibrmted  from  stones 
whirled  from  the  earth  by  the  violent  circumvolution  of  its 
surroi&nding  ether,  we.cannot  but  suspecttbat  in  the  course 
«f  traditionary  report,  his  opinions  must  haVe  been  igno- 
rantly  Biisconcerved,  or  designedly  misrepnesented. ^  .:. 

ANAXANJftRiDES,  a  Greek  comic  poet,  bom  at  Ca^ 

'^limis^fiik  thcisle  of  Rhodes, 'flourished  inithe  lOlst  olym* 

•piad^  B«jC..4O0,  and  was-  the  first,  if  Suidas^  may  be  ere* 

dited^  wba.introduced  love  adventures  on  the  stag«,  which 

JSayl^lhiaks  doiibtfuK     He  was.  a  man  Iconqeited  of  his 

person^  wore  rich  iipiparei,  and  affected  pomp  and  gran*  such, a  degree, .that  being  once  engaged  to  rcaxl  a 

po^n  at  Athens,  he.  wient  ti^the  appointed  place  on  hoitse^ 

.back,  and  rehearsed  part  of  ihis  pei^formance  in  thatpos* 

^tuoeri     Such  a  behaviour  renders  prbbabl^  .wbat/is  further 

4iaid  of  hiin,.  via{.  that  )lije  waa  extremely  grieved .  when  his 

pieces  did  Aot  carry  the'  prize.     He  nbver  u€|ed,  like  other 

^ets^  :to.  polish  or  corroct  them,  theUr  they  might  appear 

^gam  lb  a  better  condition ;  and  this  disrespect  fgr  bis 

(tpectatora  occasioned  the  loss  of  sevevaL  fine  comedies* 

OwingiJtQ  the  same  circumstance,  he  woatbe  prize  butrteti 

:li)Oies>  wlmreas  we  fint^.  above  twenty^  of  his  .plays  quoted^ 

tUdd  i^  wirote  in  all  sixtyefive.     Thei  Atheniansi  condemned 

%ita  to  he  starved  for  censuripg  theijr  govercuBent.)    Nuoe 

jQ^bis  productions  are  extant,  but£  ibh^m  are  nien^ 

ftion^  by  AristQtle  and  othen  authors;.  ^  ^    i<     ' 

.  ANAXARCHUS,  ^a.:  philo^^hdr  ofi  Ahdora,  in  tbe  1 10th 
plympiad,  BwC.  34Q,  was  the  favouritei^df  Alexander  the 
^reat,  au4{  u^d  a  libesty,  ia  speaking  to  hm»  that  waa  ,wi^« 
thy  of  the  philosophy  of  Diogenes.     That  prince  .being 

■  Almost  literally  from  the  abridgment  of  Bracker««»])iO|;f  nt^  Ifacrtlai,-*^ 
l9^a.I>}ct.—Fenelon'8  Lives  of  l^ePbftoso^h^tt/^' 


A  N  AX  A  R  CH  U  S.  I6i 

Woanded^  Anaxarchus  put  his  finger  to  the  wound,  and 
looking  him  in  the  face,  said,  *^  This  is  human  bteod ;  and 
not  of  that  kind  which  animates  the  gods."  Once  this 
prince  asked  him  at  table,  whstt  he  thought  of  the  feast  ? 
He  answered)  ^^  that  there  was  but  one  thing  wanting,  the 
head  of  a  great  nobleman,  which  ought  to  have  been  served 
in  a  dish :"  and  in  saying  this,  fixed  his  eyes  on  Nicocreon, 
tyrant  of  Cyprus.  After  the  death  of  Alexander,  this 
Nicocreon,  in  his  turn,  caused  him  te  be  put  in  a  mortar^ 
and  beat  with  iron  pestles.  The  philosopher  told  the 
tyrant  to  pound  his  body  as  much  as  he  pleased,  but  h^ 
had  no  power  over  his  souL  Nicocreon  then  threatened 
to  have  his  tongue  cut  out.  <^  Thou  shalt  not  do  ^  it, 
wretch !"  said  Anaxarchus ;  and  immediately  spit  it  in  his 
£Ace,  after  having  bit  it  in  two  with  his  teeth.  Anaxarchus 
was  of  the  sect  of  the  Sceptics.  Such  is  the  common  ac« 
count  of  this  philosopher,  but  it  is  wholly  inconsistent  with 
his  character,  which  was  that  of  a  man  softened  by  effemi* 
nate  pleasure,  and  a  flatterer  of  kings.  The  same  story  i$ 
told  of  Zeno. ' 

ANAXIMANDER,  an  ancient  philosopher,  was  the  first 
who  taught  philosophy  in  a  public  school,  and  is  therefore 
often  spoken  of  as  the  founder  of  the  Ionic  sect.  He  was 
born  in  the  third  year  of  the  42d  olympiad,  or  B.  C.  610* 
Cicero  calls  hiin  the  friend  and  companion  of  Thales; 
whence  it  is  probable,  that  he  was  a  native  of  Miletus* 
That  he  was  en^ployed  in  instructing  yoath,  may  be  in* 
ferred  from  an  anecdote  related  concerning  him;  that^ 
being  laughed  at  for  singing  (that  is,  probably,  reciting 
his  verses)  ill,  he  said,  **  We  must  endeavour  to  sing  bet- 
ter, for  the  sake  of  the  boys.**  Anaximander  was  the  first 
who  laid  aside  the  defective  method  of  oral  tradition, '  and 
committed  the  principles  of  natural  science  to  writing.  '  It 
is  related  of  him,  which,  however,  is  totally  improbable, 
that  he  predicted  an<earthquake.  He  lived  sixty-four  years* 
.  The  general  doctrine  of  Anaximander,  concerning  na- 
ture-and  the  origin  of  things,  was,  that  infinity  is  the  first 
principle  of  all  things ;  that  the  universe,  though  variable 
in  its  parts,  as  one  whole  is  immutable ;  and  that  all  things 
are  produced  from  infinity,  a'hd  terminate  in  it.  What  this 
philosopher  meant  by  infinity,  has  been  a  subject  of  a  dis« 

1  Bnicker.— Morerl-i^Bios*  Uuivenelle.— I«uzac's  Leetioncs  AUicss^    Le/^ 

M  2  '  . 


164  A  N  A  X  I  M  A  N  D  E  R. 

pate  productive  of  many  ingenious  conjectures^  which  are^ 
however,  too  feebly  supported  to  merit  particular  notice* 
The  most  material  question  is,  whether  Anaximander  on* 
derstood  by  infinity  the  material  subject,  or  the  eflicient 
cause,  of  nature.  Plutarch  asserts,  the  infinity  of  Anaici* 
mander  to  be  nothing  but  matter*  Aristotle  explainB  it  in 
the  same  manner,  and  several  modern  writers  adopt  the 
tame  idea.  But  neither  Aristotle  nor  Plutarch  could  have 
any  better  ground  for  their  opinion  than  conjecture.  It  is 
more  probable,  that  Anaximander,  who  was  a  disciple  c^ 
Thales,  Would  attempt  to  improve,  than  that  he  would 
entirely  rgect,  the  doctrine  of  bis  master.  If,  therefore, 
*the  explanation,  given  above,  of  the  system  of  Tbales  be 
admitted,  there  will  appear  some  ground  for  supposing, 
that  Anaximander  made  use  of  the  term  infinity  to  denote 
&e  humid  mass  of  Thales,  whence  all  things  arose,  toge« 
ther  with  the  divine  principle  by  which  he  supposed  it  to 
be  animated.  This  opinion  is  supported  by  the  authority 
of  Hermias,  who  asserts,  that  Anaximander  supposed  ati 
eternal  mover  or  first  cause  of  motion,  prior  to  the  humid 
mass  of  Thaleis.  And  Aristotle  himself  speaks  of  the  in- 
finity of  Anaximander  ad  comprehending  and  directing  all 
things.  After  all,  nothing  can  be  determined,  with  cer^ 
tainty,  upon  this  subject. 

'  There  can  be  little  doubt,  that  mathematics  and  astro- 
nomy were  indebted  to  Anaximander.  He  framed  a  cod-> 
nected  series  of  geometrical  truths,  and  wrote  a  summary  of 
his  doctrine.  He  was  the  first  who  undertook  to  delineate 
the  surface  of  the  earth,  and  mark  the  divisions  of  land  and 
water,  upon  an  artificial  globe.  The  invention  of  the 
sun-dial  is  ascribed  to  him ;  but  it  is  not  likely  that  man^ 
kind  had  remained,  till  this  time,  unacquainted  with  sa 
useful  an  instrument,  especially  considering  how  vmcb 
attention  had,  in  many  countries,  been  paid  to  astronomy, 
and  how  early  we  read  of  the  division  of  time  into  iioun; 
Herodotus,  with  much  greater  probability,  ascribes  thia 
invention  to  the  Babylonians.  Perhaps  he  made  use  of  a 
gnomon  in  ascertaining,  more  correctly  than  Thales  had 
done,  the  meridian  line,  and  the  points  of  the  soistioea. 
Pliny  says,  that  be  first  observed  the  obliquity  of  the  eclip* 
tic ;  but  this  cannot  be  true^  if  Thales  was  acqusdnted 
with  the  method  of  predicting  eclipses,  which  supposes 
the  knowledge  of  this  obliquity. 

Other  opinions  ascribed  to  Anaximander  are,  that  the 


stars  are  globular  collections  of  air  and  fire,  bom^  about 
in  the  sfdieres  in  which  they  are  placed ;  that  they  ar^ 
gods,  that  is,  inhabited  and  aminated  by  portions  of  the 
ditinity;  that  the  sun  has  the  highest  place  in  the  bM-> 
Tens,  the  moon  the  next,  and  the  planets  and  fixed  stars 
the  lowest ;  that  the  earth  is  a  globe  placed  in  the  middle 
of  the  universe,  and  remains*  in  its  place ;  and  that  tbe  sun 
is  twenty-^igbt  times  larger  than  the  earth.  > 
'  ANAXIMENES,  a  Milesian,  who  was  born  about  the 
fifty«Mxth  olympiad,  or  B.  C.  556,  was  a  hearer  and  com- 
panion, of  Anatximander.  He  followed  the  footsteps  of  hu 
master,  in  his  inquiries  into  the  nature  and  origin  of 
things,  and  attempted  to  cast  new.  light  upon  the  system. 
He  taught,  that  the  first  principle  of  all  things  is  air,  which 
he  held  to  be  infinite,  or  immense.  Anaximenes,  says 
Simplicius,  taught  the  unity  and  immensity  of  matter,  but 
under  a  more  definite  term  than  Anaximander,  calling  it 
air.  He  held  air  to  be  God,  because  it  is  difiused  through 
ftU  nature,  and  is  perpetually  active,  Tlie  air  of  Anaxi- 
menes is,  then,  a  subtle  ether,  animated  with  a  divine  prhb* 
eiple,  whence  it  becomes  the  origin  of  aU  beings,  and  iq 
this  sense  Lactantius  understood  his  doctrine. 

Anaximenes  was  probably  the  continuator  of  the  doctrine 
of  Tfaales  and  Anaximander,  concerning  the  finest  principle 
of  nature,  with  this  difference  only,  that  he  supposed  the 
divine  energy  to  be  resident  in  air,  or  ather.  Chiefiy  at- 
tentive^ however,  to  material  causes,  he  was  silent  con- 
cerning the  nature  of  the  divine  mind. 

Anaxifoenes  is  also  said  to  have  taught,  that  all  min^ 
are  air  3  that  fire,  water,  and  earth,  prooeed  from  it,  by 
rarefaction  or  condensation ;  that  the  sun  and  moon  are 
fiery  bodies,  whose  form  is  that  of  a  circular  plate ;  that 
the  stars,  which  also  are  fiery  substances,  are  fixed  in  the 
heavens,  as  nails  in  a  crystalline  plane ;  and  that  tHe 
earth  is  a  plane  tablet  resting  upon  the  air. ' 
'  ANAXIMENES,  the  s<m  of  Aristocles  of  Lampsacus,  aii 
orator,  was  the  disciple  of  Diogenes  the  cynic,  and  of 
Zoilns  of  Ampbipolis,  the  absurd  critic  on  Homer.  He 
was  preceptor  to  Alexander  of  Macedon^^  and  followed  him 
to  the  wars.  When  the  king  was  incensed  against  the 
pe^^Ie  of  Lamipsacus,  because  they  had  taken  the  part  of 
the  Persians,  and  threatened  them  with  grievous  putiish- 

1  Brucker.— Diostnei  Laertins.-— Geo.  Dict,«— ^oreri,  *  Ibid« 


166  A  N  A  X  I  M  E  N  E  «. 

ments,  'he  saved  them  by  a  trick.  The  peoplci  in  dang^v 
of  losing  their  wives,  children,  and  country,  sent  Anaxi«« 
laenes  to  intercede  for  them,  and  Alexander  knowing  tha 
cause  of  his  coming,  swore  by  the  gods,  that  h^  would  do' 
the  very  reverse  of  what  he  desired  of  him.  Upon  this 
Anaximenes  said  to  him,  ^'  Grant  me  the  favour,  O  king,: 
to  enslave  the  wives  and  children  of  the  people  of  Lampr 
sacus,  to  burn  their  temples,  and  lay  their  city  even  v^th 
the-  ground  .^^  Alexander,  not  being  able  to  retract  his 
oath,  pardoned  Lampsacus  against  his  will,  Anaximenes 
xevenged  himself  on  his  enemy  Theopompus  the  son  of 
Damostratus  in  a  manner  not  much  to  bis  credit.  Being  a 
sophist,  and  able  to  imitate  the  style  of  sophists,  he  wrote 
4  book  against  the  Athenians  and  Lacedaemonians,  care- 
fully framing  a  railing  story,  and  setting  the  name  of  Theo-; 
pompus  to  it,  sent  it  to  those  cities.  Hence  arqse  an  uni- 
versal hatred  of  Theopompus  throughout  all  Greece*' 
Anaximenes  is  said  to  be  th&  inventov  of  speaking  ex  tem^ 
pore,  accordiog  to  Suidas,  although  it  is  not  easy  to  com-^^ 
piehend  what  he  means  by  th^t  being  an  invention.  He 
^srrote  the  lives  of  Philip  and  Alexander,  and  twelve  books 
on  the  early  history  of  Greece,  but  none  of  these  have  de-?. 
tended  to  u$,  ? 

ANCHABANUS,  or  ANCARANO  (Peter),  an  emi, 
nent  civilian  of  the  fourteenth  century,  was  born  at  Bor* 
logna  in  Italy,  and  descended  from  the  illustrious  family  o£ 
the  Farneses.  Besides  his  uncommon  knowledge  in  the 
civil  law,  he  was  a  philosopher  and  politician  and  an  elo- 
quent speaker^  These  qualifications  raised  his  reputation, 
and  gave  him  a  great  authority  among  his  countrymen. 
He  was  likewise  in  high  esteem  with  the  princes  of  Italy, 
and  applied  to  by  many  cities  and  universities*  He  stu- 
died cbie^y  ujcider  Baldus,  whose  intimate  friendship  he 
gain^4»  and  wl^o  instructed  him  in  the  most  abstruse  parts 
of  the  civil  law.  He  read  public  lectures  upon  the  law  at 
firsj;  in  Padua,  and  afterwards  at, Bologna,  in  conjunction 
with  Bartholomew  Salicetus,  with  the  greatest  applause  o£ 
his  auditors.  He  flouris^hed  about  1 3SQ,  and  the  following 
years;  for  in  May,  1382,  Salicetus,  who  was  his  contem<n 
porary, .  began  his  conamentaries  in  IX  Libros  Codic.  at 
Bologna.  Our  author  died  there  about  the  year  1410,  and 
9fas^i|rie4  in  the  church  of  .S:t.  Beuedict;  tjiough  ^om^ 

'  }  Gen.  Diet.— MorerL—Spidas. 

A  N  C  H  A  R  ANUS.  167 

wrttisrs  pretend^  that  he  lived  till  1497,  which  th^y  infer' 
from  his  epitaph,  which  was  only  repaired  in  that  yean 
But  the  manuscript  of  his  Ifecture  upon  the  Clementines ' 
and  Rescripts,  which  is  preserved  in  the  library  at  Augs- 
burg, appears  to  have  been  written  in  1397  ;  and  another 
manuscript  of  bis  lecture  upon  the  second  book  of  the 
Decretals,  which  is  likewise  in  that  library,  shews  that  it 
was  finished  at  Venice  in  1392.  He  wrote,  1.  *^  Commen- 
taria  in  sex  Libros  Decretalium  ;'*  with  the  Scholia  of 
Codecba  and  John,  de  Monteferrato,  at  Bononia,  -1581,  foL 
2.  **  Lectura  super  Clementinas,*'  with  the  additions  of 
Cathar.  Pariel  and  others,  Lyons,  1549  and  1553,  fol. 
3«  ^'  SelectiB  Quaestiones  omnium  prsestantissimorum  Juris* 
oo&sukorum  in  tres  tomos  digestse,  Francfort,  1581,  fol. 

4.  "  Consilia  sive  Responsa  Juris,"  with  the  additions  of' 
Jerom  Zanchius,  Venice,   1568,  1585,  1589,  1599,  folio, 

5.  "  Repetitiones  in  C.  Canonum  Statuta,  de  Constit.'*. 
Venice,  1587t* 

ANCHER  (Peter  Kofod),  a  Danish  lawyer  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  filled  several  situations  of  importance 
la  the  Danish  administration,  and  about  the  end  of  that 
century  bore  the  title  of  counsellor  of  conference.  He 
wrote  many  elementary  works  on  the  civil  and  crimittal 
law  of  Denmark,  which  differs  from  the  Roman  in  many 
particulars;  but  his  principal  and  most  learned  and  useful 
woii:,  is  "The  History  of  Danish  law  from  the  time  of 
king  Harold  to  that  of  Christian  V."  1769,  3  vols.  8vo, 
which  is  in  the  Danish  language.  * 

ANCILLON  (David),  an  eminent  divine,  of  the  re- 
formed church  at  Metz,  was  born  March  17,  1617.  He 
studied  from  the  ninth  or  tenth  year  ^of  his  age  in  the 
Jesuits*  college,  then  the  only  one  at  Metz  where  there 
was  an  bpportuntifty'of  being  instructed  in  polite  lit:erature. 
In  this  college  he  gave  such  proofs  of  genius,  that  the 
heads  of  the  society  left  nothing  unattempted  in  order  to 
di^w  him  over  to*  thei^  religion  and  party ;  but  he  con- 
timied 'firm:  against  their  attacks,  and  that  he  might  be  th& 
more  enabled  to  withstand  them,  took  the  resolution  of 
studying  divinity,  in  which  he  was  so  indefatigable,  that 
his  father  was  often  obliged  to  interpose  his  authority  to 
interrupt  his  continual  application,  lest  it  should  injure 
his  health.    He  went  to  Geneva  in  the  year  1633,  and  per*^ 

1  Gert.  Diet. — Moreri.  *  Bioff.  Unirerselle. 



formed  his  course  of  philosophy  there  under  Mr.  da  Pao^ 
and  his  divinity  studies  under  Spanheim^   Diodati,   and. 
Troncbin,  who  bad  a  great  esteem  for  him.     He  lefi  Ge- 
neva ill  April  1641 1  and  offered  himself  to  the  synod  of 
Charenton,  in  order  to  take  upon  bim  the  office  of  a  minis- 
ter.    His  abilitdes  were  greatly  admired  by  the  examiners^ 
and  his  modesty  by  the  ministers  of  Paris;  and  the  whole 
assembly  was  so  highly  satisfied  with  bim,  that  they  gave 
him  one  of  the  most  considerable  churches,  which  was  un- 
provided for»  that  of  Meaux,  where  he  exercised  his  minis- 
try till  the  year  1653,  and  became  extremely  popular, 
raising  an  extensive  reputation  by  his  learning,  eloquence, 
and  virtue,  and  was  even  highly  respected  by  those  of  the 
Roman    catholic   communion.     He  displayed  his  talents 
with  still  greater  reputation  and  success  in  his  own  country, 
where  be  was  minister  from  the  year  1653,  till  the  revo- 
cation of  the  edict  of  Nantes  in  1685.     He  retired   to 
Francfort  after  that  fatal  blow ;  and  having  preached  in 
the  French  efaureh  at  Hanau,  the  whole  assembly  was  so 
edified  by  it^  that  they  immediately  called  together  the 
heads,  of  tb^  families,  in  order  to  propose  that  he  might 
be  desired  to  accept  of  the  office  of  minister  among  tbem» 
The  prop6aition  was  agreed  to  ;  and  they  sent  deputies 
who,  prevailed  on  him,  and  he  began  the  exercise  of  his 
ministry  in  that  church  about  the  end  of  the  year  1685* 
Jt  was  now  that   several  persons  who  had   quitted   the 
French  church,   for  some  disgust,   returned  to  it  again* 
The  professors  of  divinity,  and  the  German  and  Dutch 
ministers,    attended  frequently  upon  his  sermons.     The 
count  of  Hanau  himself,  who  bad  never  before  been  seen 
in  that  church,  came  thither  to  hear  Mr.  Ancillon.   His  au- 
ditors came  from  the  neighbouring  parts,  and  even  from 
Francfort,  and  people,  who  understood  nodiing  of  French, 
flocked  together  with  great  eagerness,  and  said,  that  they 
loved  to  see  him  speak ;  a  degree  of  popularity  which  ex- 
cited the  jealousy  of  two  other  mijiisters,  who  at  length 
rendered  his  situation  so  uneasy  that  he  was  induced  to 
abandon  voluntarily  a  place  from  which  they  could  not 
force  him.     If  he  had  chosen  to  rely  upon  the  voice  of  the 
people,  he  might  have  still  retained  his  situation,  but  it  • 
was  his  opinion  that  a  faithful  pastor  ought  not  to  establish 
bis  own  intereifts  upon  any  division  between  a  congregation 
and  its  ministers,  and  as  through  his  whole  life  he  had 
been  averse  to  parties,  and  had  remonstrated  often  against 

A  N  C  I  L  L  O  N.  16a 

cabals  and  factions,  he  would  not  take  advantage  of  tbe 
disposition  which  the  people  were  in  towards  him,  nor 
permit  them  to  act     Having  therefore  attempted  every 
method  which  charity  suggested  without  success,  he  re-^ 
solved  to  quit  Hanau,  where  he  had  to  wrangle  without 
intermission,  and  where  his  patience,  which  had  supported 
several  great  trials,  might  possibly  be  at  last  overcome ; 
and  for  these  reasons  he  left  it  privately.     He  would  now 
have  returned  to  Francfort  to  settle,  but  in  consideration 
of  his  numerous  family,  he  preferred  Berlin,  where  he  re- 
ceived a  kind  reception  from  the  elector  of  Brandenbourg, 
He  was  also  made  minister  of  Berlin,  and  had  the  plea* 
sure  of  seeing  his  eldest  son  made  judge  and  director  of  tbe 
French  who  were  in  that  city,  and  his  other  son  rewarded 
with  a  pension,  and  entertained  at  the  university  of  Franc- 
fort  upon  the  Oder,  and  at  last  minister  in  ordinary  of  the 
capital.      He  had  likewise  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  bis 
brother  made  judge  of  all  the  French  in  the  states  of 
Brandenbourg,  and  Mr.  Cayart,  his  son-in-law,  engineer 
to  his  electoral  highness.    He  enjoyed  these  circumstances 
undisturbed,  till  his  death  at  Berlin,   September  3,  1692, 
aged  seventy-five  years.     His  marriage  was  contracted  in 
a  very  singular  way :  The  principal  heads  of  families  of  the 
church  of  Meaux  seeing  how  much  their  minister  distin- 
guished himself,  and  hearing  him'  sometimes  saying,  that 
he  would  go  to  Metz  to  see  his  father  apd  relations,  whom 
he  had  not  seen  for  several  years,  were  apprehensive  lest 
they  should  lose  him.     They  thought  of  a  thousand  expe- 
dients in  order  tq  fix  him  with  them  for  a  long  time ;  and 
the  surest  way  in  their  opinion  was  to  marry  him  to  some 
rich  lady  of  merit,  who  had  an  estate  in  that  country  or 
near  it     One  of  them  recollected  he  had  heard,  that  Mr. 
Ancillon  having  preached  one  Sunday  in  the  morning  at 
Charenton,  he  was  universally  applauded ;  and  that  Mr. 
Macaire  especially,    a  venerable  old  gentleman,  of  very 
exemplary  virtue  and  piety,  and  possessed  of  a  consider- 
able estate  at  Paris  and  about  Meaux,  had  given  him  a 
thousand  blessings  and  commendations,  and  said  aloud  to 
those  who  sat  near  him  in  tbe  church,  that  he  had  but  one 
daughter,  who  was  an  only  child,  and  very  dear  to  him ; 
but  if  that  gentleman,  speaking  of  Mr.  Ancillon,  should 
come  and  ask  her  in  mairiage,  he  would  give  her  with  all 
his  heart     Upon  this,  they  went  to  ask  him,  whether  he 
still  jcositimied  in  that  favourable  opiuipn  of  him ;  be  re- 

170  A  >I  C  ILL  O  N. 

]^icd,  that  he  did ;  and  accompanied  that  answer  with  new 
expressions  of  his  esteem  and  affection  for  Mr.  Ancillon ; 
so  that  the  marriage  was  concluded  in  the  year  1649,  and 
proved,  a  very  happy  one,  although  there  was  a  great  dis- 
parity of  years,  the  young  lady  being  only  fourteen. 

His  library  was  very  curious  and  very  extensive,  and  he 
enlarged  it  every  day  with  all  that  appeared  new  and  im- 
portant in  the  republic  of  letters ;  so  that  at  last  it  was  one 
of  the  noblest  collections  in  the  hands  of  any  private  per- 
son in  the  kingdom.  Learned  foreigners  used  to  visit  it, 
as  they  passed  through  the  tity  of  Metz,  as  the  most  valua- 
ble curiosity  there.  When  he  saw  the  catalogue  of  pre- 
tended heretical  books,  published  by  the  archbishop  of 
Paris,  he  laid  aside  all  those  books  which  were  ordered 
to  be  suppressed,  and  they  composed  his  library  in  the 
foreign  countries  which  he  retired  to,  for  his  own  was 
plundered  after  the  revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  nor 
would  he  have  had  a  book  remaining,  if  those  which  he  had 
hid,  had  not  been  concealed  from  the  persons  who  seized 
the  rest  of  his  library.  The  monks  and  ecclesiastics  of 
Metz  and  the  neighbouring  towns  had  long  coveted  the 
library  of  Mr.  Ancillon,  and  his  being  obliged  to  depart  on 
a  sudden  gave  them  a  feir  pretence  to  take  possession  of  it. 
Some  of  them  proposed  to  buy  the  whole  together,  and 
others  required,  that  it  should  be  sold  by  retail ;  but  the 
issue  was  that  it  was  completely  plundered. 

His  writings  are  but  few,  1.  "  Relation  fidele  de  tout  ce 
qui  s'est  pass6  dans  la  conference  publique  avec  M.  Beda- 
cier,  eveque  d' Aost,"  Sedan,  1657,  4to.  This  dispute 
which  he  carried  on  with  M.  Bedacier,  is  concerning  tra- 
ditions, and  was  inanaged  on  the  part  of  our  author  with 
great  success,  but  they  had  agreed  not  to  print  it,  and  it 
.  would  have  remained  unknown,  had  not  a  spurious  account 
appeared,  in  which  it  \vas  stated  that  Ancillon  had  been 
defeated.  2.  **  Apologie  de  Luther,  de  Zulngle,  de 
Calvin,  et  de  Beze,'-  Hanau,  1666,  which  is  part  of  an  an- 
swer he  had  prepared  against  cardinal  de  Richelieu, 
3.  "  Vie  de  Guil.  Farel,*-  or  the  idea  of  a  faithful  minister 
of  Christ,  printed  in  1691,  Amst.  12mo,  from  a  most  erro- 
neous copy.  He  published  al$o  one  fest  sermon,  1676^ 
entitled  "The  Tears  of  St.  Paul.'*  But  the  wotk  which 
contains  the  most  faithful  picture  of'  his,  learning,  princr- 
ples,  and  talents,  in  conversation,  was  published  by  his^ 
fton,  the  subject  of  the  next  artide,  at*  Basil,  169t|  3  vols, 

A  N  C  I  L  L  O  N.  171 

l2mo9  entitled  <^  Melange  critique  de  Litterature>  re-* 
cueilli  des  conversations  de  feu.M.Ancillon."  There  was 
Ukewiae  a  new  edition  of  it  published  at  Amsterdam  in  1702, 
ill  one  volume  i2mo,  which  was  disowned  by  the  editor^ 
because  there  were  several  things  inserted  in  iii^  which, 
were  injurious  tp  his  father's  memory^  and  his  own  charac* 
ter.  This  collection  of  AdiiCilion  was  formed  from  what  he 
heard  his  father  speak  of  in  conversation,  and  he  has  di- 
gested it  under  proper  beads.  It  contains  a  great  number 
of  useful  and  curious  remarks,  although  not  wholly  free 
from  mistakes,  some  of  the  sentiments  having  been  con-; 
▼eyed  to  the  editor  by  persons  who  probably  did  not  rQ- 
^lember  them  exactly.  *       . .  * 

ANCILLON  (Charlbs),  son  of  the  above,  was  born  at 
Metz,  July  29,  1659:  he  began  his  studies  in  that  city, 
and  went  to  Hanau  for  the  prosecution  of  them.  He  after-^ 
wardis  applied  himself  to  the  civil  law  at  Marpurg,  Geneva, 
and  Paris,  in  the  last  of  which  cities  he  was  admitted  an 
advocate.  Upon  bis  return  to  Metz,  in  1679,  he  followed 
the  bar,  where  he  began  to  raise  himself  a  considerable 
reputation.  After  the  revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  in 
l&S5f  the  prot^stants  of  Metz  deputed  him  to  court,  in 
order  to  represent  that  they  ought  not  to  be  compre- 
l^ended  in  this  revocation.  But  ail  that  he  could  obtain 
was,  that  this  city  should  be  treated  with  more  lenity  and 
favour,  fie  followed  his  father  to  Berlin,  where  the  elec- 
tor of  Brandenbourg  appointed  him  judge  and  director  of 
the  French  in  that  city.  In  1695,  that' prince  gave  him 
new  marks  of  his  confidence  and  favour,  by  sending  him  to 
Swisserland  in  order  to  negociate  some  affairs  of  import- 
ance. The  marquis  of  Baden  Dourlach,  who  was  then  at 
'  3stsil,  having  bad  an  opportunity  of  seeing  him,  entertained 
so  great  an  esteem  for  him,  that  he  chose  him  fgr  his 
CQunsellor,  and  desired  the  elector  of  Brandenbourg  tq 
give  Ancillon  leave  that  he  should  serve  him  for  some  time. 
Our  author  did  not  return  to  Berlin  till  the  end  of  the 
year  1^99,  and  was  then  appointed  inspector  of  all  the 
courts  of  justice  whicl>  the  French  had  in  Prussia,  and 
counsellor  of  the  embassy.  The  elector,  being  crowned 
Jfing  of  Prussia,  made  him  likewise  his  historiographer  and 
^uperinttndant  of  the  French  school,  which  had  .been 
^iwdpd  ^^  Berlin^  according  to  the  sqheme  which  he  ha4 

*  Gen,  Diet. 

p2  A  N  C  I  L  L  O  N. 

Imned.  He  died  in  that  city  the  5th  of  July,  1715,  being^ 
fifty-six  years  of  age.  His  works  are,  1.  "  V  Irrevoca- 
bility d^  PEdit  de  Nantes  prouv£  par  les  principes  du  droit 
&  de  la  politique/'  Amsterdam,  168S,  12nio.  2.  '^Re-» 
flexions  politiques,  par  lesquelles  on  fait  voir  que  la  per- 
secution des  reformez  est  contre  les  veritable  interets  de 
la  France,*'  Cologne;  1686,  ]2mo.  Mr.  Bayle  is  mistaken 
in  supposing,  that  this  work  was  written  by  Sandras  det» 
Courtils,  the  author  of  the  *^  Nouveaux  Interets  des 
Princes."  3,  "  La  France  interess6e  a  r6tablir  I'Edit  de 
Nantes,"  Amsterdam,  1690,  12mo.  4.  "  Histoire  de 
PEtablissement  des  Frangois  Refugiez  dans  les  Etats  de 
son  altesse  electorale  de  Brandebourg,"  Berlin,  1690, 
8vo.  He  wrote  this  out  of  gratitude  to  the  elector  for  the 
generdsity  which  he  had  shewn  to  the  French  Protestants. 
It  appears  from  this  piece,  that  the  elector's  humanity  ex- 
tended to  all  the  different  ranks  of  persons  among  them. 
The  men  of  learning  tasted  all  the  satisfactions  of  ease 
notwithstanding  the  pressure  of  misfortune  and  distress, 
and  enjoyed  the  charms  of  society  in  the  conferences  which 
were  held  at  Mr.  Spanheim's,  their  patron  and  Maecenas,, 
who  was  one  of  the  ornaments  of  that  court,  as  well  as  of  the 
republic  of  letters.  5.  "  Melange  Critique,'*  mentioned 
before  in  his  father's  article.  6.  "  Dissertation  sur 
I'usage  de  mettre  la  premiere  pierre  au  fondement  des 
edifices  publics,  addressee  au  prince  electoral  de  Brande- 
bourg,  a  I'occasion  de  la  premiere  pierre,  qu'il  a  pos6e  lui 
m6me  au  fondement  du  temple  qu'on  construit  pour  les 
Frangois  Refugiez  dans  le  quartier  de  Berlin  nomita^  Fri- 
derichstadt,"  Berlin,  1701,  8vo.  The  author  having  given 
an  account  of  every  thing  which  his  knowledge  and  read- 
ing would  supply  him  with  on  this  subject,  acknowledges 
at  last,  that  this  custom  is  very  like  those  rivers,  whose 
source  is  unknown,  though  we  may  observe  the  course  of 
them.  7.  "  Le  dernier  triomphe  de  Frederic  Guillaume 
le  Grand,  electeur  de  Brandebourg,  ou  discdurs  sur  la 
Statue  Equestre  ^rig^e  sur  le  Pont  Neuf  du  Berlin,"  Ber- 
lin, 1703.  Mr.  Beauval  says  that  this  piece  is  an  oration 
^nd  a  dissertation  united  together,  and  that  the  style  is  a 
little  too  turgid.  8.  ^^  Histoire  de  la  vie  de  Solimau  IL 
empereur  des  Turcs,"  Rotterdam,  1706,  8vo;  a  work  not 
very  correct,  but  the  preliminary  matter  is  valuable,  and 
contains,  among  other  particulars,  some  curious  informa* 
tion  respecting  Thuanus,   taken  from  the  ^^  BibliotbequfL 

A  N  C  I  L  L  O  N.  171 

l*olitique  Heraldique  Chdisie,"  1705,  8vo.  9.  « Trait* 
des  Eunuques,  par  C.  Dollincan/'  1707,  12ino.  Dollin" 
can  is  an  assumed  name,  and  the  work  unworthy  of  our 
author's  abilities.  10.  ^^  Memoires  concernant  les  vies 
et  les  outrages  de  plusieurs  modernes  celebres  dans  la 
Repubhque  des  Lettres,*'  Amst.  1709,  12mo.  This  piece, 
which  he  was  induced  to  undertake  by  the  persuasion  of  a 
bookseller  of  Rotterdam,  as  a  supplement  to  Bayle's  dic*^ 
tionarj-,  contains  the  lives,  somewhat  diffusely  written,  of  ' 
Valentine  Courart,  whose  article  contains  133  pages; 
Bartholomew  d'Herbelot,  Urban  Chevreau,  Henry  Justel, 
Adrian  Baillet,  James  Aubery,  Benjamin  Aubery  Sieur 
du  Maurier,  Lewis  Aubery,  John  Aubery,  Claudius  Au« 
bery,  John  Baptist  Cotelier,  and  Laurence  Beger. 
11.  "  Histoire  de  la  vie  de  M.  Ltscheid,'*  Berlin,  1713.* 

ANCOURT  (Florent-Carton  d'),  an  eminent  French 
actor  and  dramatic  writer,  was  born  at  Fontainbleau,  Nov, 
1,  1661.  He  studied  in  the  Jesuits'  college  at  Paris, 
under  father  de  la  Rue ;  who,  discqverlng  in  him  a  re- 
markable quickness  and  capacity  for  learning,  was  ex« 
tremely  desirous  of  engaging  him  in  their  order,  but  d' An-  - 
Courtis  aversion  to  a  religious  life  rendered  all  his  efforts 
ineffectual.  After  he  had  goi^e  through  a  course  of  phi- 
losophy, he  applied  himself  to  the  civil  law,  and  was  ad- 
mitted advocate  at  seventeen  years  of  age,  but  falling  in 
love  with  an  actress,  he  went  upon  the  stage ;  and,  in 
1680,  married  this  woman.  As  he  had  all  the  qualifications 
necessary  for  the.  theatre,  he  soon  greatly  distinguished 
himself,  and  began  to  write  pieces  for  the  stage,  many  of 
which  liad  such  success,  that  most  of  the  players  grew  rich 
from  the  profits  of  them.  His  merit  in  this  way  procured 
him  a  very  favourable  reception  at  coutt,  where  Lewis  XIV. 
Aewed  him'tnany  marks  of  his  favoun  His  sprightly  Qon- 
versation  and  polite  behaviour  made  his  company  agreeable 
to  all  the  men  of  figure  both  at  court  and  in  the  city,  and 
Ae  most  considerable  persons  were  extremely  pleased  -to 
liave  him  at '  their  houses.  Having  taken  a  journey  to 
Dunkirk,  to'  d^e  his  eldest  daughter  who  lived  there,  he 
took  the  opportunity  of  paying  his  compliments  to  the 
elector  of  Bavaria,  who  was  then  at  Brussels^  This  prince 
received  hitn  with  the  utmost  civility  ;  and,  having  retained 
him  a  considerable  time,  dismistted  him,  with  a  present  of 

*'  Gets:  0bt. 

174  AN  C  O  U  R  T. 

a  di^m€md  valued  at  a  thousand  pistoles  ;  he  likefrise'  it€^ 
warded  him  in  a  very  generous  manner,  when,  upon  his 
coming  to  Papis,  d^Ancourt  composed  an  entertainment  foa 
his  diversion.  At  length  grown  weary  of  the  theatre^ 
which  he  quitted  in  Lent,  IT.IS^  be  retired  to  his  estate  of 
Courcelles  le  Roy^  in  Berry ;  where  he  applied  himself 
wholly  to  devotion^  and  composed  a  translation  of  David^s 
psalms  in  verse,  and  a  sacred  tragedy,  which  were  never 
printed.  He  died  the  16th  of  December,  1726^  65  yearsi 
€>f  age.  His  plays  consist  of  fifty-two,  of  which  twenty- 
^ve  are  said  to  keep  their  reputation  on  the  stage*  They 
were  published  in  1710  and  1750,  in  d  vols.  12mo9  and  the 
best  of  them  in  3  vols.  1 2mo,  under  the  title  of  "  Chefs* 
d'oBuvre  de  d'Ancourt."  ^ 

ANDERSON  (Adam)^  a  n^itive  of  Scotland,  was  brother' 
to  the  rev.  James  Anderson,  D.  D.  editor  of  the  "  Royal 
Genealogies,'*  and  of  ^*  The  Constitutions  of  the  Free  Ma- 
sons,? to  whom  he  was  chaplain.  He  was  likewise  many 
years  minister  of  the  Scotch  Presbyterian  church  in  Swallow-* 
street,  Piccadilly,  and  well  known  among  the  people  of 
that  persuasion  resident  in  London  by  the  name  of  bishop 
Anderson,  a  learned  but  imprudent  roan,  who  lost  a  con* 
siderable  part  of  his  property  in  the  fatal  year  1720.  His 
brother  Adam,  the  suhject  of  this  article,  was  for  40  year^ 
a  clerk  in  the  South  Sea  house,  and  at  length  was  ap-- 
pointed  chief  clerk  of  the  stock  and.  new  annuities,  which 
office  he  retained  till  his  death.  He  was  appointed  one  of 
the  trustees  for  establishing  the  colony  of  Georgia  in 
America,  by  charter  dated  June  9,  5  Geo.  H.  He  was  also 
pne  of  the  court  of  assistants  of  the  Scots*  corporation  in 
London.  He  published  his  ^^  Historical  and  Chronological 
deduction  of  Trade  and  Commerce,"  a  work  replete  with 
useful  information,  in  1762 — 3,  2  vols./fol.  He  was  twice 
married  ;  by  the  first  wife  he  had  issue  a  daughter,  married^ 
to  one  Mr.  Hardy,  a  druggist  or  apothecary  in  Southamp- 
ton-street in  the  Strand,  who  hoth  died  without  issue ;  he 
sfcfterwards  became  the  third  husband  of  the  widow  of  Mr. 
Coulter,  formerly  a  wholesale  linen-draper  in  Cornbilly  by 
whom  he  had  no  issue  ;  she  was,  like  him,  tall  and  grace- 
ful, and  her  face  has  been  thought  to  have  some  resemhlance 
to  that  of  the  ever-living  countess  of  Desmond,  given  in 
Mr.  Pennant's  first  Tour  in  Scotland.     Mr.  Anderson  died 

I  Diet.  Histori%a«,«»Q«m  DieU— Moreru 


at  his  hotise  in  lled-Iion*street,  Clerkenwell,  Jan.  10^  1765, 
aged  73.  He  had  a  good  library  of  books,  which  were  sold 
by  his  widow,  who. survived  him  several  years,  and  died  in 
1731.  His  History,  of  Commerce  has  been  lately  very 
much  improved  in  a  new  edition,.  4  vols.  4 to,  by  Mr. 
M*Pherson. "  »  ^ 

ANDERSON  (Alexa^dsr),  an  eminent  mathema* 
tician,  was  born  at  Aberdeen  towards  the  end  of  the  six- 
teenth century*  Where  he  was  educated,  or  under  what 
inasters,  we  have  not  learned :  probably  he  studied  the 
belles'lettres  and  philosophy  in  the  university  of  his  native 
city,  and,  as  was  the  practice  in  ttiat  age  of  all  who  could 
afford  it,  went  afterwards  abroad  for  the  cultivation  of  other 
branches  of  science.  But  wherever  he  studied,  his  progress 
must  have  been  rapid  ;  for  early  in  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, we  find  him  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  .univer- 
sity of  Paris,  where  he  published  several  ingenious  works^ 
and  among  others,  ^^  Supplementum  ApoUonii  Redivivi, 
&c.''  Paris,  1612,  4to;  "  Ailio^oyia,  pro  Zetetico  Apollo* 
niani  problematis  a  se  jam  pridem  edito  in  supplemento 
ApoUenii  Uedivivi,  &c/'  Paris,  1615,  4to;  "  Francisci 
Vietas  de  £qu9^onum  recognition^  et  emendatione  trac-> 
tatus  duo,''  with  a  dedication,  preface,  and  appendix 
by  himself,  Paris,  .1615,  4to;  "  Vieta's  Augulares  *8ec- 
tiones,:"  to  whicli  he  added  demonstrations  of  his  own. 

Our  professor  was  cousin  german  to  Mr.  Da^vid  Ander- 
son of  Finshaugh,  a  gentleman  who  also  possessed  a  singu- 
lar turn  for  mathematical  knowledge.  This  matheniatical 
J  genius  was  hereditary  in  the  family  of  the  Andersons ;  and 
rom  them  jt  seems  to  have  been  transmitted  to  their  de- 
scendants of  the  name  of  Gregory,  who  have  for  so  many 
generations  been  eimnent  in  Scotland,  as.  professors,  either 
of  mathematics,  or,.more  lately,  of  the.  theory  and  prac<^ 
tice  of  physic.  The. daughter  of  the  David  Anderson  just 
mentioned,  was  the  mother  of  the  celebrated  James  Gre- 
gory, iuyentor  of  the  reflecting  telescope ;  and  observing 
in  her  son,  while  yet  a  child,  a  strong  propensity  to  mathe- 
maticali  studies,  she  inst;ructed  him  in  the  elements  of  that 
science  herself.  Froni  the  same  lady  descended  the  late 
Dr.  Reid.of  Gla§g^<Mr,  who  was  not  less  eminent  for  his 
^knowledge  of  mathematics  than  for  his  metaphysical  writ- 
ings.    The  precise  dates  of  Alexander  Anderson's  birth 

1  Gent.  Mfts*  ToK  LIIL  p.  41.  ' 


in  A  N  D  E  K  S  O  N. 

and  death,  we  have  not  learned  either  from  DeiDpstetV 
Mackenzie,  or  Dr.  Hutton,  who  seems  to  have  used  every 
endeavour  to  procure  information,  nor  are  such  of  his  re-^  • 
Ifltions  as  we  have  had  an  opportunity  of  consulting,  so 
well  acquainted  with  his  private  history  as  we  expiected  to 
find  them.  *  ^ 

ANDERSON,  (Sir  Edmund),  a  younger  brother  of  a 
good  family,  either  of  Broughton,   or  of  FUxborough  in 
Lincolnshire,  descended  originally  from  Scotland.     He  re- 
ceived the  first  part  of  his  education  in  the  country,  and 
went  afterwards  to  Lincoln  college  in  Oxford :  fromlhenc^ 
he  removed  to  the  Inner  Temple,  where  he  read  law  with 
great  assiduity,  and  in  due  time  was  called  to  the  bar.     la 
the  ninth  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he  was  both  Lent  and  Sum'- 
mer  reader ;  in  the  sixteenth  of  that  queen,  double  reader, 
notes  of  which  readings  are  yet  extant  in  manuscript  >  and 
in   the  nineteenth  year  of  queen  Elizabeth,  be  was  ap« 
pointed  one  of  the  queen's  serjeants  at  law.     Some  time 
after,  be  was  made  a  judge;    and,  in  1581,  being  upon 
the  Norfolk  circuit  at  Bury,  he  exerted  himself  against  tb^ 
famous  Browne,  the  author  of  those  opinions  which  were 
afterwards  maintained  by  a  sect  called  from  hint  Brown- 
ists :  for  this  couduct  of  judge  Anderson,  the  bishop  of 
Norwich  wrote  a  letter  to  treasurer  Burleigh,  desiring  the 
judge  might  receive  the  queen's  thanks.    In  1582,  .he  wai 
made  lord  chief  justice  of  the  comman  pleas,  and  the  year 
following  received  the  honour  of  knightiiood.     In  15S6^  he 
was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  trying  Mary 
queen  of  Scots;  on  the  12th  of  October,  the  same  year, 
he  sat  in  judgment  upon  her;   and  on  the  25th  of  tive 
same,  month,  he  sat  again  in  the  star-chamber,  when  seu*^ 
tence  was  pronounced  against  tbts  unhappy  queen.     In 
1587,  he  sat  in  the  star-chamber  on  secretary  Davison, 
who  was  charged  with  issuing  the  warrant  for  the  eirecution 
of  the  queen  of  Scots,  contrary  to  queen  Elizabeth's  com* 
mand,  and  without  her  knowledge.     After  the  cituse  had. 
been  heard,  sir  Roger  Manwood,  chief  baron  of  the  eK« 
chequer,  gave  hi^  opinion  first,  Wherein  be  extoUed  tbe 
queen's  clemency,   which  he   said,   Davison  bad   incoft* 
siderately  prevented  ;  and  therefore  he  was  for  fining  bittiL 
ten  thousand  pounds,  and  imprisonment  during  the  queen's 

1  Gleig^s  Supplement  to  the  £ncyclop.  Britan.--Hutton's  Mathematical  Die- 


]>leasure.  Chief  justice  Anderson  spoke  nett,  and  said 
that  Davison  had  done  justuniy  nan  Just i  ;  that  is,  he  had 
done  what  was  right,  but  not  in  a  right  manner,  which. 
Granger  observes,  is  excellent  logic  for  finding  an  in- 
nocent man  guilty. 

In  the  proceedings  against  those  who  endeavoured  to  set 
np  the  Geneva  discipline,  Anderson  shewed  much  zeal ; 
but  in  the  case  of  Udal,  a  puritan  minister,  who  was  con- 
fined in  1589,  and  tried  and  condemned  the  year  following, 
we  find  him  unjustly  censured  by  Mr.  Pierce  in  his  "  Vin- 
dication of  the  Dissenters,^'  and  yet  more  unjustly  by  Neal, 
hi  his  History  of  the  Puritans,  who  asserts  that  Anderson 
Iried  and  condemned  Udal,  which  is  a  direct  falsehood. 
Still  it  cannot  be  denied  that  he  was  severe  in  such  cases, 
althbugh^rom  his  conduct  in  other  matters,  it  is  evident 
that  he  acted  conscientiously.    In  1596  we  have  an  account 
of  his  going  the  northern  circuit,  where  he  behaved  with 
the  same  rigour ;  declaring  in  his  charges,  that  such  per- 
sons as  opposed  the  established  church,  opposed  her  ina* 
jesty's  authority,  and  were  in  that  light  enemies  to  th« 
state  and  disturbers  of  the  public  peace,  and  he  directed 
the  grand  juries  to  inquire,  that  they  might  be  punished. 
He  was  indeed  a  very  strict  lawyer,  who  governed  himself 
entirely  by  statutes :  this  he  shewed  on  many  occasions, 
particularly  at  the  trial  of  Henry  Cuffe,  secretary  to  the 
earl  of  Essex,  where  the  attorney-general  charging  the 
prisoner  syllogistically,  and  CufFe  answering  him  in  the 
same  style,  lord  chief  justice  Anderson  said,  **  I*  sit  here 
to  judge  of  law,  and  not  of  logic:"  and   directed  Mr. 
attorney  to  press  the  statute  of  Edward  III.  on   which 
Mr.  Cuffe  was  indicted.    He  was  reputed  severe,  and  strict 
in  the  obsei*vation  of  what  was  taught  in  courts,  and  laid 
down  as  law  by  reports  ;  but  this  is  another  unfounded  re- 
port to  his  discredit,  for  we  have  his  express  declaration 
to  the  contrary,  and  that  he  neither  expected  precedents 
in  all  cases,  nor  would  be  bound  by  them  where  he  saw 
they  wero  not  founded  upon  justice,  but  would  act  as  if 
^re  were  no  such  precedents.     Of  this  we  have  a  proof 
from  the  reports  in  his  time,  published  by  Mr.  Goldesbo- 
rough :  "  The  case  of  Resceit  wis  moved  again  ;  and  Shut- 
fleworth  tiaid,  that  he  cannot  be  received,  because  he  is 
^■amed  id  the  writ;  and  added,  that  he  had  searched  all 
the  bo6ks,  and  there  is  not  one  case  where  he  who  is  named 
in  the  writ  may  be  received.    What  of  that  >  said  judge 

Vol.  1L  N 

I7«  A  N  D  1|  R  S  O  N. 

Anderson  ;  shall  we  not  give  judgment,  because  ife  is  not 
adjudged  in  the  books  before  ?  we  will  give  jadgment  ac-» 
cording  to  reason  ;  and  if  there  be  no  reason  in  the  books^ 
I  will  not  regard  them.''  His  steadiness  was  so  great,  that 
he  would  not  be  driven  from  what  he  thought  right,  by 
any  authority  whatever.  This  appeared  in  the  case  of 
Cavendish,  a  (Creature  of  the  earl  of  Leicester ;  who  had 
procured,  by  his  interest,  the  queen's  letters  patent  for 
making  out  writs  of  supersedeas  upon  exigents  in  the  court 
of  common  pleas,  and  a  message  was  sent  to  the  judges  to  ^ 
admit  him  to  that  office :  with  which,  as  they  conceived 
the  queen  had  no  right  to  grant  any  such  patent,  they. did 
not  comply.  Upon  this,  Mr,  Cavendish,  by  the  assist* 
ance  of  his  patron,  obtained  a  letter  from  the  queen  to 
quicken .  them,  but  which  did  not  produce  what  was  e^-« 
pected'  from  it.  The  courtier  again  pursued  his  pouit^ 
and  obtained  another  letter  under  the  queen's  signet  and 
sign  manual ;  which  letter  was  delivered  in  presence  of 
the  lord  chancellor  and  the  earl  of  Leicester,  in  the  he* 
ginning  of  Easter  term.  The  judges  desired  time,  to  con** 
sider  it,  and  then  answered,  that  they  could  not  comply 
with  the  letter,  because  it  was  inconsistent  with  their  duty 
and  their  oaths  of  office.  The  queen  upon  this  appoiitted 
the  chancellor,  the  lord,  chief  justice  of  the  queen's  bench, 
arid  the  master  of  the  rolls,"  to  hear  this  matter ;  and  the 
queen's  serjeant  having  set  forth  her  prerogative,  it  wa* 
shewn  by  the  judges,  that  they  could  not  grant  offices»by 
virtue  of  the  queen's  letters,  where  it  did  not  appear  to 
them  that  she  had  a  power  to  grant;  that  as  the  judges 
were  bound  by  their  oaths  of  office,  so  her  majesty  was 
restrained  by  her  coronation-oath  from  such  arbitrary  in-* 
terpositions :  and  with  this  her  majesty  was  satisfied.  He 
concurred  also  with  his  brethren  in  remonstrating  boldly 
against  several  acts  of  power  practised  in  Elizabeth's  reign. 
On  the  accession  of  king  James  he  was  continued  in  his 
office,  and  held  it  to  the  time  of  his  death,  which  hap-> 
pened  August  1,  1605.  He  was  interred  at  Ey worth  ia 
Bedfordshire.  .The  printed  works  of  this. great  lawyer, 
besides  his  ^^  Readings/'  which  are  still  in  manuscript,  are, 
1.  ^^  Reports  of  many  principal  Cases  argued  apd  adjudged 
in  the  time  of  queen  Elizabeth,  in  the  Commpo  Bench/* 
London,  1664,  folio.  2.  ^^Resolutions  and  Judgements  Oft 
the  Cases  and  Matters  agitated  in  all  the  courts  of  West* 
miuster,  ixk  the  latter ^nd  of  the  reignpf  queen  Elizabeth;'! 

ANDERSON.  179^ 

pabUshed  by  John  Goldesborough,  esq.  prothonotary  of 
the  common  pleas,  London,  1653,  4to. 

Chief  justice  Anderson  married  Magdalen,  daughter  of 
Nicholas  Smith  of  Aunables  in  Hertfordshire,  by  whom 
he  had  three  sons,  Edward,  Francis,  WilHam,  and  six 
daughters,  two  of  which  died  young.  Of  those  that  sur- 
vived, Elizabeth  married  Sir  Hattdn  Farmer,  knt.  ancestor 
to  the  earl  of  Pontefract;  Griselda  espoused  sir  John 
Shefeld,  knt.  from  whom  descended  the  late  duke  of  Buck- 
inghamshire. Catherine  became  the  wife  of  sir  George 
Booth,  hart,  ancestor  to  the  earls  of  Wamngton ;  and 
Margaret,  by  sir  I'homas  Monson,  hart,  established  the 
family  of  the  lords  Monson.  As  for  the  sons,  Edward  the 
eldest  died  without  issue.  Francis  the  second  son  was 
knighted  by  queen  Elizabeth,  and  his  youngest  son  by  his 
second  wife,  sir  John  Anderson,  of  St.  Ives,  in  the  county 
of  Huntingdon,  was  created  baronet  in  1628.  William, 
the  chief  justice's  youngest  son,  left  one  son  Edmond, 
who  was  created  baronet  by  king  Charles  II.  and  his  family 
still  flourishes  at  Kilnwick  Piercy,  in  the  east-riding  of 
Yorkshire.  Stephen  Anderson,  esq.  eldest  son  and  heir 
of  Stephen  Anderson,  esq.  son  and  heir  of  sir  Francis 
Anderson  before  mentioned,  was  likewise  raised  to  the 
dignity  of  a  baronet,  in  the  sixteenth  of  Charles  II.  and 
his  honour  was  lately  possessed  by  his  direct  descend* 
ant,  sir  Stephen  Anderson,  of  Broughton  in  Lincolnshire^ 
and  E jTworth  in  Bedfordshire,  but  the  title  is  now  extinct.  \ 

ANDERSON  (George),  a  traveller,  was  born  at  Tun- 
dem,  in  the  duchy  of  Sleswick,  about  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  It  does  not  appear  that  he  had 
enjoyed  a  regular  education,  but  by  strong  sense,  and 
powers  of  memory,  he  acquired  a  great  stock  of  knowledge* 
He  travelled  in  the  east  from  the  year  1644  to  1650^ 
through  Arabia,  Persia,  India,  China,  and  Japan,  and  re- 
turned by  Tartary,  northern  Persia,  Mesopotamia,  Syria,^ 
and  Palestine.  When  he  came  home,  he  entered  into  the 
service  of  tlie  duke  of  Holstein-Gottorp,  who,  not  being 
able  to  obtain  from  him  a  written  account  of  his  travels^ 
invited  him  every  day  to  his  house,  and  drew  from  him  in 
conversation  the  particulars  of  it,  which  were  taken  down 
in  writing  by  Adam  Olearius,  who  was  concealed  for  the 
purpose  behind  the  tapestry.    The  duke  afterwards  pre*- 

1  Biog.  Britaimica,  originally  written  by  Dr.  Campbell*— IJoyd^  yrorthie8.«<» 
Afh.  Ox.  Tol.  |.-^trype's  Annalsi  vol.  Ill,  p»  16^  128. 

N  9 


vailed  on  him  to  revise  the  manuscript,  and  it  was  pub-* 
lished  at  Sleswick,  by  Olearius,  1669,  in  German,  fol.* 

ANDERSON  (George),  a  young  man  of  extraordinary 
talents,  was  born  at  Weston,  a  village  near  Aylesbury,  in 
Buckinghamshire,  in  Nov.  1760.  His  father  was  a  peasant 
of  the  lower  order,  who  died  when  his  son  was  young, 
leaving  him  to  the  care  of  providence :  from  his  mother 
and  an  elder  brother  he  received  some  little  instructioi)^ 
and  particularly  by  the  latter  he  was  taught  the  rudiments 
of  arithmetic.  His  chief  occupation,  however,  was  in  thd 
field,  where  his  family  were  obliged  to  procure  a  subsist* 
ence,  and  here,  like  his  predecessor  in  early  fortune, 
James  Ferguson,  he  became  enamoured  of  mathematical 
science,  and  devoted  what  hours  he  could  spare  to  this 
study,  although  with  disadvantages  which  in  mo^t  men 
would  have  prevented  the  attempt,  or  interrupted  the  pro- 
gress. Yet  such  was  his  application,  that  in  1777,  he 
transmitted  to  the  London  Magazine  the  solution  of  some 
problems  which  had  appeared  in  that  work,  and  he  had  the 
satisfaction  to  see  his  letter  admitted.  As  he  had  signed 
this  letter  with  his  name,  and  dated  it  from  Weston,  it  hap- 
pened to  fall  under  the  inspection  of  Mr.  Bonnycastle,  the 
well-known  author  of  various  mathematical  and '  astrono- 
mical works,  and  now  mathematical  master  to  the  Rbyal 
Academy,  Woolwich,  who  was  not  less  pleased  than  sur- 
prised at  this  attempt  of  a  young  man  from  the  same 
cotinty  with  himself,  of  whom  he  had  never  heard.  Mfr. 
Bonnycastle,  accordingly,  oh  his  next  visit  in  Bucking- 
hamshire, procured  an  interview  with  the  young  genius, 
whom  he  found  threshing  in  a  barn,  the  walls  of  which  were 
covered  with  triangles  and  parallelograms.  Such  was  young 
Anderson*s  bashfiilness,  however,  that  Mr.  Bonnycastle 
could  not  draw  him  into  conversation,  until  he  won  his 
heart  by  the  loan  of  Simpson^s  Fluxions,  and  two  or  three 
other  books. 

Mr.  Anderson^!  extraordinary  talents  becoming  now  the 
talk  of  the  neighbourhood^  he  soon  found  a  generous  aad 
steady  patron  in  the  Rev.  Mr.  King,  then  vicar  of  WTiit- 
church,  who  determined  to  send  him  to  the  university: 
and,  after  some  preliminary  instruction  at  the  grammar* 
school  belonging  to  New  College,  Oxford,  he  entered  of 
Wadbam  CoUege.     Here  he  applied  himself  to  the  study 


of  classical  learning,  but  his  principal  acquirements  con? 
tinned  to  be  in  his  favourite  science.  At  the  usual  time^ 
he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  and  was  admitted  to  deacon's 
orders,  but  whether  from  the  want  of  a  successful  prospect^ 
or  from  disinclination,  he  gave  up  all  thoughts  of  the 
church,  and  came  to  London  in  1785,  in  consequence  of 
an  invitation  from  Scrope  Bernard,  esq.  M.  P.  brother-in- 
law  to  Mr.  King.  After  two  or  three  months,  Mr.  Ber-r 
nard  introduced  him  to  Mr.  now  lord  Grenyille,  and  he 
recommended  him  to  Mr*  Dundas  (lord  Melville),  who  was 
then  at  the  head  of  the  board  of  India  controul,  in  which 
he  obtained  an  appointment.  His  salary  was  at  first  small, 
but  he  soon  discovered  such  ability  in  arithmetical  calcu- 
lations and  statements,  that  his  salary  was  liberally  in- 
creased, and  himself  promoted  to  the  office  of  accountant- 
general.  While  employed  in  preparing  the  complicated 
accounts  of  the  India  budget  for  1796,  he  was  seized  with 
^n  indisposition,  which  was  so  rapidly  violent  as  to  put  an 
end  to.his  useful  life  in  less  than  a  week.  He  died  Satur- 
day, April  30,  of  the  above  year,  universally  lamented  by 
his  friends,  and  was  interred  in  St.  Pancras  church-yard. 
His  character  was  in  all  respects  truly  amiable :  although 
his  intercourse  with  the  learned  and  polite  world  had  taken 
off  the  rust  of  his  early  years,  yet  his  demeanour  was  sim- 
ple and  modest.  His  conversation,  which,  however,  he 
rarely  obtruded,  was  shrewd ;  and  he  appeared  to  possess 
some  share  of  humour,  but  this  was  generally  repressed  by 
a  hesitating  bashfulness,  of  which  he  never  wholly  got  rid. 
His  death  was  latnented  in  the  most  feeling  and  honourable 
terms  by  the  president  of  the  India  board,  as  a  public  loss  ; 
and  by  his  interest,  a  pension  was  procured  for  Mrs.  An- 
derson, a  very  amiable  young  woman,  whom  Mr.  Anderson 
married  in  1790.- — Mr.  Anderspn  published  only  two  works, 
the  one,  "  Arenarius,  a  treatise  on  numbering  the  sand." 
This,  which  appeared  in  1784,  was  a  translation  of  the 
Arenarius  of  Archimedes,  from  the  Greek,  to  which  Mr. 
Anderson  added  notes  and  illustrations.  The  design  is  tp 
demonstrate  the  possibility  of  enumerating  the  particles  of 
sand  which  would  compose  a  mass  equal  in  bulk  to  the 
whole  solar  system,  or  any  other  determinate  magnitude 
whatever.  The  translator,  in  his  preface,  gives  some  ac* 
count  of  the  knowledge  of  the  ancients  in  arithmetic, 
algebra,  geometry,  and  of  the  Pythagorean  or  Aristarchian 
system  of  the  world ;  and  to  render  his  publication  as  com- 
plete as  possible,  he  added,  from  the  I^tin,  the  Disser- 


tation  of  Christopher  Clavius,  on  the  isame  subject  as  the 
Arenarius. — Mr.  Anderson's  other  publication  "was  a  very 
candid  and  dispassionate  "  General  view  of  the  variations 
which  have  taken  place  in  the  affairs  of  the  East  India 
Company  since  the  conclusion  of  the  war  in  India  in  17 84,** 
8vo.  1791.* 

ANDERSON  (James),  a  Scotch  antiquary,  was  the  son 
of  the  rev.  Pat.  Anderson,  of  Edinburgh,  where  he  was 
born  Aug.  5,  1662.  He  had  a  liberal  education  at  the  uni- 
versity of  that  city,  which  was  much  improved  by  genius 
and  application.  When  he  had  finished  his  studies,  he 
was  placed  under  the  care  of  sir  Hugh  Paterson,  of  Ban- 
nockburn,  an  eminent  writer  to  the  signet,  and  made  such 
progress,  that  in  1690  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  that 
society,  and  during  his  practice  discovered  ^o  much  know- 
ledge joined  with  integrity,  that  he  probably  would  have 
'  made  a  very  distinguished  figure  had  he  remained  longer 

*  in  this  branch  of  the  law  profession.  The  acquaintance 
with  ancient  writings,  however,  which  he  had  been  obliged 
to  cultivate  in  the  course  of  bis  practice,  gratified  a  taste 
for  general  antiquities  ai^d  antiquarian  research,  which  he 
seems  to  have  determined  to  pursue,  and  he  happened  to 
liave  an  early  opportunity  to  prove. himself  well  qualified 
for  the  pursuit.  In  1704,  a  book  was  published  by  Mr. 
William  Atwood,  a  lawyer,  entitled  "  The  superiority  and 
direct  dominion  of  the  Imperial  Crown  and  Kingdom  of 
England  over  the  Crown  and  Kingdom  of  Scotland."  In 
this,  Mr.  Anderson,  although  altogether  unknown  to  Mr, 
Atwood,  was  brought  in  by  him  as  an  evidence  and  eye- 
witness to  vouch  some  of  the  most  important  original  char^ 
tcrs  and  grants  by  the  kings  of  Scotland,  which  Atwood 
maintained  were  in  proof  of  the  point  he  laboured  to  esta* 

*  blish.  Mr.  Anderson,  in  consequence  of  such  an  appeal, 
thought  himself  bound  in  duty  to  bis  country  to  publish 
what  he  knew  of  the  matter,  and  tp  vindicate  the  memory 
of  some  of  the  best  of  the  Scottish  kings,  who  were  accused 
by  Atw6od  of  a  base  and  voluntary  surrender  of  their  so- 
vereignty. Accordingly,  in  1705,  he  published  "  An  Esr 
say,  shewing  that  the  Crowi>  of  Scotland  is  ixnperial  and 
independent,'*  Edinburgh,  8vo,  which  was  so  acceptable 
to  his  country  that  the  parliament  ordered  him  a  reward, 
and  thanks  to  be  delivered  by  the  lord  chancellor  in  pre- 
sence of  her  majesty's  high  commissioner  and  the  estates} 

>  yecrqlofyy  p«  $4^,  pommuaicated  by  bis  frieiuls.-^ent.  Mag. 



which  was  done,  and  at  the  same  time  they  ordered  At-^ 
wood's  book  to  be  burnt  at  Edinburgh  by  the  hands  of  the 

In  the  courise  of  this  inquiry,  Mr.  Anderson  had  made 
large  coHectiops  of  ancient  charters,  and  was  now  esteemed 
«o  well  acquainted  with  antiquities  of  that  kind,  that  the 
parliament  ordered  him  to  collect  and  publish  a  series  of 
the  charters  and  seals  of  the  kings  of  Scotland  (in  their 
original  characters,  or  fac  simile)  preceding  king  James 
the  First  of  th^t  kingdom,  with  the  coins  and  medals  down 
to  the  Union  in  1707;  promising  to  defray  the  expences 
;of  the  work,  and  to  recommend  him  to  queen  Anne,  as  a 
person  meriting  her  royal  favour  for  any  oiEce  or  place  of 
trust  in  lieu  of  his  employment.  On  this,  in  1707,  he 
gav^  up  his  professional  engagements,  and  came  to  Lon«> 
don  to  superintend  the  execution  of  the  work.  In  1715 
he  was  made  postmaster  general  of  Scotland^  which  he 
-enjoyed,  for  whatever  reason,  only  to  1717. 

During  his  inspection  of  the  records  and  archives  neces- 
sary to  be  consulted  for  his  work,  he  was  induced  by  a  curi- 
osity which  is  not  yet  satiated  in  his  countrymen,  to  examine 
what  he  happened  to  meet  with  respecting  the  conduct  and 
character  of  the  beautiful  and  unfortunate  M^ry  queen  of 
Scotland.  But,  without  ^gaging  on  either  side  in  this 
contested  part  of  history,  he  contented  himself  with  pub- 
lishing what  might  be  serviceable  to  others,  **  Collections 
relating  to  the  history  of  Mary,  queen  of  Scotland,"  4  vols. 
4to,  Edinb.  1727.  He  had  then  very  nearly  finished,  and 
meant  soon  to  have  published,  the  diplomatic  work  recom- 
mended by  parliament,  when  he  was  prevented  by  a  stroke 
of  apoplexy,  of  which  he  died,  April  3,  172S.  The  work, 
however,  was  at  length  given  to  the  publick  in  1739,  under 
the  title  of  ^<  Selectus  Diplomatum  et  Numismatum  Scotiae 
Thesaurus,"  a  most  splendid  folio  volume,  enriched  with 
fee  similes  of  charter,  &c.  beautifully  engraven  by  Sturt, 
and  a  very  elaborate  preface  in  Latin  from  the  classical 
pen  of  Thomas  Ruddiman,  A.  M.  Th^  copper  plates  were 
sold  by  auction,  Dec.  4,  1729,  for  the  sum  of  530/.  but 
the  price  of  the  book,  originally  four  guineas  the  co|nmon 
paper,  and  six  guineas  the  fine,  is  now  raised  to  more  than 

1  MSS.  Birch  in  Brit.  Mtis.— A  Life  and  examination  of  Andersoa^s  merits,  far 
more  unfavourable  than  the  above,  has  sinc«  been  published  by  Mr.  Oeor^ 
Citalmers  in  bis  Life  of  RuddioiaPy  pu  151,  etteq. 

W4  A  N  D  E  R  S  O  N. 

ANDERSON  (James)  LL.D.  an  eminent  agricultural 
writer,  was  born  in  1739,  at  Hermiston,  a  village  near 
Edinburgh.  His  ancestors  were  farmers,  and  had  for 
many  generations  occupied  the  same  land ;  a  circumstance 
Which  may  be  supposed  to  have  early  introduced  Mr.  An- 
derson to  that  branch  of  knowledge  which  formed  the  chief 
occupation  of  his  life. 

Mr.  Anderson  lost  his  parents  when  very  young :  and  as 
his  guardian  destined  him  to  occupy  the  farm  when  be 
should  be  of  age,  a  learned  education  was  noiy  thought  ne- 
cessary. But  he  soon  discovered,  from  pierusing  bboks  of 
f^griculture,  that  few  pursuits  can  be  extensively  culti- 
vscted  without  elevating  the  mind  beyond  mere  mechanical 
knowledge;  and  in  the  first  instance,  he  perceived  that  it 
would  be  necessary  to  study  ohemistry.  To  chemistry  he 
added  the  study  of  other  collateral  branches ;  and  entered 
upon  his  farm  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  with  knowledge  supe- 
rior to  moist  of  his  neighbours,  and  an  enterprising  spirit, 
which  induced  him  to  attempt,  iqiprovements,  wherever 
they  could  be  introduced '  with  apparent  advantage* 
Among  these  was  the  small  two^horse  plough,  now  so 
common  in  Scotland. 

In  a  few  years,  he  left  Hermiston,  and  took  a  long  lease 
of  a  large  farm  of  1300  acres,  in  Aberdeenshire,  which 
was  almost  in  a  state  of  nature.  While  endeavouring  to 
cultivate  this  unpromising  soil,  be  began  his  literary  ca- 
reer by  publishing,  in  1777,  "Essays  on  Planting,"  which 
he  had  written  in  1771,  in  the  Edinburgh  Weekly  Maga- 
zine, under  the  signature  of  Agricola.  AH  his  early  works 
were  composed  during  a  residence  of  more  than  20  years 
at  Monksbill,  the  name  of  this  farm.  The  fame  of  these 
works  procured  him  a  very  extensive  acquaintance  and  cor- 
respondence with  persons  of  eminence,  who  wished  to 
profit  by  the  knowledge  of  so  able  a  practical  farmer.  In 
1780,  the- degree  of  LL.  D.  was  conferred  upon  him  by 
the  University  of  Aberdeen,  in  a  manner  highly  honour- 
able to  him,  and  without  the  least  solicitation  on  his  part. 

In  1783,  having  previously  entrusted  the  management 
of  his  farm  to  proper  persons,  he  removed  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Edinburgh ;  partly  with  a  view  to  the  educa«* 
tion  of  his  numerous  family,  and  partly  to  enjoy  the  so- 
ciety of  those  literary  persons  with  whom  he  had  corre- 
ifponded.  About  this  time,  he  printed  and  circulated  a 
tract  amon^  his  friends^  on  the  subject  of  the  establish- 


meot  of  die  North  British  Fisheries,  which,  although  not 
publish^ed,  drew  the  attention  of  government ;  and  be  was 
requested  by  the  treasury  to  take  a  survey  of  the  western 
coast  of  Scotland,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  informa- 
tion on  this  important  subject.  He  readily  acquiesced, 
and  performed  the  task  in  1784.  The  report  of  the  Com- 
mittee appointed  to  inquire  into  the  state  of  the  British 
Fisheries,  May  11,  1785,  makes  very  honourable  mention 
of  Mr.  Anderson's  services/ 

After  his  return,  he  resumed  his  literary  labours  in  va- 
rious shapes ;  and,  among  other  schemes,  projected  a  pe^ 
nodical  work,  intituled  ^^The  Bee,"  to  be  published 
weekly,  and  to  consist  of  the  usual  materials  of  a  Maga- 
zine. Its  encouragement  was  for  a  considerable  time  such 
as  to  enable  him  to  carry  on  this  work  with  advantage. 
Agriculturists,  scholars,  men  of  taste  and  fancy,  became 
occasionally  his  correspondents  in  the  Bee ;  which,  how« 
ever,  owing  to  some  difficulties  in  the  mode  of  publication, 
he  was  compelled  to  relinquish.  He  wrote  much  in  this 
work,:  not  only  the  principal  part  of  the  papers  that  are 
without  signature,  but  numerous  others  signed  Senex, 
Timothy  Hairbrain,  and  Alcibiades. 

Among  other  papers  in  the  Bee  was  a  series  of  Essays 
on  the  Political  Progress  of  Great  Britain.  Thejje  having 
been  published  during  the  democratic  rage  which  prevailed 
&t  Edinburgh,  soon  aftdr  the  breaking  out  of  the  French 
revolution,  the  sheriff  sent  for  Dr.  Anderson,  and  de- 
manded the  name  of  the  author.  This  he  refused  to  give 
up,  and  desired  to  be  considered  as  the  author  ;  a  circum- 
stance the  more  singular,  as  his  sentiments  were  well  known 
to  be  directly  opposite  :  but  his  conduct  in  this  case  pro- 
ceeded from  his  peculiar  notions  on  the  subject  of  literary 
secrecy ;  and  as  he  had  admitted  those  letters,  he  thought 
himself  bound  to  take  the  blame  upon  himself.  After  a 
second  and  .third  application,  he  still  refused ;  and  when 
the  printers  were  sent  for,  he  charged  them,  in  the  face  of 
the  magistrates,  not  to  give  up  the  name  of  the  author. 
Respect  for  his  talents  and  character  induced  the  magis- 
trates to  let  the  matter  drop.  The  real  author  was  a  Mr. 
Callender,  who  died  afterwards  in  America. 

About  the  year  1797,  Dr.  Anderson  removed  to  the  vi^ 
cinity  of  London,  where,  at  the  request  of  his  friends,  he 
again  took  up  his  pen,  in  a  periodical  work,  entitled 
f^ Recreations. in  Agriculture;*'  the  first  number  of  which 

186  A  N  1)  E  R  S  O  N. 

appeared  in  April  1799.  The  greatest  part  of  this  woric 
was  composed  by  himself,  except  what  was  enriched  by 
correspondence  frotn  abroad,  and  a  very  few  qontributions 
from  his  friends  at  home.  The  same  difficulties,  however, 
occurring  as  in  the  case  of  his  '^  Bee,*'  with  respect  to  the 
mod^  of  publication,  he  pursued  this  work  no  longer  than 
the  sixth  volume,  March  1$02, 

From  this  time,  except  in  the  publication  of  his  corre* 
spondence  with  general  Washington,  and  a  pamphlet  on 
Scarcity,  he  devoted  himself  almost  entirely  to  the  relaxa- 
tion of  a  quiet  life,  and  particularly  the  cultivation  of  his 
garden,  i/vhich  was  now  become  the  miniature  of  ail  his  past 
laboilrs.  For  some  time  before  his  death,  his  health  and 
powers  suffered  a  very  sensible  decline.  He  died  Oct.  15, 
1608,  aged  69, 

He  was  twice  married.  First,  in  1768«  to  Miss  Seton  of 
Mounie,  an  amiable  and  accomplished  woman,  by  wboni 
he  bad  13  children.  She  died  in  17S8.  Secondly,  to  a 
lady  of  Wiltshire,  in  1801,  who  survived  him.  Of  hi% 
numerous  family  only  five  sons  and  a  daughter,  Mrs,  Ou* 
tram,  the  widow  of  Mr.  Benjamin  Outram,  are  alive. 

In  his  younger  days,  Dr.  Anderson  was  remarkably  hand- 
some in  bis  person,  of  middle  stature,  and  robust  make. 
Extremely  moderate  in  his  living,  the  country  exercise 
toimated  his  cheek  with  the  glow  of  health  ;  but  the  over- 
strained exertion  of  his  mental  powers  afterwards  shook 
his  constitution,  ultimately  wasted  his  faculties,  and  bur* 
ried  him  into  old  age.  He  was  a  man  of  an  independent 
mind;  and  in  the  relative  duties  of  husband' and  fatheF, 
exhibited  a  prudential  care,  misled  with  affection,  from 
which  he  had  every  reason  to  have  expected  the  happiest 
results,  had  Providence  spared  the  whole  of  his  family. 
In  thqse  who  remain,  it  is  not  too  much  to  say,  that  his 
integrity  and  talents  have  been  acknowledged  by  all  who 
know  them.  One  of  his  sons,  who  latc^ly  died,  is  remem- 
bered by  the  connoisseurs,  as  having  brought  the  be^uti<« 
ful  art  of  wood-engraving  to  great  perfection. 

Of  Pr.  Anderson's  abilities,  his  works  exhibit  so  many 
proofs,  that  they  may  be  appealed  to  with  perfect  confi- 
dence. Although  a  voluminous  writer,  there  is  no  subject 
connected  with  his  favourite  pursuit,  on  which  he  has  not 
thrown  new  light.  But  his  knowledge  was  not  confined  to 
t>ne  science.  He  exhibited,  to  give  only  one  instance,  a 
very  strong  proof  of  powers  of  research,  when  in  1773,  t\e 


A  N  O  E  Ql  8  O  N.  187 

{mbliflhed,  in  the  first  edition  of  tbe  Encyclopaedia  Britan- 
nica,  an  article  under  the  head  Monsoon*  In  this  he 
clearly  predicted  the  result  T)f  captain  Cook's  first  voyage ; 
nainely,  that  there  did  not  e^ist,  nor  ever  would  be  found^ 
any  continent  or  large  island  in  the  southern  hemisphere 
near  the  tropics^  excepting  New  Holland  alone :  and  this 
was  completely  verified  on  captain  Cook's  return,  s^vea 
months  afterwards.  / 

In  his  style,  Dr.  Anderson  was  abundantly  copious,  and 
sometimes,  perhaps,  inclined  to  the  prolix ;  but,  on  per- 
using his  longest  works,  it  would  be  found  difficult  to 
omit  any  thing,  mthout  a  visible  injury  to  his  train  of  rea« 
soning,  which  was  always  perspicuous  and  guarded.  In 
conversation,  as  well  as  in  writing,  he  had  the  happy  fa» 
culty  of  not  only  entering  with  spirit  and  zeal  on  any 
fovourite  subject,  but  of  rendering  it  so  intelligible,  as  to 
command  attention  in  those  to  whom  it  might  be  of  less 
importance,  and  convey  instruction  to  those  who  sought 
it  His  manners  were  gentleman-like,  free,  and  uncon« 
strained,  and,  in  the  social  circle,  had  a  dash  of  pleasantryi^ 
from  the  many  anecdotes  he  had  stored  up  in  his  travels 
and  long  experience;  and  with  respect  to  the  principal 
object  of  his  attention,  he  had  the  happiness  to  see  agri- 
culture, in  all  its  branches,  become  the  favourite  study  of 
{lis  country. 
The  following  is  a  correct  list  of  his  works : 
I.  ^' A  practical  treatise  on  Chimneys;  containing  full 
directions  for  constructing  them  in  all  cases,  so  as  to  draw 
well,  and  for  removing  smoke  in  houses,"  London,  1776, 
12mo.  2.  "Free  Thoughts  on  the  American  Contest,'* 
£din«  1776,  8v6.  3.  ^^Miscellaneous  observations  on 
planting  and  training  Timber-trees,  by  Agricola,"  £din«* 
Durgh,  1777,  8vo.  4.  "  Observations  on  the  means  of  excit- 
ing a  spirit  of  National  Industry,"  Edin.  1777,  4to.  5.  "An 
enquiry  into  the  nature  of  the  Corn  Laws,  with  a  view  to 
the  new  Corn  Bill  proposed  for  Scotland,**  1777,  8vo. 
6.  <*  Essays  relating  to  Agriculture  and  rural  affairs,"  1777^ 
Ivo.  7.  ^^  An  enquiry  into  the  causes  that  have  hitherto 
retarded  the  advancement  of  Agriculture  in  Europe ;  with 
hints  for  removing  the  circumstances  that  have  chiefly  ob-* 
structed  its  progress,"  1779,  4to.  8.  "The  interest  of 
Great  Britain,  with  regard  to  her  American  Colonies,  con* 
fiidered,"  1782,  8vo.  9.  "The  true  interest  of  Great 
BritaiQ  considered;    or  a  proposal  for  establishing  the 


Northern  BritUh  Fisheries,'*  1783,  12(no.  10.  "An  ac- 
count of  the  present  state  of  the  Hebrides  and  Western 
Coasts,  of  Scotland ;  being  the  substance  of  a  report  to  the 
JLords  of  the  Treasury,"  Edin.  1785,  8?o:  11.  "  Obser- 
yations  on  Slavery ;  particularly  with  a  view  to  its  effects 
on  the  British  Colonies  in  the  West  Indies/'  Manchester, 
1789,  4to.  12.  "  Papers  drawn  up  by  him  and  sir  John 
Sinclair,  in  reference  to  a  report  of  a  committee  of  the 
Highland  Society  on  Shetland  Wool,"  1790,  8vo.  13. 
f '  The  Bee ;  consisting  of  essays,  philosophical,  philological, 
and  miscellaneous,"  18  vols.  Edin.  1791 — 1794,  8vo.  14. 
V  Observations  on  the  effect*  of  the  Coal  Duty,"  Edin.  1792, 
8vo.  15.  "Thoughts  on  the  privileges  and  power  of 
Juries ;  with  observations  on  the  present  state,  of  the  coun- 
try with  regard  to  credit,"  Edin.  1793,  8vo.  16.  "  Re- 
marks on  the  Poor  Laws  in  Scotland,"  Edin.  1793,  4to, 
17.  "A  practical  treatise  on  Peat  Moss,  in  two  essays,'* 
J794,  8vo,  18.  "  A  general  view  of  the  Agriculture  and 
rural  oeconomy  of  the  county  of  Aberdeen ;  with  observa- 
tions on  the  means  of  its  improvement.  Chiefiy  drawn  up 
for  the  Board  of  Agriculture;  in  two  parts,"  Edin.  1794, 
8vo.  19.  ^*An  account  of  the  different  kinds  of  Sheep 
i^ound  in  the  Russian  dominions,  &c.  By  Dr.  Pallas ;  with 
five  appendixes,  by  Dr.  Anderson,"  Edinburgh,  1794,  8vo. 
20.  **  On  an  Universal  Character.  In  two  letters  to  Ed- 
ward Home,  esq."  Edin.  1795,  8vo,  2^1.  "A  practical 
treatise  on  draining  Bogs  and  swampy  grounds ;  with 
cursory  remarks  on  the  originality  of  Elkington's  mode  of 
Draining,"  1797,  8vo.  22.  <^  Recreations  in  Agriculture, 
Natural  History,  and  Miscellaneous  Literature,"  6  vols. 
.8vo.  1 799 — 1802.  23.  "  Selections  from  his  own  correspon- 
dence with  general  Washington,"  London,  1800,  8vo. 
24.  <^  A  calm  investigation  of  the  circumstances  that  have 
led  to  the  present  Scarcity  of  Grain  in  Britain ;  suggesting 
the  means  of  alleviating  that  evil,  and  of  preventing  the 
recurrence  of  s^uch  a  calamity  in  future,"  London,  1801^ 
'  8vo.  25.  *^  A  description  of  a  Patent  Hot-house,  which 
operates  chiefly  by  the  heat  of  the  sun ;  and  other  sub- 
jects," London,  1803,  8vo. 

The  foUowmg  are  also  of  his  composition  : — ^An  account 
of  the  antient  monuments  and  fortifications  in  the  High- 
lands of  Scotland  ;  read  in  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  1777 
and  1780.  On  the  antiquity  of  Woollen  manufactures  of 
jEngfamd,  Gent.  Mag.  Aug.  1778,  and  other  papers  ia 

A  N'D  E'  R  S  O  N.  I8» 

that  work.  A  letter  to  J.  Burnett,  esq.  on  the  present 
state  of  Aberdeenshire,  in  regard  to  prorisions,  1783.  A* 
letter  to  Henry  Laurens,  esq.  during  his  confinement  in 
the  Tower,  Public  Advertiser,  Dec.  6,  1781.  Several 
articles  for  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  first  edition,  Edin- 
burgh ;  among  which  are,  under  the  heads,  Dictionary^ 
Winds  and  Monsoons^  Language^  Sound,  He  contributed 
numerous  essays,  tinder  a  variety  of  signatures,  in  the 
early  part  of  the  Edinburgh  Weekly  Magazine ;  the  prin- 
cipal of  which  were  Agricola,  Timoleon,  Germanicus, 
Cimon,  Scoto-Britannus,  E.  Aberdeen,  Henry  Plain,  Im- 
partial, A  Scot.  He  also  reviewed  the  subject  of  Agri-^ 
culture  for  the  Monthly  Review  for  several  years.  * 

ANDERSON  (Joh:n),  a  learned  German,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Imperial  Academy,  was  bom  at  Hamburgh^ 
March  14,  1674.  His  father  was  a  rich  merchant,  who 
spared  no  expence  in  cultivating  his  talents,  which  were 
particularly  directed  to  the  study  of  the  canon  law,  lan- 
guages, and  natural  history,  which  he  studied  at  Halle, 
Leipsic,  and  Leyden.  Soon  after  his  father's  death,  in 
1708,  he  was  appointed  syndic  of  the  republic  of  Ham- 
burgh, was  employed  in  various  negociations  with  the 
principal  courts  of  Europe,  and  was  always  eager  to  make 
himself  acquainted  with  whatever  was  interesting  in  the 
countries  he  visited.  On  his  return  in  1725  he  was  made 
burgomaster,  and  chief  of  the  city  and  territory  of  Ham« 
burgh ;  a  situation  which,  however,  did  not  interrupt  his 
studies,  nor  his  correspondence  with  the  learned  of  Ger- 
many and  France.  He  studied  especially  the  history  of 
the  northern  nations,  not  contenting  himself  with  what 
had  been  published,  but  visited  them ;  and  not  only  ac- 
quired more  knowledge  than  books  contained,  but  was 
enabled  to  separate  fabulous  reports  and  traditions  from 
genuine  authorities.  His  principal  publication  was  printed 
in  1746,  and  translated  into  French  at  Paris,  in  1753,  2 
vols.  **  Histoire  naturelle  de  Islande  du  Groenland,  du 
detroit  de  Devis,  et  d'autres  pays  situ6s  sous  le  nord,  tra- 
duit  de  TAIlemand  de  M.  Anderson."  He  wrote  also, 
"  Glossarium  Teutonicum  et  Alemanicum  ;'*  **  Observa- 
tions philological  and  physical  on  the  Bible,**  in  German ; 
and  **Observationes  juris  Germanici,"  which  last  remains 
in  manuscript.     He  died  May  3,  1743.* 

^  Gknt.  Mar.  1808,  communicated  by  tht  Cuniljr. 
*  M«rarK— Bio;.  tFMiren^Ue. 


IW  "  A  N  D  E  R  S  O  N4 

ANDERSON  (Walter),  D.  D.  a  native  of  Scotland^ 
and  for  fifty  years  minister  of  Chirnside,  wbare  he  died  at 
a  very  advanced  age,  July  1800,  deserves  some  notice 
in  this  work  as  the  author  of  the  History  of  France,  which 
was  published  in  1769,  under  the  title  of  •*  The  History 
of  France  during  the  reigns  of  Francis  II.  and  Chariest  IX* 
To  which  is  prefixed,  a  Review  of  the  General  History 
of  the  Monarchy,  from  its  origin  to  that  period,'^  2  vdlfl« 
4  to.  The  success  of  these  volumes  was  very  indifferent ; 
yet  in  1775,  the  author  published  "The  History  of 
France,  from  the  commencement  of  the  reign  of  Henry 
III.  and  the  rise  of  the  Catholic  league ;  to  the  peace  of 
Vervins,  and  the  establishment  of  the  famous  edict  of 
Nantes,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IV."  1  vol.  4 to.  In  1783, 
he  published  two  more  volumes,  containing  his  history 
'^  From  the  commencement  of  the  reign  of  Lewis  XIII.  ta 
the  general  peace  of  Munster."  The  reception  of  this 
was  equally  discouraging  with  that  of  the  former  works. 
Dr.  Anderson  displays  none  of  the  essential  qualities  of 
historic  writing,  no  research  into  the  secret  springs  of 
action,  no  discrimination  of  character,  and  no  industry  in 
accumulating  and  examining  authorities.  Even  as  a  com-- 
piler^  he  is  guided  only  by  one  set  of  materials  which  he 
found  in  the  French  writers,  and  may  therefore  be  con» 
3ulled  by  the  English  reader,  as  a  collector  of  their  opi- 
nions, while  he  is  highly  censurable  in  not  having  recourse 
to  original  papers  and  documents  respecting  the  affairs 
occasionally  introduced  pertaining  to  his  own  country* 
His  style  is  uniformly  tame  and  defaced  by  colloquial  bar-» 

His  next  publication  deserves  to  be  mentioned  in  more 
favourable  terms.  It  was  entitled  "  The  Philosophy  of 
ancient  Greece  investigated,  in  its  origin  and.progress^ 
to  the  aeras  of  its  greatest  celebrity,  in  the  Ionian,  Italic, 
and  Athenian  schools,  with  remarks  on  the  delineated 
systems  of  their  founders,"  4to.  His  principal  object  a^» 
pears  to  have  been  to  supply  the  deficiencies  in  Mr.  Stan* 
ley's  work,  and  to  give  place  to  remarks  upon  the  reason- 
ing employed  by  the  most  eminent  of  the  Grecian  philo^. 
sophers,  in  support  of  their  physical,  theological,  and  mo» 
ral  systems ;  to  give  a  fuller  and  more  connected  display 
of  their  theories  and  argument;s,  and  to  relieve  the  frigidity 
of  their  bare  details,  by  interspersing  observations.  In 
this  work  he  displays  much  learning,  and  is  in  general 

ANDERSON.  ^       '     X9l 

\oih  accurate  and  perspicuous,  although  he  is  still  defi- 
cient in  the  graces  of  style.  Perhaps  it  would  have  been 
more  successful,  had  it  not  appeared  at  the  same  time 
vith  Dr.  Enfield's  excellent  abridgement  of  Brucker's  his- 
tory of  philosophy.  In  his  youth  he  is  said  to  have  published 
'*  The  Life  of  Crc£sus,'l  12mo,  which  he  sold  himself;  and 
is  now  become  scarce.  ^ 


ANDLO  (Peter  d'),  a  lawyer  and  professor  at  Basil, 
was  rectof .  of  the  university  in  1471,  and  many  of  his  ma«» 
nus^ripts  are  preserved  in  the  library.  His  work,  "  De 
Imperio  Romano,^'  was  printed  at  Strasburgh,  J  603,  4to^ 
and  reprint^  1612.  He  wrote  also  a  historical  chronicle 
in  German,  from  the  creation  to  the  year  1400;  but  it  is. 
doubtful  whether  it  was  ever  published.  There  is  another. 
Andlo^  an  assumed  name,  of  which  some  account  will  be 
given  in  the  life  of  De»  Marets.' 

ANDOClDES,  an  Atheniap  orator,  the  son  of  Leogo- 
ras,  was  born  at  Athens  in  the  year  468  B.  C.  He  was^ 
^arly  employed  in  public  affairs,  and  was  one  of  those  who 
in  445  B.  C.  negociated  the  peace  of  thirty  years  with  the 
Lacedaemonians^  which  preceded  the  Peloponnesian  war. 
^ome  time  after  be  had  the  joint  command  with  Glaucon 
of  a  fleet  which  the  Athenians  sent  to  the  assi^ance  of  the 
Corcyrians  against  the  Corinthians.  His  connexion  with 
Alcibiades,  and  other  young  men,  gave  occasion  to  a 
suspicion  that  he  had  profaned  the  Eleusinian  mysteries, 
and  from  this  he  escaped  by  accusing  certain  persons^ 
He  was  afterwards  banished  and  recalled,  and  twice  in  dan- 
ger  of  his  life  from  popular  commotions.  Four  of  his  ora- 
tions, in  a  simple  unornamented  style,  have  descended^ 
tons,  although  not  without  some  suspicion  of  their  au- 
thenticity. They  are  published  in  the  "  Oratores  Graeci 
veteres,'*  of  H.  Stephens,  1,575,  fol.;  and  in  those  of 
Reiske.  ^ 

ANDOQ.UE  (Peter),  and  not  Androque,  as  in  some 
authors,  was  a  counsellor  of  the  presidial  court  of  Beziers 
in  France,  where  he  died  in  1664,  He  published, 
1»  f*  jHistoire  de  Languedoc,  avec  Tetat  des  provinces 
foisines^"  Beziers,  1648,.  fol.  Le  Long  inentions  a  pre- 
vious bdition  of  1623,  the  existence  of  which  is  doubted 
iu  our  authority.     2.  <^  Catalogue  des  eveques  de  Beziers,''; 

»  Gent  Mag.  vol.  LKX,  &.C.  «  Biog.  UniverseUc.-— Gen.  Diet. 

^  F«br.  BibL'Ori»c.-*-^oreri,«-Sftxu  Onomasticeo. 

1»2  A  IJ  D  O  Q  U  E. 

1650,  4to.  The  history  of  Langnedoc  cotnes  down  to  the 
year  1610,  and  the  list  of  bishops  to  the  time  of  publica* 
tion.  * 

ANDRADA  (Alphonsus  d'),  a  Spanish  writer,  wai 
born  at  Toledo  in  1590,  and  taught  philosophy  in  that 
city  before  he  entered  the  society  of  the  Jesuits  in  162^^ 
He  was  likewise '  professor  of  moral  philosophy,  and  died 
at  Madrid,  June  20,  1672.     His  principal  works  were: 

1.  **  An  Historical  Itinerary,*'  Madrid,  1657,  2  vols.   4to. 

2.  "  Meditations  on  every  tlay  of  the  year,*'  1660,  4  vols. 
16mo.  3,  "  The  lives  of  illustrious  Jesuits/*  1666 — 7,  2 
vols.  fol.  &c. " 

ANDRADA  (Anthony)  was  born  about  1580,  entered 
when  very  young,  as  we  find  was  usual,  into  the  society 
of  the  Jesuits,  and  became  noted  for  his  missionary  zeal 
in  India  and  Tartary.  Whatever  religion  owes,  geogra- 
phy is  in  some  respect  indebted  to  his  labours.  In  1624 
he  went  to  Thibet,  which  was  probably  visited  by  Mark 
Paul  in  the  thirteenth  century,  but  had  been  till  now  to- 
tally forgotten  by  European  travellers.  On  his  return  to 
Goa,  his  superiors  employed  him  in  some  affairs  of  im- 
portance, and  he  died  Marbh  16,  1634,  as  it  is  said,  of 
poison.  The  chief  merit  of  his  travels,  published  at  Lis- 
bon, 1626,  consists  in  their  affording  the  first  description 
of  Thibet,  but  they  contain  many  mistakes  and  fabulous 
matters ;  nor  has  the  state  of  that  country  ever  been  faith- 
fully delineated,  unless  by  our  countryman  Turner.  An-^ 
drada*s  work,  which  was  written  in  Portuguese,  has  been 
twice  translated  into  French  :  the  last  translation  is  that  of 
Peron  and  Billecocq,  in  their  **  Recueil  de  voyages  au 
Thibet,**  Paris,   1796. » 

ANDRADA  (Diego  de  Payva  d*),  or  Andradii/s,  a 
learned  Portuguese,  was  born  in  1528,  at  Coimbra,  and 
distinguished  himself  at  the  council  of  Trent,  where  king 
Sebastian  sent  bim  as  one  of  his  divines.  He  preached 
before  the  assembly  the  second  suhday  after  Easter  in 
1562  :  nor  was  he  contented  with  the  service  he  did  in 
explaining  those  points  upon  which  he  was  consulted,  but 
he  employed  his  pen  in  defence  of  the  canons  of  the 
council,  in  a  treatise  entitled  ^^  Orthodoxarum  explica- 
tionum,  lib.  x.'*  Venice,  1564,  4to,  a  very  rare  edition^ 
and  more  correct  than  /that  of  Cologn  of  the  same  date. 

*  Biographie  UniTerselle.  *  Ibid.«— BibI-.  Script  Societ.  Jcsu* 

s  Ibid.— Moreri. 

A  N  D  R  A.  D.  A.  X9i 


h  forms  a  reply  to  a  book  published  by  Chea^nitius,  against 
\he  doctrine  ot  the  Jesuits  before  the  closfe  of  the  council 
crfTr^ent;  and  as  Chemnitius  took  this 'opportunity  of 
writing  a  very  lArge  work,  entitled  "  Examen  concilii  Trir 
ilentini,'*  Andrada  thought  hirnsclf  obliged  to  defend  hi^ 
first  piece  ags^inst  this  learned'  adversary.  Hq  composedi 
therefore' a'  book,  which  his  two  brothers  putjlished  aftet 
his  death,  at  Lisbon,  in  1578,  4to,  entitled  **  Dieferisio 
Tridentinit  fidci  catholicae  quinque  libris  comprehensa, 
^versus  haereticorum  calumnias,  '  et  praesertim  Martiiii 
tJheinnitii.'*  This  work  is  likewise  very  difficult  to  be  met 
with.  There  is  scarce  any  catholic  author  who  has  beeii 
inore  quoted  by  the  protectants  than  he,  because  he  main-* 
tained  the  opinions  of  Zuinglius,  Erasmus,'  &c.  corfcerri- 
ing  the  salvation  of  the  heathens.  Andrada  was  esteemed 
iwi  excellent  preacher:  hiS  sermons  were  published  in 
three  parts,  the  second  of  which  was  translated' int9  Sjpa- 
nish  by  Benedict -de  Alarcon.  The  Bibliotheque  of  the 
Spanish  writers  does  not  mention  all  his  works  ;  the  book 
he  wrote  concerning  the  pope*s  authority,  during  the 
council  (**  De  conciliorum  alitoritate,")  in  1562,  is  omit- 
ted. The  pope*s  legates  being  very  well  pleased  with  this 
work,  Sent  it  to  cardinal  Borromeo ;  the  court  of  Rome 
klso  approved  it  extremely,  and  the  pope  returned  th<J 
author  thanks  in  a  very  obliging  manner;  from  which 
circumstances  it  will  not  be  difficult  td  appreciate  iti» 
merits.  He  stands  indeed  very  high  among  popish  writers, 
and  many  encomiums  have  been  bestowed  lipon  him: 
Osorius,  in  his  preface  to  the  **  Orthotlbx  explanations  of 
-Andradiug,''  gives  him  the  character  of  a  maii  of  wit,  vast 
Upplicatian,  great  knowledge  in  the  languages,  with  ail  the 
«eal  and  eloquence  necessary  to  a  good  preacher*;  and 
•Rosweidus  says,"  that  he  brought  to  the' council  of  Trent 
the  understanding  of  a  most  profound  diviiie,'  and  the  elo* 
iquence  of  a  consunimate  orator.  *  .  ' 

ANDKADA  (Francis  d'),  historiograj^her  to  Philip  lit 
king  of  Spairf,  vvrrote  the  history  of  Jdhn  tll.'kin^g  of  Por- 
tugal :  t'&is  \york,  in  the  Portuguese  tongue,  H^aS  published 
9t  Lisbbn  lii'  1'525,  4to.  He  was' brother  to  ^lie  preceding 
theologian,  arid  left  a  sbn'DiEdX),  w'bo'dicd  in  166O,  at 
the  age  of  eightyyfour,  and  is  known  inP'ortugar  as  the 
linthor  of  a  poem  on  the  siege  of  Cbaoiil,  and  hf  An  '*^  Ek? 



^  Qen.  Diet.— -Moreri, — Aalonii  BiUl.  Hispaa. 

Vol.  II.  •  o  ' 

ih  A  ^  b  R  A  D  A. 

amination  6f  tbe  antiquities  of  Portugal/*  4to;  which  is  a 
criticism  on  Bernard  Brito's  "Portuguese  monarchy^* 
lie  also  published  in  1630,  a  moral  work,  of  which  there 
}iay^  been  many  editions;  under  the  title  of  *^  Casamento 
perfecto,'*  or  the  perfect  marriage.  * 

ANDRADA  (Thomas  b'),  another  brother  to  I^iego^ 
styled  in  h^s  order  Thomas  of  Jesus,  who  began  the  reform 
^f  the  barefoot  Augustines,  and  followed  the  king  don  Se* 
bastian  in  his,  unfortunate  expedition  in  Africa.  The  in« 
fidels  shut  him  up  in  a  cave,  where  he  composed  in  Por^ 

Juguese  his  famous  book,  entitled  ^^The  Sufferings  of 
esus;*^  translated  into  French  in  2  vols*  12mo.  His 
sister,  Yolande  d'Andrada,  countess  of  Lignerez,  <  sent 
him  money  to  purchase  his  liberty ;  but  he  chose  rather  to 
employ  himself  in  his  captivity,  in  consoling  the  Christian^ 
that  suffered  with  him.     He  died  in  1582.^ 

ANDRE  (St),    See  St.  ANDRE.    , 

ANDREJE  (John  Gerard  Reinhard),  a  German  apo* 
thecary  of  considerable  learning  and  excellent  character^ 
was  born  at  Hanover  in  1724;  studied  first  at  Berlin,  and 
afterwards  passed  a  few  years  in  the  principal  German  and 
Dutch  universities.  He  resided  likewise  some  time  in 
England,  and  formed  an  acquaintance,  in  the  course  of  bif 
various  travels,  with  the  most  eminent  physicians  and  che^ 
mists  of  the  age.  On  his  return  to  Hanover,  he  succeeded 
to  his  father's  business,  who  was  an  apothecary ;  and  pub^o 
lished  from  time  to  time,  in  the  Hanoverian  Magazine, 
many  learned  and  useful  dissertations  on  medical  and  che^ 
mical  subjects,  and  formed  a  very  fine  museum  of  natural 
history ;  of  which,  at  his  death,  he  left  a  catal(^^e  rai^ 
spnn6.  In  1765,  by  desire  of  his  Britannic  majesty,  he 
tmdertook  an  examination  of  the  different  kinds  of  earth 
in  the  electorate  of  Hanover,  and  published  the  result  ia 
1769,  under  the  title  of  <^  Dissertation  on  the  earths  which 
compose  the  soil,  &c.  and  their  uses  in  agriculture.''  He 
died  in  1793,  particularly  regretted  by  the  poor,  to  whom 
lie  always  tendered  his  services  gratuitouslyi,  Zimmermai^ 
speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  his  learning  and  virtues. ' 

ANDREANI  (Andrea),  an  eminent  engraver,  wa^  a 
native  of  Mantua ;  for  which  reason  he  frequently  addfs^ 
to  his  name  or  monogram  Intaguat*  Mantuajio,  whic^ 
Kas  led  some    to   mistake*  him  for  Andrew  Mantegna. 

"  Gen.  Diet.— Mmri-^Antonii  Bibl.  Hitpaii.    «  Ibid.    «  Biof  •  UniyentUe. 

A  N  B  R  £  A  N  t  198 

Otbers  called  him  Akdreassi  ;  and  othen,  from  a  resem^ 
bianco  in  their  monograms,  haye  confounded  him  with 
^Itdorfer.  The  time  of  hi^  birth  does  not  appear ;  but  he 
died  in  1 623)  at  a  very  advanced  age.  He  engraved  in  wood 
only,  in  a  peculiar  style,  distinguished  by  the  name  of 
ehiro^scurOf  which  is  performed  with  two,  three,  or  more 
blocks  of  wood,  according  to  the  number  of  tints  required, 
and  these  are  stamped 'upon  the  paper  one  after  another, 
•e  as  to  (Produce  the  effect  of  a  washed  drawing ;  but  the 
invention  was  not  his,  Hugo  da  Carpi  &  Antonio  da 
Trenlo  having  preceded  him.  He  carried,  however,  the 
mechanical  part  of  the  work  to  a  far  greater  degree  of  per- 
fection, and  we  often  find  in  his  prints  a  correct  and  de- 
termined outline.  His  great  merit  as  an  artist  is  acknov* 
ledged  by  all  who  are  conversant  in  prints ;  and  his  draw-p 
ing  is  excellent,  executed  with  great  spirit,  and  in  a  veiy 
masterly  style.  The  heads  of  his'  figures,  though  slight, 
mre . characteristic  and  expressive;  and  he  bias  displayed 
great  judgment  in  the  management  of  his  various  tints. 
His  works  are  justly  considered  as  admirable  transcriptf 
from  the  sketches  of  many  of  the  greatest  painters. 

To  this  high  character  it  is  with  regret  we  add,  that  it 
i$  sometimes  difficult  to  distinguish  hb  prints,  from  a  cir- 
cumstapce  that  reflects  no  great  honour  on  him.  He  pro*- 
cured  many  other  engravings,  the  works  of  differenir 
masters,  and  sold  the  impressions  with  his  own  name,  after 
(facing  the  name  of  the  true  artist,  to  substitute  his  own 
with  more  security.  Such  are  the  tricks  which  artists  are 
aometimes  tempted  to  practise,  when  they  exchange  their 
flsore  honourable  employment  and  rank  for  that  of  dealer.  ^ 

ANDREAS  {John),  bishop  of  Aleria  in  Corsica,  has 
established  a  name  in  the  literary  world,  not  so  much  by 
his  original  compositions,  as  by  the  care  he  bestowed  in 
superintending  many  valuable  works,  when  the  invention 
ai  printing  was  introduced  at  Rome,  by  those  celebrated 
{Hdnters  Conrad  Sweignheym,  and  Arnould  Pannart^. 
His  family  name  was  Bussi,  or  Bossi,  and  he  was  born  at 
Vigevano  in  1417  :  after  having  resided  for  many  years  at 
Rome  in  a  state  of  poverty  and  neglect,  he  obtained  the 
jwtroiiage  of  the  canlinal  de  Cusa,  who  prmsured  for  him 
.die  place  of  secretary  to  the  Vatican  library,  and  then  the 
l»idiopric  of  Accia^  in  the  island  of  Corsica  j  from  which 

&  Strutt's  DtctioQary. 

a  2 

196  A  N  t)  ft  E  A  S. 

lie  Wds  translated  not  long  after  to  that  of  Aleria.  Som^ 
biographers,  mistaking  him  for  John  Andfeas^  the  canons 
ist,  hav^  attributed  to  him  writings  on  the  Decrfetals^ -we 
have  nothing  of  his,  however,  that  can  be  deemed  orJgifiaJ, 
except  the  valuable  prefaces  prefixed  to  the  editions  wbicfei 
he  corrected  and  superintended!  in  the  press.  He  died  in 
J 475.  He  was  particularly  instrumental  in  introducing 
the  art  of  printing  into  Italy,  and  fixing  it  at  Rome.  The 
printers  above-mentioned  were,  under  his  immediate  pro* 
tection,  and  in  his  prefaces  he  considers  them  as  under 
bis  care.  The  works  he  superintended  were,  in  1468 — 9^ 
1.  EpistolfiB  Ciceronis  ad  Ifamiliares.  2.  Hieronymi  Epis*- 
tola;*  3.  Julius  Caesar.  4.  Livy.  5.  Virgil.  6.  Lucan. 
7.  AalusGdlius.  8.  Apuleius;  and  in  1470 — 1,  9.  Lacs- 
tantius.  10.  Cicero*s  Orations.  11.  S.  Biblia.  12.  Cypri- 
unus.  13.  S.  Leon.  Mag.  Sermones  et  Epistolre.  14.  Ovidii 
Metamorph.  15.  Pliny.  16.  Quintilian.  17.  Suetonius^. 
18.  Ciceronis  Epist.  ad  Attic;  and  Lyra  in  Biblia,  and 
Strabo,  without  date.  Mr.  Beloe,  who  has  abridged  many 
of  Andreas's  prefaces,  justly  observes,,  that  when  this 
length  of  time  is  considered,  which  at  the  present  day 
would  be  required  to  carry  any  one  of  the  preceding  wbrks 
through  the  press,  it  seems  astonishing,  and  hardly  credi- 
ble, that  so  much  should  have  been  accomplished  in  S9 
Tery  short  a  period,  *  " 

•  ANDREAS  (James),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  divine  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Waiblingy  a  town  in 
the  duchy  of  Wirtemberg,  March  25,  1528.  HisfatheFy 
whose  name  was  James  Endris,  was  a  smith.  He  applied 
himself  to  letters  with  great  success  for  three  years ;  but 
his  parents,  being  poor,  had  resolved  to  bring  him  up  to 
some  mechanical  profession,  and  had  agreed  with  a  ekt^ 
penter  for  that  purpose,  when  several  persons  of  distinc- 
tion, who  discovered  marks  of  genius  in  him,  contributed 
to  support  him  in  the  prosecution  of  his  studies,  in  which 
he  made  a  considerable  advance.  1^1545,  he  took  his 
master's  degree  at  Tubingen,  and  studied  divinity  and 
the  Hebrew  language  at  the  same  university.  '  In  1546  he 
ivas  appointed  minister  of  the  church  of  Stutgard,  the  me- 
trc^olis  of  the  duchy  of  Wirtemberg;  and  his  sermons 
were  so  well  approved  of,  that  his  fame  reached  the  duke^ 
who  ordered  him  to  preach  before  him,  which  he  performed 

>  BiQg,  Univftraelle.— Diet  Hist->BeWs  Anecdotes,  rol  III.  p.  274.— bu^ 
IMiacipally  Marchand'i  Diet-Historique. 



A  N  D  II  E  -<L.  S.  »3» 


with  -great  appl^us^.  The  s^me  year:  hje  n|arried  a  wjfe  at. 
Tul^ingcn,  by  whom  he  had  nine  ^pa^.ancl  nine  .daughters, 
Qine^ of  which  children  survived  turn.  During  the  war  in 
which  Germany  was  about  the  same  time  involved,  he  met 
with  great  {Civilities  even  from  tJbe  emperor's  party,  till  he 
wa^  obliged  upon  the  publication  of  the  Interim  to  retire 
to  Tubingeiv  vvhere  he  exjecuted  the  function  of  minister. 
In  the  year  1553  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity, 
and  was  appointed,  pastor  of  the  church  of  Gopping,  and 
superintendant  of  the  jieigbbouriug  churches.  He  was 
afteovards  sent  for  to  several  parts;  and^in  1557  he  went 
to  the  diet  of  RatLsbpn  with  Christopher  duke  of  Wirtem- 
berg,  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  secretaries  at  the  con- 
ference at  Worms  between  the  papists  and  the  divines  o^ 
the  Augustan  confession,  TliQ  same  year  he  published  hif 
first  work  on  the  Lord's  Supper,  in  which  he  proposed  a, 
method  of  agreement  upon  that  difficult  point  of  contro- 
versy. In  June  the  same  year  he  went  with  the  duke 
above-mentioned  to  Francfort  upon  the  Maine,  where  he 
preached  a  s^ernion,  though  he  wa$  publicly  opposed  by  a 
Romish  priest.  la  15^8  he  rqplied  to  Staphylus's  book 
against  Lu tiler,  which  was  entitled  *'  Kpitome  trimembris 
Theologia;  Lutheranae,"  and  in  which  he.  had  collectejd  the 
opinions  of  several  sects,  ai^djiscribed  them  all  to  that  re* 
former,  a3  the  orimual  author  of  them.  In  1559  he  was 
sent  to  Augsburg,  where  the  diet  of  ^xe  empire  was  held; 
and,  during  the  same,  preached  two  sermons  before  all  the  . 
princes  pf  the  Augustan  confession,  one  on  j ustihcat.ion, 

'  the  other  on  the  Lord's  supper;  both  printed  at  Tubingen, 
and  very  populii^r.     In  1561  he  was. sent  .to  Paris,  in  ord^r 
.to  be  the  conference  of  Pojss,i,  which  was  broker^  , 
up  before  be  came  thither.     Some  time  afjlj^r  his  return  he 

*  was.  made  chancellor  and  rector  of  the  university  of  Tubin- 
gen.  ,  Jn  the  beginning  of  the  year  1563  he  went  to  Stras«» 
burg,  where  JeromZancliius  had  propagated  several  opipion^ 
accounted  new,  and  particularly  this,  that  t|;ie  regenerate  and 
Ijelievers  could  not  possibly  fall  ag2^in  from  grace,  or  Ipse 
the  faitb,  though  they  had  committed  sin^  against  the.  Ughlt 
of  tKcir  consiicience.  Our  author  at  last  engaged  him  tq 
sign  a  form  of  confession,  wliich  he  had  drayi^n  up.  Ip 
1665  he  was  invited  to  establish  a.  clmrch  at  .Hagenaw,  ail 
imperial  city,  where  he  preached  a  great  m^ny  sermotif 
t$pon  the  prinqipal  poiiits  of  the  Christian  religion,  whiph 

'were  afterwards  pi:inited.     In  1568  he  assisted  Julius,  duk^ 

15»  A  N  D  It  E  A  S. 

of  Brunfiwict:,  in  tefcMrihing  bis  churches.  In  1569  ht 
took  a  journey  •  to  Heidelberg  and  Brunswick^  and  into 
I>enmark.-  In  1570  he  went  to  Misniaand  Prague^  where 
tlie  emperor  Maximilian  II.  bad  a  conversation  with;  him 
tipon  the  subject  of  an  agreement  in  religion.  In  1571  h6 
^ent  to  visit  the  churches  at  Mompdgard ;  and  upon  his 
return  bad  a  conference  with  Flaccius  lUyricus  at  Stras* 
burg,  in  which  he  confuted  bis  paradoxical  assertion,  that 
sin  is  a  substance.  He  took  several  joumies  after  tliis, 
^nd  used  bis  utmost  efibrts  to  effect  an  union  of  the 
churches  of  the  Augustan  confession.  In  1583  he  lost  his 
fir^t  wife,  with  whom  he  had  lived  thirty-seven  years ;  and 
about  an  year  and  half  after  he  married  a  second  wife,  who 
had  voluntarily  attended  her  former  husband,  when  he  wa9 
obliged  to  leave  his  country  on  account  of  religion.  Aboat 
the  same  time  he  wrote  a  controversial  piece,  in  which  he 
maintained  the  ubiquity  or  presence  of  the  whole  Christ, 
in  his  divine  and  human  nature,  in  all  things.  In  15(16  he 
^as  engaged  in  a  conference  at  Mompelgard  with  Theodore 
Beza  concerning  the  Lord's  supper,  the  person  of  Christ, 
predestination,  baptism,  the  reformation  of  the  popish 
churches,  and  Adiaphora  or  indifferent  things ;  but  this  had 
the  usual  event  of  all  other  conferences,,  which,  though 
<lesigned  to  put  an  end  to  disputes  in  divinity,  are  oftetl 
the  occasion  of  still  greater.  In  1587  he  was  sent  for  to 
Nordling  upon  church  affairs;  and  upon  bis  return  fell 
^ick,  and  published  his  confession  of  faith,  in  order  to  ob- 
viate the  imputations  of  his  adversaries ;  but  he  afterwardi 
recovered,  and  was  sent  for  again  to  Ratisbon,  and  then  to 
Onolsbach  by  Frederick  marquis  of  Brandenbourg.  Upoii 
the  publication  of  the  conference  at  Mompelgard  above*^ 
mentioned,  he  was  accused  of  having  falsely  imputed  some 
things  to  Beza,  which  the  latter  had  never  asserted;  be 
therefore  went  to  Bern  to  clear  himself  of  the  charge.  His 
last  public  act  was  a  conference  at  Baden  in  November 
1589  with  John  Pistorins,  who  then  inclined  to  Calvinism^ 
imd  afterwards  revolted  entirely  to  the  Papists.  He  had  a 
very  early  presentiment  of  his  death ;  and  when  he  found 
it  drawing  near,  he  made  a  declaration  to  several  of  his 
friends  of  fats  constancy  in  the  faith,  which  he  had  asserted, 
lind  shewed  the  most  undoubted  signs  of  cordial  belief,  till 
be  expired  on  the  seventh  of  January  1590,  being  sixty- 
ohe  years  and  nine  months  old.  His  funeral  -sermon  was 
preached  by  Luke  Osiander,   and  afterwards  published. 

ANDREAS.  199 

Several  false  reports  were  propagated  concerning  bis  deatlu 
The  Popish  priests  in  the  parta  adjacent  publicly  declslred 
from  the  pulpit,  that  before  his  death  he  had  recanted  ancl 
condemned  all  the  doctrines  which  he,  had  maintained  in 
word  or  writing.  Besides,  there  was  a  letter  dif^ersed^ 
in  which  they  affirmed,  with  their  usual  assurance,  that  h^ 
desired  very  anxiouWy  before  his  death,  that  a  Je&uit  loigh^ 
be  sent  for  immediately,  to  administer  the  sacraments  t^ 
him ;  which  request  being  denied  him,  he  fell  into  despair^ 
and  expired  under  all  the  horrors  of  it.  Of  this  not  a  syl^ 
lable  was  true,  his  dying  words  and  actions  entirely  coin« 
ciding  with  his  life  and  doctrines.  J^is  works  wer^ 
extremely  numerous,  but  his  biographers  have  neglecte^^ 
to  give  a  list,  or  to  notice  any  but  his  "  Treatise  on  Con* 
cord,"  1582,  4to.  His  life  was  written  by  .the  subject  c^ 
the  next  article,  1630.  * 

ANDREAS  (John  Yalentjlne),  grandson,  or  according 
to  Saxius,  nephew,  to  the  preceding,  was  born  at  Herren^- 
berg,  in  the  duchy  of  Wirtemberg,  in  1536.  ,  After  study- 
ing at  Tubingen,  and  travelling  in  France  and  Italy,  he 
.was  promoted  to  several  ecclesiastical  offices  i^  his  own 
country,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1654,  was  abbe  of 
Adelberg,  and  Lutheran  almoner  to  the  duke  of  Wirtem* 
berg.  Being  much  concerned  to  see  the  principles  of  the 
Christian  religion  employed  only  in  idle  disputes,  and  thp 
sciences  subservient  only  to  the  pride  of  curiosity,  he  passed 
much  of  his  life  in  contriving  the  sfieans  by  which  both 
should  be  rendered  of  more  practical  utility  to  mankind* 
In  particular,  he  employed  the  influence  he  had  with  his 
jsovereign  smd  with  the  duke  of  Brunswic- Wolfenbuttel,  in 
procuring  a  reformation  of  the  state  of  public  instruction  in 
their  dominions.  The  propensity  to  mysticism  in  all  these 
patriotic  efforts,  his  extensive  knowledge,  and  his  rn^rp 
extensive  correspondence,  and  the  frequent  mysterious  al-^ 
lusions,  capable  of  many  senses,  which  occur  in  his  works, 
have  occasioned  an  opinion  that  he  was  in  reality  thfi 
founder  of  the  famous  order  of  the  .Rosicrucians*  The  latp 
M .  Herder  has  discussed  this  question  in  the  German  mu- 
seum for  1779,  and  determines  against  Andreas ;  but  two 
learned  Germans,  M.  Chr.  Murr  (in  his  history  of  the 
origin  of  the  Rosier uciaus,. printed  at  Sulzbach,  1803}  Syo), 

1  Geo.  Diet  principally  from  Melchior  Adam.*<*Moreri««-»Fttlltr't  Abtl  Rd- 


20b  ANDREAS. 

and  M.  J.  G.  Buhle  (in  a  dissertation  read  in  18015  beforei 
the  Ro^al  Society  of  Gottingen^  on  the  same  subject,  and 
published  in  1804,  in  German),  are  of  opinion,  that  if 
Andreas  was  not  the  founder,  he  at  least  gave  that  new  or* 
fifanizatibn  to  the  Rbsicru^ians  which  identified  them  witH 
the  free-masons,  in  whose  societies  the  memory  of  Andreas 
is  still  held  in  veneration.  And  if  we  find  noproofs  of  the 
fact  in  the  life  which  he  left  of  himself^  and  which  Seybold 
published  in  1799,  in  the  second  volume  of  his  Autobio- 
graphy, it  must*  on  the  other  hand  be  confessed,  that  in 
the  works  which  he  published  in  his  life-time,  he  is  perpe- 
tually reasoning  on  the  necessity  of  forming  a  society 
solely  devoted  to  the  regeneration  of  knowledge  and  man- 
lifers'.  '  The  question,  however,  is  not  yet  absolutely  deter- 
mined, nor,  except  in  Germany,  will  it  perhaps  appear  a 
matter  of  much  consequence.  There  is  nothing  in  the 
history  of  the  Rosicrucians  to  excite  mlich  respect  for  it& 
founder, '  or  for  those  who  fancied  they  improved  upon  it 
by  the  late  more  mischievous  society  of  the  Illuminati. 

Theworks  of  Andreas  ard" said  to  amount  to  a  hundred, 
;the  titles  of  part  of  which  are  ^iven  by  Adelung,  and  the 
whole  by:  M.  Bark,  pastor  of  Weiltingen,  and  printed  in  a 
pamphlet  at  Tubingen,  in  1793!,  8vo.  Some  of  the  prin- 
cipal are,  1.  "  De  Christiani  Cosmoxcni  genitura  judi- 
cium," Montbelliard,  1612,  12mo,  a  satire  on  astrology* 
2.  "  Collectaneorum  mathematicorum  decades  XI."  Tu- 
bingen,  1614,  4to.  3.  "Invitatio-ad  fraternitatem Christi,** 
1617,  p^it  II.  1618,  l2mo.  4.  "  Rosa  florescens,  contra 
Menapii.  caliim"nias,"  1617,'Svq.  'This  disfence  of  the  Ro- 
sicrucians is  signed  Florentinus  de  Valentia,  a  name  some* 
times  given  to  Andreas^,  as  well  as  that  of  Andreas  de  Va- 
lentia, \\\i  it  is  not  qUite  certain  that  he  was  the  author 
(See  Walch's  Bibl.  Theol.).  5.  "  Menippus :  Dialogorutii 
Satyricorum  centuria  inanitum  nostratium  Speculum," 
'Helicone  juxta  Pamassum,  1617,  12mo.  It  is  in  this  work 
that  Andreas  is  said  io  display  a  mind  suj^erior  to  the  age 
In  which  he  lived,  by  pointing  out  the  numerous  defects 
which  prevent  religion  and  literature  from  being  so  useful 
as  they  might  under  a  better  organization.  6.  "  Civis. 
Christianus,  sive  Peregrini  quondam  errantis  restitutiones," 
Strasburgh,  1619,  8vo.  7.  "  Mythologiae  Christianse,  sive 
Tirtttum  et  vitiorum  vitae  humanpe  imaginum,  libri  tres,'* 
Strasburgh,  1619,  1 2mo.  8..  "  R^publicaj  Christiano-poliT 
tanjp descriptio J  Turris  Babel;  Judiciorum de fraternitjtli^ 


ANDREAS.  201 

RosaceoB  Crucis  chaos ;  Christianne  socibtatisidea;'*  pubi 
lisbcd  together  at  Strasburgh,  16J9,  12rno.  They  contain 
very  evident  proofs  of  his  design  to  cstublis^  a  secret  so- 
ciety; It  is  impossible  not  to  perceive  tWt  he  is  alway^ 
aiming  at  something  of  the  kind,  and  this,  with  some  othei* 
works  attributed  to  him,  seem  to  confirm  the  opinion  of 
Messrs.  Buhle  and  Murr.  Some  also  appeal  to  his  fre- 
quent travels,  as  ha\4ng  no  other  object.  Whatever  may 
be  in  this,  Andreas  is  allowed  a  very  high  rank  among  thd 
writers  of  German.  At  a  time  when  that  language  had  re- 
ceived very  little  cultivation,  when  mo*t  learned  men  wrote 
in  Latin,  and  when  the  idiom  of  the  country  was  only  to 
be  heard  in  famihar  conversation,  he  gave  his  verses,  for 
he  was  likewise  a  poet,  a  particular  ease  and  grace.  They 
arc  not  perhaps  remarkable  for  elegance,  correctness,  or 
harmony,  but  they  frequently  "discover  a  poetical"  fancy, 
and  a  very  happy  use  of  the  dialect  of  Suabia.  *    • 

ANDREAS  (John),  a  famous  canonist  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  born  at  Mugello,   near  Florence,     He  vvas  very 
young  when  he  went  to  Bologna  to  pursue  his  studies,  and 
would  have  found  great  difficulty  to  maintain  himself,  had 
he  not  got  a  tutor's  place,  by  which  means  he  was  enablec^. 
to  apply  himself  to  the  study  of  tne  canon   law,  in  vvhicli 
he  made  great  progress  under  the  professor  Guy  de  Ba'if. 
He  had  always  a  particular  respect  for  this  professor,  pay- 
ing as  great  deference  to  his  giosscs  as  the  text  itself.    Guy 
de  Ba'if,  perceiving  that  Andreas,  for  want  of  money,  could 
not  demand  his  doctor's  degree,   procured  if  him  gratis," 
which  Andreas  himself  acknowledges.     The  same  prbfessor 
urged    him  to  stand  for   a   professorship,    which  h<§  ob- 
tained, and  vvas  professor  at  Padua  about  the  year  13^^30; 
but  he  was  recalled  to/ Bologna,   where  he  acquired  the 
greatest  reputation.    We  are  told  wonderful  things  con-^ 
cerning  the  austerity  of  his  lifcj    that  he  macerated  hii 
body  with  prayer  and  fasting,  and  lay  uponthe  bare  ground 
for  twenty''years  together,  covered  only  with  a  *bear-skih : 
but  according  to  Poggitls,  he  was  not  afterwards  so  ex- 
tremely rigid  in  discipline  or  moriils. 

Andireas  had  a  beautiful  daughter,  named  Novella,  whom 
he  is  said  to  have  instructed  so  well  in  ajil  parts  of  learnings 
that  when  he  was  engaged  in  any  affair,  which  hindered 
bim  from  reading  lectures  to.  his  scholars,   he  sent  ||is 

1  Bio^.  UniYerseHe.-^Saicii  Onotn'astiCoM, 


tot  A  N  D  B  £  A  & 

daiaghier  in  his  room  y  when,  lest  her  beauty  should  prei* 
vent  the  attention  of  the  hearers,  ^he  had  a  little  curtail 
drawn  before  her.    To  perpetuate  the  meaiory  of  thii^ 
daughter,  he  entitled  his  commentary  upon  the  I)ecretals 
of  Gregory  X.  "  the  Novellae.'*     He  married  her  to  John 
Calderiuus,  a  learned  canonist.    The  first  work  of  Andreas 
was  his  Gloss,  upon  the  sixth  book  of  the  Decretals,  Rome 
147j6,  and  five  editions  afterwards  at  Pavia,  Basil,  and  Ve- 
nice^   This  work  he  wrote  when  he  was  very  young.     He 
wrpte  also  Glosses  upon  the  Clementines,  Strasburgh,  1471, 
and  Mentz,  Rome,  and  Basil,  four  times ;  and  a  Commen- 
tary in  Re^ulas  Sexti,  which  he  entitled  '*  Mercuriales/* 
because  he  either  en^ged  in  it  on  Wednesdays,   diebus 
Merpurii,  or  because  be  inserted  his  Wednesday's  disputes 
in  it.     He  enlarged  the  Speculum  of  Durant,  in  the  year 
1247,  but  this  is  taken  literally  from  Ostradus.     Andreas 
died  of  the  plague   at  Bologna  in    1348,  after  he  had 
been  a  professor  forty-five  years,  and  was  buried  hi  the 
church  of  the  Dominicans.     Many  eulogiums  have  been 
bestowed  upon  him:  he  was  called  archidoctordecretorum; 
in  his  epitaph  he  has  the  title  of  ^^  Rabbi  doctorum,  lux^ 
censor,  normaque  morum ;''  or,  rabbi  of  the  doctors,  the 
light,  censor,  and  inile  of  manners ;  and  it  is  said  that  pope 
Boniface  called    him  ^^  lumen  mundi,''   the  light  of  the 
world.     Bayle  objects,  that  Andreas  followed  the  method 
qf  the  Pyrrhonists  too  much ;  that  he  proved  his  own  qpi- 
^ion  very  solidly  when  he  chpse,  but  that  he^ often  rather 
related  the  sentiments  of  others,  and  left  his  readers  to  form 
their  own  determination.  * 

ANIJ)KEAS  (John),  was  born  a  Mahometan,  atXativa,  in 
the  kingdom  of  Valencia,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  the 
dignity  of  alfaqui  of  that  city.  He  embraced  Christianity  on 
being  present  at  a  sermon  in  the  great  church  of  Valencia  the 
day  of  the  assumption  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  in  1487.  Upon 
this  be  desired  to  be  baptised,  and  in  memory  of  the  call- 
ing of  St.  John  and  St.  Andrew,  he  took  the  name  of  John 
Andreas.  ^^  Having  received  holy  orders,^'  says  he,  ^*  and 
from  an  alfaqui  and  a  slave  of  Lucjfer  becqqie  a  priest  and 
minister  of  Christ,  I  began,  like  St.  Paul,  to  preach  «nd 
publish  the  contrary  of  what  I  had  erroneously  believed  and 
fisserted;  and,  with  the  assistance  of  almighty  God,  I  con« 
:wted  ^t  first  a  great  many  soul^  of  the  Moors,  «(ho  we];e 

I  Gep.  Dict-*Moren*— Care,  vol.  II.««tSaxn  Onomasttcon* 

ANDREAS.  sot 

ia  dai^er  jof  heU,  and  under  the  dominion  of  Lucifer,  and 
conducied  th^n  into  the  way  of  salvation.  After  tbi^,  I 
was  sent  for  by  the  most  catholic  princes  king  Ferdinand 
and  queen  Isabella,  in  order  to  preach  in  Grenada  to  the 
Moorft  of  diat  kingdom,  which  their  majesties  had  conquered; 
and  by  Ood's  blessing  on  my  preaching,  an  infinite  number 
of  Moors  were  brought  to  abjure  Mahommed,  and  to  turn 
to  Christ.  A  little  after  this,  I  was  made  a  canon  by  their 
graces;  and  sent  for  again  by  the  most  Christian  queen 
Isabella  to  Arragon^  that  I  might  be  employed  in  the  con- 
version of  the  Moors  of  those  ^ngdoms,  who  still  persisted 
in  ^beir  errors,  to  the  great  contempt  and  dishonour  of  tJhr 
crucified  Saviour,  and  the  prodigious  loss  and  danger  of  all 
Christian  princes.  But  this  excellent  and  pious  design  of 
her  majesty  was  rendered  ineffectual  by  her  death.'*  At 
the  debire  of  Martin  Garcia,  bishop  of  Barcelona,  be  un.- 
dertook  to  translate  from  the  Arabic,  into  the  language  of 
Arrd^on,  the  whole  law  of  the  Moors ;  and  after  having 
finished  tiiis  undertaking,  he  composed  his  famous  work  of 
^^  The  Confusion  of  the  Sect  c^  Mahommed ;''  it  contains 
twelveobapiers,  wherein  he  has  collected  the  fabulous  storiei^ 
impostures,  forgeries,  brutalities,  follies,  absurdities,  and  con^ 
tradictions,  which  Mahommed,  in  order  to  deceive  the  simple 
people,  has  dispersed  in  the  writings  of  that  sect,  and  espe* 
cially  in  the  Koran.  Andreas  tells  us,  he  wrote  this  worJ^ 
that  not  only  the  learned  among  Christians,  but  even  th^ 
common  people,  might  know  the  different  belief  and  doe« 
trine  of  the  Moors;  and  on  the  one  hand  might  laugh  at 
and  ridicule  such  insolent  and  brutal  notions,  and  on  the 
other  might  lament  their  blindness  and  dangerous  con- 
dition.--—This  book,  which  was  published  at  first  in  Spanish 
at  Seville,  1537,  ^to,  has  been  translated  into  several  lan-» 
guages,  and  is  frequently  quoted  as  authority  in  writiogs 
against  the  Mahometan  religion. ' 

ANDREAS,  or  ANDREA  (Onuphrius),  a  NeapoliUn 
|>oet,  flourished  about  the  year  1630,  and  died  in  ij&47.. 
Although  be  is  not  free  from  the  prevailing  corruption  of 
«tyle  in  his  time,  Crescembini  and  Le  Quadrio  rank  .him 
'among  the  best  poets  of  the  seventeenth  century.  £Le 
wrote  two  poems  :  ^^  Aci,''  in  ottava  rima,  Maples,  1&2£|^ 
12mo,  and  ^^  Italia  liberata,"  a  heroic  poem,  Naples,  1626, 
t|2mQ;  two  theatrical  pieces,  *<  Elpino,  favola.hoscb^ec« 

id*  ANDREAS. 

cia,"  and  **  La  Vana  gelosia,"  a  eollectioii  of  lyrisi  poesifl^' 
in  two  parts^  and  ^'  Discorsi  in  prose"  otivdiffexent  subjects 
of  naorality  and  philosophy,  Naples,  1636-^  4to.  ^  i  '; . 
*  ANDREAS  (Valerius),  ja  biographjer,  to  whom,  works 
of  this  description  are  highly  indebted,  was  borii/NoY-  25, 
1588,  at  Desschel,  a  small  town  in  Brabant,  fronii which  he 
has-been  sometimes  called  Desselius;  He  studied  pojite 
literature,  first  in  his  own  country,,  under  Valerius  Hon-j 
tius,  a  very  able  teacher,  and  afterwards  for  three  years  sl% 
Antwerp,  under  Andreas  Schottus,  a  learned  Jesuit,  who 
taught  him  Greek  ;  and  he  was  taught  Hebrew  at  th^vsame 
time  by  John  Hay y.  a  native  of  Scotland,  and  likewise  ono 
of  the  society  of  Jesuits.  After  having  attended  a  course  of 
philosophy  at  Douay,  he  was  appointed  Hebrew  professor 
at  Lou  vain  in  1612.  In  1 62 1.  he  .was.  created  LL*  D.  In 
1628  he  was  appointed  regius  professor;  iofcivJL law,  and,  ia 
1638,  keeper  of  the  newly-founded  university,  library.  .  Hia 
life  appears  to  have  been  principally  devoted,  to .thecompor 
sition<}f  bis  numerous  works,  and  the. care  of  the  pre^si  in 
publishing  other  works  of  celebrity.  He  died  at  Louvain, 
^  656,  leaving  behind  him  the  character  of  a  man  of  aipi^bie 
manners  and  extensive  learning. 

His  principal  works  are,  1.  M  Orthographic  ratio,,  et  de 
ratione  interpungendi  ac  distinctionum  notis,'*  X)puay^ 
J610,  12mo.  2.  "  Clarorum  Catalogus  Ijlispania?  Scripto^r 
rum,"  Mentz,  1607,  4to.  .3.  "  Imagiues  .doctorum  viro-f 
rttm  e  variis  gentibus,  elogiis  brevibus.  illustratae,"  .Ant.«. 
Werp,  1611,  12 mo.  These  two.  last  .he  appears,  to  have 
undervalued,  as  he  did  not  insert  them  in  the  list  of  hif 
writings  in  the  BibL.Belgica.  ;  4..  ^^  De.  initij^  ac  pjrpgressu 
dollegii  Trilinguis  Buslidiani,  deque,  vita  ^t  scriptis  profesr 
sok'um  ejusdem  coUegii,'*  1614,  4to^  5.  ".D.e  Lingua  Her 
braiodD  laudibusy  antiquitate^  &c."  ibid,/.  6.  "  Di^sertatiQ 
de  Toga  et  Sago,  sive  de  litterata  armataque  militia,',* 
Gologn,  1618,  8vo.  7.  "  Topographia  Belgica.''  8.  ^*  fasti 
Academici  Studii  GeneraHs  Lovauiensis^"  1635,  4to, .and 
in:1648y  an  improved  edition ;  but  afterwards  a  much  mor^ 
correct  edition  was  published  under  the  jitle  of  "  HistQrisL 
TJniversitatis  Lovaniensis.!'  .  9.  "  BibiiotheCiBs  Lpvaniei>si$ 
primordia,"  1636,  and  in  1638,  with  a  Qatalogue  of  the  li- 
brary, .His  other  works  were  on  the  subject  of  the  c^nop 
•la%  and  some  editions  of  the  canQnists.\yitl^  imprpv^^li^^; 


J  AN  P  R  E  A  S^  fdf 

{but  tJiat'Which  entitles,  him  clii^fly  to  aiplace  ber$  is  hU 
."  Bibliotheca  Belgica,"  containing  the  Unres  of  the  eminent 
.men  of  the  Netberianda,  and  lists  of  their  wprks»  This  y^a.% 
first  published  in  ^623^  8vo»  This  edition  excited  a  literary 
war  between  the  author  and  FraoCiis  Swertz,  who  in  162$ 
published  his  ^^  AthensEs  Belgicas!,  sive  Nomenclator  Scrip-* 
lorum  inferioris  Germauia^" .  foK  In  this  he  accuses  An* 
Jreas-of,  haying  interfered  with  his.  design,  and  violated  the 
jTuleSivQf  fciendshipi  &C;  Andreas,  who  had  continued  tq 
•in^pneTle  hisHfork,  and  published  it  a  second  time  atLa* 
.taii^  id  l€^$y  4to,, answered  these  accusations  vei'y  modestly 
in  his  preface,  and  asserted  the  priority  of  his  design. 
This  last  edition  is  preceded  by  the  "  Topographic  Bel* 
gka'?  aboy/e-menrioned.  The  best  ^edition  of  the  Biblip* 
iheca,  JbowevejCy  ,  is  th^t  published .  by  Foppen  in  1739, 
2  vols.  4to,  elegantly  printed,  and  illustrated  by  a  series  of 
'et^gr&vM^gs,  which,,ow.i<ng  to  the  robberies: of  portrait-deal- 
*ers  and  collectors,  is  rigfw  seldom  found  complete.  It  has 
been  ol|jected  that  Fpppen  omitted  many  partiojilars  i:e- 
•corded  by  And;:eas>  but  after  a  careful  inspection,  we.  have 
been  able' to  discover-  very  little  omittied  that  is  of  import-. 
ance^.V  ;  ,:     .     .  ^ 

^    ANDREINI  (Francis),  of  Pistoia,  an  Italian  comedian 
,of  the  .sijcteenth  centiiyy,  deserves  some  notice  on  account 
^of  his  mfyj  a  womati  of  considerable  talents,  and  his  son^ 
tWhose  history  is  in  one  i^espect  connected  with  that  of  our 
immortal  Milton.)   This  Fmncis  appears  to  have  been  ^ 
.specie$  of  buffoon  stroller.     In.  1609,  he  published  a, work 
entitled  ^'.  I*.e  Bmvure  del  capitan  Spavento,  Venice,".  4to, 
•which  consists  of  dialogues  between  the  captain  and  his. 
.man  Trappola.     Prefixed  to  it  is  a  serious  lamentation  oyer 
the  death  of  his  wife,  the  subject  of  our  next  article.     He 
afterwards  published  other  dialogues  in  prose,  "  Ragiona- 
iQenti  fantastic!  posti  in  forma  di  dialoghi  rappresentativi,'* 
V.eni^e,   1612,  4to,     He  also  is  the  author  of  two  dramatic 
piecei!, ' **  L'  Alterazza  di  Narciso,"  Venice,   161 1, .  1 2mo ; 
a^d  •"  L'lDgajnn9.ta  Proserpina,"  ibid,  same  year.     He  was 
•r<?marl^ablj3  ibr  the  powers  of  memory,  and  spoke,  with 
.great  fajcility,  French,  Spanish,  Sclavouian,  modem  Greefe, 
"jind  i?yeft  the-Tu^kipManguage.     He  was  living  in  1616,  a^ 
appears  by  the  dat^  of.  his  edition  of  his  wife's  works^  and 
jk  is  thought  that  )^e  died  soon  after  that  publication*  *         : 

Foppqn^s  Bibl.  Be!^.       '  *  Biographie  Universell*. 


iM  A  N  D  R  E  1  N  I. 

ANDREINI  (Isabella),  wife  to  the  preceding,  wag 
born  atPiaduain  1562,  became  an  actress  of  great  fame, 
and  was  flattered  by  the  applauses  of  the  men  of  wit  and 
learning  in  her  time.  She  is  described  as  a  woman  of  ele- 
gant figure,  beautiful  countenance,  and  melodious  vowre,  of 
taste  in  her  profession,  and  conversant  with  the  Freifieh  and 
Spanish  languages;  nor  was  she  unacquainted  with  philo« 
^phy  and  the  sciences.  She  was  a  votary  of  the  muse», 
and  cultivated  poetry  with  ardour  and  duccess.  The  Ift- 
•  t^nti,  academicians  of  Pa  via,  conferred  upon  her  the 
honours  of  their  society,  and  the  titles  of  Isabella  Andrei* 
na;>  Comica  Gelosa,  Academica  Intenta,  detta  fAcce^a* 
She  dedicated  her  works  to  cardinal  *Cinthio  Aldobfandini 
(nephew  to  Clement  VIIl.),  by  whom  die  was  greatly 
esteemed^  and  for  whom  many  of  her  poems  were  com- 

In  France,  whither  she  mede  a  tour,  she  met  with  tli« 
most  flattering  reception  from  the  king,  the  queen,  and  the 
court.     She  composed  several  sonnets  in  praise  of  her  royal 
patrons,  which  are  inserted  in  the  second  volume  of  her 
poems.    She  married  Francis  Andreini,  whom  we  have  just 
noticed,  and  died  at  Lyons,  June  10th,  1604,  in  conse^ 
quence  of  a  premature  delivery  during  a  state  of  pregnancy, 
in  the  forty-second  year  of  her  age.     Her  husband,  whonot 
her  loss  overwhelmed  with  afBiction,  had  her  interred  iti 
the  city  in  which  she  expired,  and  erected  a  monument  to 
her  memory,  on  which  he  caused  an  epitaph  to  be  in^ 
«cribed,  enumerating  her  virtues,  her  piety,  and  her  ta« 
lents.     Her  death  was  lamented  in  many  Latin  and  Italian 
elegies  and  panegyrics,  and  even  a  medal  was  struck  to  her 
memory,  with  the  inscription,  *'  Sterna  Fama."    The  jus- 
tice of  the^  high  praises  may  still  be  appreciated  by  It 
perusal  of  her  works  :    1.  "  Mirtilla,  favola  pastorale,*'  Ve- 
rona, 1588,  8vo,  and  often  reprinted.     She  is  said  to  hav^ 
begun  this  in  her  infancy,  but  it  does  not  appear  to  have 
been  very  successful  on  the  stage.     2.  **  Rime,**  MitaQy 
1601,  4to;   Paris,   1603,   l2mo,  &c.     Most  of  these  had 
appeared  in  various  collections,  and  there  are  others  of  her 
writing  in  **  Componimenti  poetici  delle  piu  illustriiima- 
trici  d'ogni  seculo,"  Venice,  172€,  )<2mo.     3,  ^*Lettere,** 
Venice,  1 607,  4to.     These  letters  are  mostly  on  love  sub- 
jects.' -  It  has  been  remarked  as  somewhat  singular  in  bib- 
liography^ that  the  dedication  of  this  work  to  the  duke  of 
Savoy,  as  well  as  the  title-page,  bears  date  1 607,  three  « 

A  N  D  R  E  I  N  I.  50t 

yeiirs  after  ihe  author's  death.  4.  "  Fragmenti  d^alcun^ 
scritture,*'  &c.  a  collection  of  i^agments,  dialogues,  &c,  oa 
love  subjects,  published  by  her  husband,  Venice,  1616,  the 
date  of  the  preface,  but  in  the  frontispiece,  1625,  8vo.  * 

ANDREINI  (John  Ba1»tist),  the  son  of  the  two  pre- 
ceding, was  born  at  Florence  in  1578,  and  was  also  a  cq** 
median,  and  wrote  several  pieces  for  the  theatre,  and  some 
poems.  They  once  had  a  temporary  reputation,  but  such 
as  have  survived  to  our  times,  are  indebted  to  particular 
circumstances,  independent  of  their  merit.  They  are  all  ia 
that  bad  style  of  Italian  poetry,  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
peculiar  to  the  school  of  Marino,  and  most  of  them,  in  the 
plot  and  conduct,  are  irregular  and  fantastic,  and  demon* 
strate  a  wretched  taste  in  the  public.  The  only  piece 
worthy  of  our  notice  is  his  "  Adamo,''  a  sacred  drama  ia 
five  acts,  with  chorusses,  &c.  Milan,  1613  and  1617,  with 
prints  designed  by  Carlo  Antonio  Proccachini,  a  celebrated 
landscape  painter  of  his  time,  and  of  the  school  of  the 
Carracci,  but  in  a  wretched  style,  paradise  being  repre-* 
sented  as  full  of  dipt  hedges,  square  parterres,  strait  walks, 
&c.  But  what  is  more  interesting,  Voltaire,  in  his  visit  to 
England  in  1727,  suggested  that  Milton  took  his  hint  of  the 
Paradise  Lost  from  this  drama.  This  obtained  little  credit 
at  the  time,  and  was  contemptuously  rejected  by  Dr.  John- 
son in  his  life  of  Milton.  Mr.  Hay  ley,  however,  has  re- 
vived the  question,  and  with  considerable  advantage  to 
Voltaire's  supposition,  and  it  seems  now  to  be  the  opinion 
that  the  coincidence  between  Andreini's  plan  and  Milton's 
is  too  great  to  be  the  effect  of  chance.  We  have  no  ac« 
count  of  Andreini's  death.  * 

ANDRELINI  (Public  Fausto),  or  Publius  Faustus 
Andrelinij[S,  a  modern  Latin  poet,  was  born  at  Forli,  in 
Romagnia,  about  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century. 
Having  composed  in  his  youth,  at  Rome,  four  books  of 
poetry  under  the  name  of  **  Amours,"  he  was  honoured 
with  the  poetic  crown ;  in  14S8  he  came  to  Paris,  and  the 
following  year  was  appointed  professor  of  poetry  and  phi« 
losophy,  and  Lewis  XII.  of  France  made  him  his  poet-lau-* 
reat  He  was  likewise  poet  to  the  queen.  His  pen,  how« 
fever,  was  not  wholly  employed  in  making  verses,  for  he 
wrote  also  moral  and  proverbial  letters  in  prose,  to  which 

*  Gen,  D»ct.—Moreri.-i— Biographic  Univerielle* 

>  BiogMi>hiei;iav«Nt9e.<^Hifl€y  «ad  S]nodnons>  lift  Of  Milton,^W«iWB's 
Etiayon  Pope. 

?«?  A.NDRELlNt. 

Beattis.<Ehenanu5  added  a  preface^  and  comm^trds  ttuittt 
f^  as  learned,  witty,  and  useful;  for  though^"  says^he, 
)^' this  author,  in  some  of  his  works,  after  the  manner  qf 
poets,  is  a  littJe  too  loose  and  wanton,  yet  here  he  appears 
like  a  modest  and  elegant  orator.*'  John  Arboreqs,  a  di- 
vine of  Paris,  published  comments  upon  theni.  Andreli- 
iii  wrote  also  several  poetical  distichs  in  Latin,  which  3vero 
printed  .with  a  commentary  by  Josse  Badius  Ascenscius, 
and  translated  verse  for  verse  into  French  by  one  Stephen 
Prive.  John  Paradin  had  before  translated  into  French 
stanzas  of  four  verses,  an  hundred  distichs,  which  Andreli- 
iu  had  addressed  to  John  Ruze,  treasurer-general  of  the 
finances  of  king  Charles  V.IIL  in  order  to  thank  him  for  a 
considerable  pension. 

The  poems  of  Andrelini,  which  are  chiefly  in  Latin, 
are  inserted  in  the  first  tome  of  the  "  Deliciae  poetarum 
Italorum.'*  Mr.  de  la  Monnoie  tells  us,  that  his  love- 
verses,  divided  into  four  books^  cptitled  "  Livia,"  from  the^ 
"name  of  his  mistress,  were  esteemed  so  fine  by  the  Roman 
academy,  that  they  adjudged  the  prize  of  the  Latin  elegy 
to  the  author. — It  is  upon  this  account,  that  when  he  printed 
his  Livia,  in  quarto,  at  Paris,  in  1490,  and  his  three  books 
of  Elegies  four  years  after,  in  the  same  city,  he  took' 
upon  him  the  title  of  poet-Uureat,  to  which  he  added  tha.t 
ot  "  poeta  regius  et,"  as  he  was  poet  to  Chai^les 
yilt.  Lewi*  XlL  aiid  queen  Anne  IV.  The  distichs  of 
Faustus  (continues  the  same  author)  are  not  above  two 
hundred^  ^tM  consequently  b.ut  a  very  small  part,  of  his 
poems,  since^  besides  the  four  books  of  Love,/ and  three 
books  of  Miscellaneous  Elegies,  there  are  twelve  Eclogues 
pi  his. printed  in  octavo,  in  1^49,  in  the  collection  of  thirty- 
eight  Bucolic  Poets,  published  by  Oporinus."  The  death 
of  Andrelini  is  placed  under*  the  year  1518.  The  letters 
which  he  wrote  in  proverbs  have  been  thought  worth  a  new 
edition  at  Helnistadt  in  1662,  according  to  that  of  Cologn 
of  1509.  The  manner  of  life  of  this  author  was  not  very 
exemplary;  yet. he  was  so  fortunate,  says  Erasmus,  that 
though  he  took  the  liberty  of  rallying  the  divines,  he  was 
"never  brought  into  trouble  about  it.  * 
"^  ANDREW  (surnamed  of  Crete,  because  he  was  bishop 
of  Aleria  in  that  isle ;  or  the  Jerusalemjte,  frorpi  hia 
having  retired  to  a  monastery  at  Jerusalem),  was  of  Da-^ 

"       ■  -        .» 

A  N' »  K  K  MT-  £09 

tuascitf^  and  died  in  the  year  720}  or,  according  to  others, 
iQ'723«  He  has  left  commentaries  on  some  books  of  scrip- 
ture, and  sermons.  Pere  Conibesis  gave  an  edition  of 
them,  with  a  Latia  translation,  a!nd  nbtes,  together  with  the 
works  of  St.  AmphiloGus  and  Methodicos,  Paris,  1644, 
folio. » 

■  ANDREW,  or  more  properly  ANDREA  PISANO,  an 
eminent  sculptor  and  architect,  was  born  at  Pisa  in  1270, 
at)L  time  when  Arnolfo  di  Lapo,  John  de  Pisa,  and  others, 
following  the  designs  of  Cimabue  and  Giotto,  had  renounced 
the  Gothic  style,  and  were  introducing  those  purer  models, 
which  promised  a  revolution  in  architecture,  sculpture, 
and  painting.  Andrea,  entering  into  their  ideas,  had 
some  peculiar  circumstances  in  his  favour,  as  at  that  time 
his  countrymen,  who  were  powerful  at  sea,  traded  with 
Greece,  and  brought  thence  ancient  statues,  bas-reliefs, 
and  valuable  marbles,  which  they  employed  in  the  orna- 
ment or  construction  of  their  public  edifices,  particularly 
the  cathedral  and  the  Campo  Santo.  By  studying  these, 
Andrea  acquired  a  portion  of  that  taste  which  was  after* 
wards  so  conspicuous  in  Donatello,  Brunelleschi,  and  Ghi- 
berti.  His  first  attempts  were  so  favourably  received,  that 
he  was  invited  to  Florence  to  execute,  from  the  designs  of 
Giotto,  the  sculptures  on  the  facade  of  St.  Marie  del  Fiore, 
the  most  magnificent  edifice  of  that  time.  He  began  with 
the  statue  of  Boniface  VHI.  the  protector  of  the  Florentines, 
which  he  followed  by  those  of  St.  Peter,  St.  Paul,  and 
other  saints.  In  1586,  when  it  was  determined  to  repair 
this  fayade  upon  a  more  modern  plan,  these  were  all  re- 
moved, and  when  that  design  was  not  approved  of,  they 
were  put  up  in  the  church  and  in  other  places,  and  some 
were  deposited  in  the  Poggio  imperiale,  a  country-house 
belonging  to  the  grand  dukes  of  Tuscany.  There  was  also 
a  Madona  and  two  angels  in  the  church  of  the  Misericordia, 
which  are  said  to  have  been  executed  by  Andrea  at  the 
same  time.  On  the  death  of  Arnolfo  di  Lapo,  the  re- 
public of  Florence  employed  Andrea  in  all  the  great  works 
constructing  in  their  territories*  As  an  engineer,  he  built 
the  fortifications  round  Florence,  wd  the  strong  castle  of 
Scarperia.  During  more  peaceable  times,  he  employed 
himself  in  making  figures  in  bronze  ;  and  the  Florentines, 
who  were  ambitious  of  rivalling  the  magnificence  of  the 

Vu  II.  P 

«i«  A  N  ]>  K^  E  \r, 

wcifttU  in  dwr  templet,  eoqriojred  bkn  to  •meMte  ^ 
£<»^ture  lof  lihe  gatCB  of  the  bAptistery,  from  4esigtt8  hj 
<ji«ttQ.  T/Kse  gates  imir  juxocdiiigly  ccMiieited  «ri£  ti&s<^ 
cetieffi,  refn'eseotijig  dae  ivfcole  history  of  Jkitm  «he  Baptist. 
The  cQfnfiQsitiosi  is  escellewt,  «uid  the  mttitudels  of  the 
figures  natural  and  expressive,  although  with  some  degree 
of  stilfeasBy  Ibuft  die  inint^te  part&  are  e^?0cuted  mth  great 
9iM.  These  gaAes,  svlucb  ^eve  begim  in  ISSl,  were 
fifiisbedy  poUriied,  and  gilt  in'  eight  years^  'and  at  first 
ti^are  fiiioed  at  the  principal  ««itniiK;e,  but  4^ey  were  after* 
wands  neisuyed  to  ooe  &i  the  eiAe  entranees,  where  they 
now  are,  and  the  admiinble  gates  of  Laurent  Ghiberti 
mbstitoiked  in  their  room.  Andrea  aiso  execula^  inlHronze 
the  tabernacle  of  San  Giovanm,  the  bas  retieft,  and  statues 
beiongiog  to  the  campanile  of  St.  Marie  del  Fiore,  atid 
{»any  others.  At  Venioe,  his  works  we,  the  sculpture  on 
the  &9ade  of  the  chuncfa  &i  St.  Mark ;  the  model  of  the 
h^Tt$tiery  of  Pistoia,  executed  in  13S7  ;  «id  the  tomb  of 
Cioo  d^Angibolgi ;  and  he  was  employed  in  many  fertifi- 
catbns  by  Gaukier  de  Brtenne,  duke  ef  Athens,  during 
his  usmnpation  at  Florence ;  bat  Andrea  did  not  suffer  by 
tbe  duke's  disgrace  tit  1S43 ;  «an4  <l3ie  Flerentities,  who 
looked  ooly  to  his  merit,  admitted  bm  a  ckhsen  of  Florence^ 
wfaeoe  be  died  iii  1345^  aod  was  b«nried  in  St.  Marie  del 
f^o«e.  His  son  Nino,  also  a  acvlptor  ef  ^^msidefvible  note, 
epecAed  a  monument  to  his  memory.  ^ 

AN3>«EW,  or  more  property  ANDREA  DEL  SAKTO, 
so  called  frasn  Aria  fiufaer^s  U-adle,  chat  of  a  tailor,  but  whose 
fatnily  oame  w&s  V&NUCCI,  was  bom  at  Florence  in 
14^B,  aad  at  fimt  ifistirttcl?ed  in  fats  airt  by  Barile,  a  mean 
painter,  with  whom  be  apetit  thpee  years,  at  the  end  of 
which  Bartte  placed  him  with  Peter  Cosily,  then  ac- 
QOUAted  (Hse  of  the  best  painters  in  Italy.  Under  farm,  he 
mode  astoniahiiig  pvofioieaey,  and  liis  abilities  .began  to  be 
adknowledged,  but  Ccmeaofs  morose  temper  obliged  him 
to  leavie  him,  and  secik  im^tniction  in  the  works  oif  otber 
artists.  As  he  had,  while  with  Cosimo,  employed  himself 
in  dksignioig  after  Viiict,  Raphael,  and  Buonaroti,  to  whose 
works  he  had  aecess  art  PJorence,  be  persisted  in  i3ie  same 
practice,  formed  an  adfmirable  taste,  and  excelled  his 
young  rivals  at  ikome  or  a;broad,  in  cortectati^ss,  coburitig, 
adid  kaowledipe  «f  his  art.    fiav-ing  contracted  a  fiiendshtp 

1 9i^,  IMwrtcde. 

^^  VtBJMi6i60  Blgio,  thiej  determined  to  li^e  together^ 
aod  paiatcd  a  great  many  works  in  the  churches  and  con«> 
vents  of  FJoveace,  jointly,  but  Audrea*tl  reputation  began 
lx>  predonuHatey  aad  seemed  fixed  by  hi«  representation 
ii£  the  preaching  of  St.  Johni  executed  for  the  Carmelites 
at  Florence,     Sooie  time  after  this,  he  went  to  Rome  to 
Atudy  the  models  of  art  in  that  city,  but  it  is  thought  he 
did  not  remain  there  long  enough  to  reap  all  the  benefit 
which  be  might.     The  excellence  of  his  pencU,  and  his 
power  of  imitation,  were  remarkably  displayed  in  the  copy 
be  made  of  Leo  X.  between  cardinal  Medici  and  cardinal 
Kofli,  the  head  and  hands  by  Raphael,  and  the  draperies 
by  Julio  Roamio*     The  imitation  was  so  exact,  that  Julio^ 
after  the  most  minute  inspection,  and  being  told  that  it 
w€m  a  copy,   could  not  distinguish  it  from  the  original* 
Hifr  superior  talents  might  have  raised  him  to  opulence^  if 
his  imprudence  had  not  reduced  him  to  shame  and  po« 
veity*     The  French  king,  Francis  I.  who  was.  extremely 
partial  to  his  works,  invited  him  to  his  court,  defrayed  the 
expeooes  of  his  journey,  and  made  him  many  valuable 
presents*     For  a  portrait,  only^  of  the  Dauphin,  an  infant, 
he  rec^red  tl^ee  hundred  crowns  of  gold,  and  he  piunted 
many  other  pictures  for  the  court  and  nobility,  for  ^ich 
he  wm  UberaHy  rewardedL     While  employed  oti  a  picture 
of  St.  Jerome,  f^r  the  queea  dowager,  he  received  letters 
from  his  wife,  soliciting  his  return  to  Florence,  and,  to 
indulge  her,  of  whom  he  was  excessively  fond,  he  asked^ 
and  obtained  a  £ftw  months  absence.     It  Was  on  this  occa* 
fion  that  the  king,  crnifiding  in  his  integrity,  made  him 
several  prineely  presents,  and  intrusted  him  with  large 
sums  of  money  to  purchase  statues,  paintiags,  &c. ;  but 
AfidfM  inafcead  of  executing  his  comtnission,  squandered 
away  not  only  his  own,  but  the  money  intrusted  to  him, 
Vccame  poor,  and  despised,  and  at  last  died  of  the  plague, 
ia  bis  forty^secoad  year,  abandoned  by  his  wife,  and  by 
ali  tliose  friends  who  had  partaken  of  bis  extravagance. 
Hia  principal  vForks  were  ait  Florence,  but  there  were  for* 
eierly  apecimens  in  many  of  the  palaces  and  churches  ijit 
ItaAy  wd   France.      AU  the   biographers  and  critics  of 
painters^  except  perhaps  BeMiiracci,  have  been  lavish  in 
Aeir  praises  of  Andrea.     Mr.  Fuseli,  in  his  much  improved 
edition  of  Filkington,   observes,  that,  on  .companng  the 
merits  of  his  works,  they  seem  to  have  obtained  their  full 
share  of  justice.     As  a  Tuscan,  says  that  judicious  critic, 

p  2 


212  ANDREW. 

the  suavity  of  hii  tone,  and  facility  of  practice^  contrast 
more  strikingly  with  the  general  austerity  and  elaborate 
pedantry  of  that  school*,  and  gain  him  greater  praise  than 
they  would,  had  he  been  a  Bolognese  or  Lombard.  It 
cannot,  however,  be  denied,  that  his  sweetness  sometimes 
borders  on  insipidity ;  the  modesty,  or  rather  pusillanimity 
of  his  character,,  checked  the  full  exertion  of  his  powers  5 
his  faults  are  of  the  negative  kind,  and  defects  rather  than 
blemishes.  He  had  no  notions  of  nature  beyond  the  models 
and  concentrated  all  female  beauty  in  his  Lucrezia  (his 
wife),  and  if  it  be  true  that  he  sacrificed  his  fortune  and 
Francis  I.  to  her  charms,  she  must  at  least  have  equalled 
in  form  and  feature  his  celebrated  Madonna  del  Sacco;^ 
hence  it  was  not  unnatural  that  ,the  prop<»rtto«s  of  Albert 
Durer  should  attract  him  more  than  those  of  Michael  An* 
gelo.  His  design  and  his  conceptions,  which  seldom  rose 
above  the  sphere  of  common  or  domestic  life,  kept  pace 
with  each  other  y  here  his  observation  was  acute,  and  his 
ear  open  to  every  whisper  of  social  intercourse  or  emotion. 
The  great  peculiarity,  perhaps  the  great  prerogative,  of 
Andrea  appears  to  be  that  parallelism  of  composition,  which 
distinguishes  of  his  historical  works,  seemingly  as 
natural,  obvious,  aad  easy,  as  inimitable.  In  solemn 
effects,  in  alternate  balance  of  action  and  repose,  he  excels 
all  the  moderns,  and  if  he  was  often  unable  to  conceive 
the  actors  themselves,  he  gives  them  probability  and  im- 
portance, by  place  and  posture.  Of  costume  he  was-  ig» 
norant,.  but  none  ever  excelled,  and  few  approached  him 
in  breadth,  form,  and  style  of  that  drapery  which  ought 
to  distinguish  solemn,  grave,  or  religious  subjects.  * 

ANDREW,  or  ANDREAS  (Tobias),  professor  of  his- 
tory and  Greek  at  Groningen,  was  born  at  Braunfels,  in 
the  county  of  Solms,  August  lOth,  1604.  His  father  was 
minister  to  count  de  Solms-Braunfels,  and  Inspector  of 
the  churches  which  belong  to  that  county,  and  his  mother^ 
daughter  to  John  Piscator,  a  famous  professor  of  divinity 
at  Herborn,  in  the  county  of  Nassau.  He  performed  his 
faumanity^atudies  at  Herborn,  and  then  studied  philosophy 
at  the  same  place,  under  Alstedius  and  Piscator,  after 
which  he  went  to  Bremen,  where  he  lived  seven  years. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  constant  auditors  of  Gerard  de 
Neuville,  a  physician  and  a  philosopher ;  and,  as  he  had 

S  FUkin^on.  «-*y atari ~Abreg4  des  Vies  d«8  Peiatrts,  toL  I|-^&c. 

A  N  D.R  E  W.  213 


a  desire  to  attain  a  public  professorship^  he  prepared 
himself  for  it  by  several  lectures  which  he  read  in  phi- 
losophy*  He  returned  to  his  own  countr}^  in  1628,  where  he 
did  not  cpntinue  long,  but  went  to  Groningen,  on  the, 
invitation  of  his  kind  patron,  Henry  Alting.  He  read 
there,  for  iiome  time,  lectures  upon  all  parts  of  philosophy, 
after  which  Alting  made  him  tutor  to  his  sons,  and  when 
they  had  no  longer  occasion  for  his  instruction,  he  procured 
him  the  same  employment  with  a  prince  Palatine,  which 
lasted  for  three  years ;  part  of  which  he  spent  at  Leyden, 
and  part  at  the  Hague,  at  the  court  of  the  prince  of 
Orange.  He  was  called  to  Groningen  in  1634,  to  succeed 
Janus  Gebhardus,  who  had  been  professor  of  history  and 
Greek.  He  filled  that  chair  with  great  assiduity  and  re- 
putation till  his  death,  which  happened  October  17,  1676. 
He  was  library-keeper  to  the  university,  and  a  great  friend 
to  Mr.  Des  Cartes,  which  he  shewed  both  during  the  life 
and  after  the  death  of  that  illustrious  philosopher.  He 
married  the  daughter  of  a  Swede,  famous,,  among  other 
things,  for  charity  towards  those  who  suffered  for  the  sake 
of  religion. 

His  friendship  for  Des  Cartes  was  occasioned  by  the 
law-suit  against  Martin  Schoockius,  professor  of  philosophy 
at  Groningen.  This  professor  was  prosecuted  by  Mr.  Des 
Cartes,  for  having  accused  him  publicly  of  Atheism. 
Though  Mr.  Des  Cartes  had  never  seen  our  Andreas  but 
once  in  his  life,  yet  he  recommended  tlus  affair  to  him, 
from  the  attachment  which  he  professed.  Mr.  De  la 
Thuillerie,  ambassador  of  France,  and  the  friends  of  Mr. 
Dts  Cartes^  exerted  themselves  on  one  side,  and  the  ene- 
mies of  Voetius  at  Groningen  on  the  other ;  and  by  this 
means  Mr.  Des  Cartes  obtained  justice.  His  accuser 
acknowledged  him  to  be  innocent  of  his  charge,  but  was 
allowed  to  escape  without  punishment.  He  also  wrote  in 
defence  of  him  against  a  professor  of  Leyden,  whose  name 
was  Revius,  and  published  a  vigorous  answer  to  him  in 
1653,  entitled  ^^  Methodi  Cartesian-de  Assertio,  opposita 
Jjgicobi  Revii,  Praef.  Methodi  Cartesianae  considerationi 
Theolcgicae."  The  second  part  of  this  answer  appeared 
the  year  following.  Rewrote,  likewise,  in  1653,  in  de-* 
fence  of  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Des  Cartes  upon  a  Programma, 
which  contained  an  explication  of  the  human  mind.  He 
taught  the  Cartesian  philosophy  in  his  own  house,  though 
his  professorship  did  not  oblige  him  to  that,  and  even  whea 

. «» 

914  ANDREW. 

hit  «ge  bad  quite  weakened  him.  Sudi  weft  Ae  prei* 
judicei  of  tk^t  age»  timt  De»  MareU,  who  acquMM 
us  with  these  particuUrv,  mentiona  a  Swisa  student, 
who  dared  not  veuture  to  attend  upoa  Ibe  |ihik>9ophyeal 
lectures  of  Tobiaa  Aiicbreas,  for  fear  it  should  be  known  in 
)ua  own  country,  and  be  an  obstacle  to  his  promotion  to 
the  ministry.  ^  . 

ANDR£W»  orANDREE  (YvcsMaby),  aFreneh  Je* 
in^t,  born  May  2S,  1615^  at  Cb&teaabn  in  the  coiote  do 
CoruouaiUesi  the  countiy  which  produced  tbe  pere 
Ardoiiin,  and  p^e  Bougeamt,  and  like  them  was  vecaeived 
Into  the  ordef  of  Jesoita.  He  settled  himself  at  Caen,  in 
the  chair  of  professor  regins  of  the  mathematicsy  wbieli 
be  filled  from  1700  to  MSB;  when,  having  attained 
the  age  of  eigfai^^-foiiry  he  found  it  neeeasary  to  seek  rer 

Sose.  His  laborkius  I^  was  terminated  Feb.  B€,  1764^ 
[ature  had  endowed  him  with  a  happy  constitution,  and 
be  preseryed  iit  unimpaired  by  the  regularity  of  his  Kfe, 
and  the  gaiety  of  bis  temper,  No  qiecies  of  literaftwre 
W<ia  foreign  to  him;  be  snccieeded  in  tbe  a»atbematiea| 
chair,  and  be  wrote  lively  and  elegant  verses ;  but  be  ia 
ebie&f  known  by  *^  Essai  sur  le  Beau/'  of  which  a  i>ew 
edition  was  given  in  tbe  collection  of  bis  wovka  in  1766, 
$  vols*  12m0v  edited  by  the  abb6  Guyot.  '  It  is  com* 
posed  with  order  and  taste,  has  noveky  in  its  suiagect,  ^^ 
Bjuty  in  its  slyle,  and  force  enough  in  its  argument.  Muek 
psteem  ia  bestowed  on  bis  <^  Traite  sur  PHomme,*'  in  wllick 
be  pbiloflopbises  concerning  the  union  of  tbe  soul  witb  the 
bodyv  in  a  manner  which  made  bim  be  suspected  ef  an 
ina^virattng  iq^irit.  He  was  a  great  admirer  of  Matlebranebe^ 
atid  cerreaponded  witis  bim  for  many  yeafc.  ^ 

ANDREWS  (Jamis  Pettit),  a  miscellaneous  writer  ef 
aensiderable  learning  and  talents,  was  tbe  younger  sen  ef 
Joseph  Andrews,  esq.  of  Shaw-bouse,  near  Newbury^ 
Berks,  and  was  bpm  therein  1737.  He  was  educated  by 
a  pirivate  tutor^  die  rev.  Mr.  Matthews,  rector  qf  Shaw,^ 
to  Barks,  and  early  distinguished  himself  by  bis  appliea- 
tion  IQ  li^rature  and  the  fine  arts.  At  the  age  of  eighteei^ 
or  Aineteen,  he  went  inte  tbe  Berkshire  militia,  on  tbe 
fifnt  calUug^  out  of  that  body  of  men,  and  held  tbe  rank  ef 
lieulieoaut  mwtil  tbe  regiment  was  disbanded. 

His  ficatpublscat^oa^  was  a  work  of  unoprnmon  plMsamtry 
sM  bnoBQwr,    It  waa  entitled  ^*  Anecdotes  ancient  awl 

I  Oen.  Diet— Moreri.  $  Biog,  UmTenellc.— Diet  Hist 

A  N  D  R  £  W  Si  »n 

iMd9i%  ivitb  oliterralaQM,'*  1789^  Svo^  and  «^  tfuppfo^ 
mei»t  to  it^  1790.  Tfaia  tviem  rafiidlf  dMnoogh  stn^eMfl 
6dkioai»<;  pfeiixtfd  ia  a  portorMe,  bearing  mnm  ftstinbta«i<se 
Ifl  bimedf,,  of  ar  msjt  disbtlliii^  anecdotea  from  an  nkemlMe. 
Ttm  waa  dcwigKd  hy  Mr.  AadraxM,  dramnn  by  Grinmy  aiMl 
aBg^vied  by  Maoby.  Tbe  yolttme  k  inacribtd  no  kk 
brother,  sir  Joseph  Andrews,  and  he  ackoacvAcdgaa  ISMMimg 
iteeiired  aisistanvi}  from  Mr.  Pye,  ite*  pment  lacn^t, 
d^taaiBi  Grwey  and  advert,  in  th&  Maassyem  he  i«  said^^ 
bat  vro-  belkte  wkboiit  aathovitjr,  ti»  ha«e  wntten;  a  sifittH 
paaa^lc^  eotMed.  ^  Adsviee  tia  tbr  Prince  of  Wale^'* 
Hid  ^ext  worii  waa  entitled.  *^  The  Hiaiorj  of  Gaeaa  Britain, 
eoiiBeetedi  wkir  tbe  CbeoRologj  of  Extiope ;.  with  notes-, 
&c.  containing  anecdotes  of  the  times,  lives  of  tAM 
laarnod^  and  ipeciaiens  of  thek  aiorbf,  toK  I.  from 
Cttaar'a  mvasion  to  die  dcposltiont  and  daaib  of  RtabMsdi  II.'* 
1794y  4tiOL  in  diia  wosk  he  proved  Umsetf  a  nerf  MeiBt* 
rate  and  indiisttrious  coUaotor  of  facti,  the  saanlt  of  a  long 
canraa  of  diligent  leftdiAg.  Thromghant  the*  paai  of  tbe 
wofb  wbieb  ia  sudctiy  bistorieal^  the  bbnorres*  of  England 
and.  of  tbe  rest  of  Earopff-  axe  eavried.  on  eoHaterally,  a 
caatain  portioii  of  tbe  former  being  grven  ia  ooa  page,-  ai^ 
a  corresponding  portion  of  the  latter  on  the  opposite  page; 
The  Engitab  story  ia  coticisely  teld,  with  a  careful  attention 
to  the  inaeation  of  minute  cireaantancea.  The  ^^rre- 
spooding  page  of  general  cbvonology  ia  extended^  to  com-* 
IMPebend  tbe  annala  of  every  European^  siate^  bat  aefctboi 
waadara  into  odier  paat&  ef  tbe  globe,  except  when  led 
by  eireomatanees  eloseLy  connected ^vith  the  affiuvs'of  Eu^ 
rope.  In  order  to  condense  as  much  matter  a».  possible 
into  his  'vohime,  he  carefully  avoida  unneceasairy  am^bfiu 
catioiiy  and  expreaaes  himself  with  a  happy,,  yet  forcible 
brevity.  The  netea  coutaia  a  greait  vaviety  of  otuious^and 
aauiaing  particulars  net  imraediatelf^  comiected  witb  die 
tnain  sixMpy.  To  tbe  bistloncal  uarrajtive  are  addady  at  proper 
intervals,  appendixes  of  tmo'  kinda;  the  firsts  containing 
a^ttcma  of  auchi  incidente  aa  could  not  properly  be*  thrown 
inter  tbe  notes,  and  biogBapbieal  sketches  of  diatinguished! 
Baitiah  writers,  widi  speciaena  of  poetieal  productions  ;< 
tbe  second  presenting  an<  analysia  of  the  times,  under  the 
reapectlve  heads  of  religion,,  government,  inanaers,  arts, 
sciences^  binguage^  conuneme,  &c.  There  ave^  oth^r  ar* 
nngvments  auio|£eAby  the  aotbor,.  which  render  the  work 
not  less  useful  for  reference^  than<  for  continued  reading; 
ia  1795^  be  puUithed  a  second  volume,  or  radier  a  ae* 

21S  A  N  DREW  S/ 

cond  part  to  to].  I.  continuing  his  plan  from  *^  Tbe  depo« 
^ition  and  death  of  Richard  II.  to  the  accession  of  Edward 
VI.^'  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  he  did  not  live  to 
complete  this  plan.  It  may^  indeed,  be  undertaken  by 
another,  but  there  is  always  a  certain  portion  of  enthu- 
siasm in  the  original  contriver  of  a  scheme,  which  it  is  im- 
possible to  impart 

Mr.  Andrews  appears  to  have  been  for  a  time  diverted 
from  his  own  work,  by  being  engaged  to  continue  Henry^s 
-History  of  Great  Britain,  which  was  published  accordingly, 
in  1796,  in  one  volume  4to,  and  2  vols.  8vo,  and  formed 
an  useful  supplement  to  the  labours  of  the  Scotch  his- 
torian, but  one  more  corresponding  to  Henry^s  plan  is  yet 

Besides  these  elaborate  works,  Mr.  Andrews  displayed 
his  antiquarian  knowledge  in  <'  An  account  of  Saxon  Coips 
found  in  Kintbury  church-pyard,  Berks,^'  which  was  printed 
in  the  7th  volume  of  the  ^chaeologia  ;  ^^  The  account  of 
Shaw,'*  in  Mr.  Mores's  Berkshire  Collections.  He  translated 
also  **  The  Savages  of  Europe,'*  a  populstr  F^nch  novel, 
illustrated  with  prints  from  his  own  designs.  To  the  Gen- 
tleman's Magazine  he  was  a  very  liberal  and  intelligent 

On  the  institution  of  the  new  system  of  London  police, 
Mn  Andrews  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for 
the  district  of  Queen's  square  and  St.  Margaret's  West- 
minster, and  discharged  the  duties  of  that  office  with  great 
industry  and  integrity,  until  his  death,  which  happened 
at  his  bouse  in  London,  August  6,  1797,  in  his  sixtieth 
year,  He  was  buried  at  Hampstead.  He  marrried  Miss 
Anne  Penrose,  daughter  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Penrose,  late 
rector  of  Newbury.  By  this  lady,  whom  he  survived 
'  twenty  years,  he  had  two  spns  and  a  daughter :  one  of 
the  former  is  dead ;  th^  other  in  1800  succeeded  to  the 
title  and  estates  of  his  uncle,  sir  Joseph  Andrews,  bart 
a  man  of  a  most  amiable  and  exalted  character. 

Since  writing  the  above,  we  learn  from  Mr.  Lysons's 
Supplement  to  bis  "  Environs,"  that  Mr.  Andrews's  first 
publication  was  a  humane  pamphlet  in  behalf  of  the  chim- 
ney-sweepers'apprentices,  in  1788,  which  led  to  the  act 
of  parliament,  passed  not  long  afterwards,  for  the  purpose 
of  meliorating  their  condition,  Mr.  Andrews  had  a  large 
circle  of  literary  acquaintance,  who  frequently  met  at  his 
hospitable  table,  at  Brompton-row,  in  the  parish  of  Ken- 
sington, where  he  resided  many  years ;  and  he  had  the 

A  N  B  n  E  W  S.  dif 

happiness  of  being  able  to  enjoy  his  friends  and  his  library^ 
which  contained  a  very  valuable  and  entertaining  collection 
of  books,  almost  to  the  last  moment  of  his  existence^  ^ 

ANDEEWS  (Lancelot),  an  eminent  divine,  and  bishop 
of  Winchester  in  the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  waa 
born  at  London,  in  1555,  in  the  parish  of  AUhallowa 
Barking,  being  descended  from  the  ancient  family  of  the 
Andrews  in  Suffolk.  He  had  his  education  in  grammar- 
learning,  first  in  the  Coopers'  free-school  at  Ratcliff  uader 
Mr.  Ward,  and  afterwards  in  Merchant  Taylors^  school  at 
London,  under  Mr.  Mulcaster.  Here  he  made  such  a  pro« 
ficiency  in  the  learned  languages,  that  Dr.  Watts,  resident 
tiary  of  St  PauPs,  and  archdeacon  of  Middlesex,  who  about 
that  time  had  founded  some  scholarships  at  Pembroke  hall 
in  Cambridge,  sent  him  to  that  college,  and  bestowed  on 
him  the  first  of  those  exhibitions.  After  he  had  beea 
three  years  in  the  university,  his  custom  was  to  come  up 
to  London  once  a  year,  about  Easter,  to  visit  his  father 
and  mother,  with  whom  he  usually  stayed  a  month ;  during 
which  time,  with  the  assistance  of  a  master,  he  applied 
himself  to  the  attaining  some  language  or  art,  to  ^hich  he 
was  before  a  stranger :  and  by  this  means,  in  a  few  yeajr% 
he  had  laid  the  foundation  of  all  the  arts  and  sciences,  and 
acquired  a  competent  skill  in  most  of  the  modern  lan« 
guages.  Having  taken  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  he 
was,  upon  a  vacancy,  chosen  fellow  of  his  college,  in  pre- 
ference upon  trial  to  Mr.  Dove,  afterwards  bishop  of  Peter- 
borough.  In  the  mean  time  Hugh  Price,  having  founded 
Jesus  college  in  Oxford^  and  hearing  much  of  the  fame  of 
young  Mr.  Andrews,  appointed  him  one  of  his  first,  or 
honorary  fellows  on  that  foundation.  Having  taken  the 
degree  of  master  of  arts,  he  applied  himself  to  the  study 
of  divinity,  in  the  kuowledge  of  which  he  so  greatly  ex- 
celled, that  being  chosen  catechist  in  the  college,  and  hav-» 
ing  undertaken  to  read  a  lecture  on  the  Ten  Commaud^ 
ments  every  Saturday  and  Sunday  at  three  o'clock  in  the 
Itfternoon,  great  numbers  out  of  the  other  colleges  of  the 
university,  and  even  out  of  the  country,  duly  resorted  to 
Pembroke  chapel,  as  to  a  divinity  lecture.  At  the  same 
time,  he  was  esteemed  so  profound  a  casuist;  that  he  was 
often  consulted  in  the  nicest  and  most  difficult  cases  of 
conscience  ;  and  his  reputation  being  established,  Heniy, 
earl  of  Huntingtouj^  prevailed  upon  him  to  accompany  him 

>  Gent.  Mag.  1797  and  1801.*— Lysons^s  Sapplement  to  KoTiroDS,  1811. 

OTS  A  >r  D  R  E  W  ». 

kvio  the  Kortk,  of  which  he  was  president ;  Inhere,  by  his 
^igent  preaching,  and  pmate  conferences,  in  which  he 
used  a  due  mixtiife  of  zeal  and  moderation,  he  converted 
■everal  ? ecusaDts,  priests,  as  well  as  others,  to  the  prates- 
taAt  reUgion.  From  that  time  be  began  to  be  taken  notice 
of  by  sir  Franeis^  .Walsittgham,  secretary  of  state  to  queen 
Efizabesh.  Thai  minister,  who  was  unwtUiiTg  so  flne  a 
geniutf  should  be  buried  in  the  obsetirity  of  a  country  bene^ 
fiee>  bis  intent  being  to  make  him  reader  of  controversies 
in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  assignerd  him  for  his  m^n.* 
tenance  the  lease  of  the  parsonage  of  Alton  in  Hampshire, 
and  afterwards  procured  for  btra  the  vicarage  of  St.  Giles's, 
Cripplegate,  in  London.  Afterwards  he  was  chosen  a  pre- 
bendary and  residentiary  of  St.  PanPs,  aff  also  pilebendary 
of  the  collegiate  church  of  Sontbwell.  Betng  thus  pre- 
ferred to  his  own  contentment,  he  distinguished  hhnself  as 
a  diligent  and  excellent  preacher,  acnd  read  divinity  lectures 
three  times  a  week  at  St  Paul's,  in  term  time.  Upon  the 
death  of  Dr.  Fulke,  he  was  chosen  master  of  Pfembroke- 
ball,  of  which  he  had  been  scholar  and  fellow^  a  place  of 
more  hononr  than  profit,  as  he  spent  more  upon  it  than  he 
reeeived  from  it,  and  was  a  considerable  benefactor  to  that 
c^lege.  He  was  appointed  one  of  the  chaplains  in  ordi- 
nary to  queen  Elizabeth,  who  took  such  delight  in  his 
preaching,  that  she  first  made  him  a  prebendary  of  West- 
minfiter,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Richard  Bancroft  promoted  to 
the  see  of  London  ;  and  afterwards  dean  of  that  church,  in 
the  room  of  Dr.  Gabriel  Goodman  deceased.  But  he  re- 
fused to  accept  of  any  bishopric  in  this  reign,  because  hcs 
wo^ld  not  basely  submit  to  an  alienation  of  the  episcopal 
f^evenwe  *.  Dr.  Andrews  soon  grew  into  far  greater  esteem 
ivitb  her  successor  king  James  I.  who  not  only  gave  him 
the  preference  to  all  other  divines  as  a  preacher,  but  like- 
wise made  choice  of  him  to  vindixrate  his  sovereignty 
against  the  virulent  pens  of  his  enremtes.  His  majesty 
halving,  in  his  ^^  Defence  of  the  rights  of  Kings,**  asserted 
the  authority  of  Christian  princes  over  causes  and  persons 
fleclesiastieaU  cardinal  Bellarmin,  under  the  name  of  Mat- 
thew Tortus^  attacked  him  with  great  vehemence.  The 
king  requested  bishop  Aifdrews  tp  answer  die  cardinal, 
whi^h  he  did  with  ffent  spirit  and  judgment,  in  a  piece 

f  6e«  Ml'  aiK««r  to  a  letter  writteii!  and  the  Mvewiti  theno(,  4tD  pam^ 
at  Oxford,  and  superscribed  to  Dr.  phiet,  paf  e  33.  Cranger,  rolume  I, 
Samael Turner,  coocerains  tM  (burdi     page  347. 

A  N  DILE  W  a.  819 

enddeA  m  ToftiBra  Torii :  st?e,  ad  MatdiflBi  Torti  librviin 
yespoiwio^  qui  nuper  editus  contra  .A^iokigiMn  •tfenissiaii 
potentiflBimique  priocifns  Jacobiy  Dei  gratia  Maglftv  Bri* 
p^nmf  Franei»,  &  Hiberaise  Regu»  pro  jurainetito  fide* 
litatis/'     It  was  printed  at  London  by  Hoger  Barker,  the 
thing's  printer^  in  1609,  in  (jitarto,  contaiiiing  402  pages; 
and  dedicated  to  the  king.    The  aubMuice  of  what  the 
biflhop  advances  in  this  treatise,  with  great  strength  of  rea^ 
flOB  and  evidence,  is,  thai  kings  have  power  both  to  caH 
synods  and  confirin  them ;  and  to  do  all  other  tlmgs,  which 
the  eiajperoBs  heretofore  diligently  perforoied^  and  which 
the  bishops  of  those  times  willingly  acknowledged  of  right 
to  belong  to  them.     Casanbon  gives  this  work  the  charac- 
ter  of  being  written  with  great  accuracy  and  research;  That 
kiAg  nesLt  prooaoted  bin  to  the  bishopric  of  Cbsohester,  to 
whieh  he  was  consecrate^  November  3,  160iS.    At  the 
same  time  he  made  him  hia  lord  aknoner,  in  whioh  place 
0f  gteat  trust  he  behaived  with  singular  fidefety,  disposing 
0f  the  royal  bcsievolence  in  the  most  disinterested  mann^ 
and  not  availicig  himself  even  of  those  advantages  that  he 
might  legally  aod  fairly  have  taken.     Upoathe  vacancy  of 
the  bishopric  o£  Eiy^  he  was  advanced  to  that  see,  and 
aonsecvaled  SeptesG^ber  2fi,  1609.     He  was  also  nominated 
OBO  of  bis  majesty's  privy  coansellors  of  England;  and 
^terwards  of  Scottaad,  when  he  attended  the  King  in  hiv 
jotttfoey  to  that  kingdom.     After  he  had  sat  nine  years  in 
that  see,  he  waa  advanced  to  the  bishopric  of  Winchester^ 
and  deanery  of  the  king's  chapel,  February  18,  1618; 
viiieh  two  last  jproferments  he  held  till  his  deaths    This 
great  prelate  was  in  no  less  reputation  and  esteem  with, 
hioff  Charles  L  than  he  had  been  with  his  predecessors. 
At  length  he  departed  this  life^  at  Winchester*house  in 
Seuthwatk,  Septendier  25,  1626,  in  the  seventy-first  year 
af  his  age ;  and  was  buried  in  the  parish  cbutch  of  St.  Sa^ 
ittQar%  Sottthwarii ;  where  hia  enecutovs  erected  to  him  ^ 
vefy  fitiir  monument  of  marble  and  alabaster,  on  which  is 
aa  elegant  I^atiA  ioscriptioo,  written  by  one  of  his  chap- 
lains *• 

The  chaivicter  of  bishop  Andrews,  both  in  public  and 
private  bfe»  was  in  every  respect  great  aad  singular.  Hi» 
jBoatempoBariea  and  biographers  celebrate,  in  particnktr, 

*  Not  nauy  y«ari  ago,  hit  bones     and  hit  tilktn  cap,  were  taand  vmi^s 
«cre    dispersed,    to    maMe  rooni  for     cayed  in  the  remains  of  bis  coffin, 
I  GorpMi  J  apd  lie  Mr  of  biabaard. 

t29  ANDREWS. 

bis  ardent  zeal  and  piety,  demonstrated  not  only  in  his 
private  and  secret  devotions  between  God  and  bimseif,  in 
wbich  tbose,  who  attended  hini)  perceived,  tbat  he  daily 
spent  many  hours  ;  but  likewise  in  bis  public  prayers  with 
his  family  in  his  chapel,  wherein  he  behaved  so  humbly, 
devoutly,  and  reverently,  that  it  could  not  but  excite  others 
to  follow  his  example.  His  charity  was  remarkable  even 
before  he  came  to  great  preferments ;  for,  while  he  con- 
tinued in  a  private  station  of  life,  he  relieved  his'  poor 
parishioners,  and  assisted  the  prisoners,  besides  his  con- 
stant Sunday  alms  at  bis  parish  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate. 
But  when  his  fortune  increased,  his  charity  increased  in  pro- 
portion, and  he  released  many  prisoners  of  all  sorts,  who  were 
detained  either  for  small  debts  or  the  keeper*s  fees.  In  all 
his  charities,  he  gave  strict  charge  to  his  servants,  whom 
he  intrusted  with  the  distribution  of  them,  that  they  should 
not  acknowledge  whence  this  relief  came ;  but  directed, 
tbat  th^  acquittance,  which  they  took  from  the  persons 
who  received  such -relief,  should  be  taken  in  the  name  of 
a  benefactor  unknown.  Other  large  sums  he  bestowed 
yearly,  and  oftener,  in  clothing  the  poor  and  naked,  in 
relieving  the  necessitous,  and  assisting  families  in  the  time 
of,  the  infection,,  besides  his  alms  to  poor  housekeepers  at 
his  gate.  80  that  his  private  alms  in  his  last  six  years,  over 
and  above  his  public,  amounted  to  above  thirteen  hundred 
pounds.  He  left  in  his  will  four  thousand  pounds  to  pur- 
chase two  hundred  pounds  per  amium  in  land  for  ever,  to 
be  distributed  by  fifty  pounds  quarterly  in  the  following 
manner :  To  aged  poor  men,  fifty  pounds ;  to  poor  widows, 
the  wives  of  one  husband,  fifty  pounds ;  to  the  binding  of 
poor  orphans  apprentices,  fifty  pounds ;  and  to  the  relief 
of  poor  prisoners,  fifty  pounds.  Besides  he  left  to  be  di^ 
tributed  inunediately  after  his  decease  among  maid-ser- 
vants of  a  good  character,  and  who  had  seiTed  one  master 
or  mistress  seven  years,  two  hundred  pounds ;  and  a  great 
part  of  his  estate,  after  his  funeral  and  legacies  were  dis- 
charged, among  his  poor  servants.  To  this  virtue  of  his 
we  may  add  his  hospitality.  From  the  first  time  of  his 
preferment  to  the  last  moments  of  his  life,  he  was  always 
most  liberal  in  the  entertainment  of  persons  who  deserved, 
respect,  especially  scholars  and  strangers,  bis  table  being 
constantly  furnished  with  provisions  and  attendance  answer- 
aUe.  He  shewed  himself  so  generous  in  his  entertain- 
ments^and  so  gravely  facetious,  that  his  guiests  would  oft^ 



'  profess,  that  they  never  came  to  any  maif  s  table,  where 
they  received  more  satisfaction  in  all  respects.     He  was  at 
a  prodigious  expence  in  entertaining  all  sorts  of  people  in 
Scotland,  when  he  attended  king  James  thither;  and  it 
cost  him  three  thousand  pounds  in  the  space  of  three  days, 
wh^n  that  king  came  to  visit  him  at  Faniham  castle^  the 
principal  seat  belonging  to  the  bishopric  of  Winchester. 
He  was  unblemished  both  in  his  ordinary  transactions,  and 
in  the  discharge  of  his  spiritual  and  temporal  offices.     He 
was  always  careful  to  keep  in  good  repair  the  houses  of  all 
his  ecclesiastical  preferments,  particularly  ^he  vicarage-* 
house  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  the  prebend's  and  dean's 
bouses  of  Westminster,   and  the  residentiary's  house  of 
St.  Paul's.      He  spent  four  hundred  and  twenty  pounds 
upon  the  palaces  belonging  to  the  bishopric  of  Chichester  ; 
above  two  thousand  four  hundred  and  forty  pounds  upon 
that  of  Ely ;  and  two  thousand  pounds  upon  those  of  Win«« 
Chester,  besides  a  pension  of  four  hundred  pounds  per  an^ 
numy  from  which  he  freed  that  see  at  his  own  charge* 
With  regard  to  his  pastoral  and  episcopal  charge,  he  was 
the  most  exact  in  the  execution  of  it,  promoting,  as  far  as 
he  could  judge,  none  but  men  of  character  and  abilities  to 
the  livings  and  preferments  within  his  gift.     For  which 
purpose  he  took  care  beforehand  to  enquire  what  promising 
young  men  there  were  in  the  university ;  and  directed  his 
chaplains  to  inform  him  of  such  persons,  whom  he  encou- 
raged in  the  most  liberal  manner.   iHe  used  to  send  for 
men  of  eminent  learning,  who  wanted  preferment,  though 
they  had  no  dependance  upon  him,  nor  interest  in  him, 
and  entertain  them  in  his  house,  and  confer  preferment 
upon  them,  and  likewise  defray  their  charges  of  a  dispensa^ 
tio!^  or  faculty,  and  even  of  their  journey.     If  we  consider 
him  in  those  temporal  affairs,  with  which  he  was  intrusted, 
we  shall  find  hioi  no  less  faithful  and  just.     He  disposed  of 
very  considerable  sums,  which  were  sent  him  to  be  distri- 
buted among  poor  scholars  and  others  at  his  discretion, 
with  the  utmost  care,  and  exactly  agreeable  to  the  donor's 
intent*     Of  his  integrity  in  managing  those  places,   ic^ 
which  be  was  intrusted  for  others  jointly  with  himself, 
Pembroke*hall,  and  the  church  of  Westminster,  were  suf* 
ficient  evidences.     For  when  he  became  master  of  the 
fomier,  he  found  it  in  debt,  having  then  but  a  small  en- 
dowment; but  by  his  care  he  left  above  eleven  hundred 
t^ouads  in  the  treasury  of  that  college.    And  wheu  he  was 

£22  AKDE£WS. 

dean  of  the  lattisr,  he  left  it  free  itmn  all  ddbU  (ncl  0»» 
firoachflEientsr;  and  took  saoh  caureof  tke  sckool,  that  the 
Bchoixn  were  much  improFed  not  onljr  by  ius  direction  and 
supmntendance,  but  even  by  his  personal  laboura  among 
tbeai«  And  at  by  Tirtue  of  his  deanery  of  Weslniin«t«r| 
kirn  mastevship  of  Pembioke-hali^  and  hit  bishopric  of  Ely, 
the  election  of  scholars  into  Westaiinflter«school,  and  fvom 
thence  into  the  two  anivemtids,  and  of  many  fi<iK>lar6  and 
isllows  iBto  Pembrohe-liali;  some  in  Peter-bouse,  and  some 
in  Jesus  coUefie)  nvere  in  his  pofter  and  disposal^  he  was 
always  so  just,  that  he  waved  all  letters  from  great  per-* 
sonages  fior  insuftcient  seholaiSy  and  <ttv<ested  himself  of  ail 
partudity,  and  cfaoae  only  soch  as  he  thought  bad  most 
merit.  Beings  likewise  often  desited  to  assist  at  the  elec-^ 
tion  of  scholars  from  the  Free-schools  of  MercboTit  TViy* 
Ion,  St.  Panl's,  and  the  Mereer's,  and  peiuei^ing  £a?rdur 
and  interest  soaaetimes  overbadancing  merit  with  diose  to 
wimm  the  choiee  beiongedy  and  that  divers  good  schohnrs 
were  omitted,  and  others  prefenped,  he  freqm^dy  took 
care  of  soch  as  wsens  negleeted,  and  sent  them  to  the  uni» 
versity,  where  he  bestowed  preferment  upon  them.  Nor 
was  he  less  diiftinguished  for  his  fideMty  ki  dtat  great  place 
of  trust,  the  ahnonersbip.  He  never  would  suffer  any  part 
of  what  arose  to  him  from  that  place  to  be  mingled  with 
his  own  rents  or  revenues,  and  was  extremely  exact  in  dis^ 
posing  of  it.  When  he  found  a  surplus  over  and  above  the 
ordinary  chaifres,  he  distributed  it  in  t^e  relief  Of  the  ixK 
digent  and  distressed;  tlu^ugh  it  was  in  had  power  to  have 
applied  this  to  his  own  use  (his  patent  being  ^tue  com* 
puiojj  and  no  person  could  have  questioned  him  concern^ 
ing  it.  He  gave  a  neat  many  noble  instanees  of  his  gfa* 
titade  to  those  who  had  befriernded  trim  when  yeung.  -He 
bestowed  upon  Dr.  Ward,  son  to  bis  first  schooknasteVi 
the  living  of  Waitbam  in  Hampshire.  He  iftiewed  the 
greatest  regard  for  Mr.  Muleaster,  his  other  scbool^master, 
in  all  compaaiesi  and  always  pkeed  him  at  the  «pper  end 
of  his  taUe,  and  after  bis  death  caused  his^  picture  (though 
he  had  but  few  others  in  his  house)  to  be  set  over  his  stu^ 
door.  Besides  these  external  marks  of  gratitude  he  sup- 
plied his  necessities  privately  in  a  very  tiheral  manner,  and 
left  his  son  a  valuable  legacy.  He  inquired  very  careftMy 
after  the  kif^red  of  Dr.  Watts,  who,  sis  already  notided^ 
had  eent  him  to  Pembroke- haH,  and  having  found  out  one, 
he  conferred  upon  him  preferments  in  that  college.    Nor 

A  N  D  &  S  W  8.  22S 

did  laud  finget  hid  p»tfon  Dr.  WaUs  ip  hb  will;  fcr  lienor* 
dered  there,  that  oui  of  the  scholarships  of  hts  foondbitioiiy 
the  two  fellowships,  which  himself  had  founded  iu  diat 
coUege^.  shouUl  be  suppliedi  if  the  candidates  should  be 
fit  for  tbemu  T^  omit  the  legacies  which  he  left  to  the 
parish  of  i^.  Giles,  Chpplegate,  St.  Maitia,  Lndgmte,  where 
he  had  lived,  St.  Andrew's,  Holbom,  St.  iSavioiir's,  Sooth- 
warl^  Allhallows,  Barkiag,  wheve  he  wi»  bora,  and  oAers; 
he  gave  to  Peaibi;oJke-hAll  one  thouasad  pocinds  to  pur- 
chase lauds  for  two  fellowships,  and  for  other  uses  in  that 
college,  expressed  in  his  will ;  besides  three  hundred  such 
folio  books  of  hid  owu  as  were  ncH  in  the  librarj  there, 
with  sevecsl  other  valuable  gifts.  His  huaiaaiiy  extended 
to  every  person  who  conversed  with  htm  ;  so  that  he  was 
admired  Bot  only  by  the  men  of  learokig  and  others  in  this 
kiiig4oiQ,  but  even  by  foreigners  of  ihe  greatest  eminence, 
particuliu;ly  Coisaubon,  Cluverius,  Yossius,  who  cornespond^ 
^d  w'Uh  huaai  by  letters^  Gretius,  Peter  ^u  JVtouUn,  Barclay, 
the  author  of  the  Argtmif  and  Eqpeniust  to  .whom  he  of* 
f^ed  an  aanual  stipend  to  read  lectures  at  Gambndge  in 
the  oriieotal  tongues,  the  professors  of  which  he  encouraged 
very  liberaUy,  and  particularly  Mr.  Bedwell,  to  whem  he 
Lve  the  vicaragie  of  Totrerfiam  in  Middlesex.  His  mo- 
^sty  was  m  remiurkable,  that  though  the  whole  Christian 
world  admired  his  profound  learning,  and  particideirly  hia 
knowledge  of  the  es^tem  languages,  Greek,  Latin,  and 
many  modera  languages,  he  was  ae  far  from  being  elated 
with  the  opinion  of  it,  that  be  often  complained  of  his  de- 
fects 9  aoid  when  he  w«ts  pref^red  io  febe  bishopric  of  Chi- 
chesty,  amd  •  urged  )m  own  insufficiency  for  mieh  a  charge, 
be  caused  these  words  of  St.  Paul,  Et  idAtfc  qme  idonms  f 
i.  0.  ^^  And  who  is  s^ificient  for  these  things  f"  to  be  en« 
gi:aven  abwt  his  episcopal  seal.  One  imstanoe  of  his  mo^ 
de;sty  uMJ(ed  with  his  humanity  may  be  added,  that  afber 
bds  ohaplains  had  preached  in  bis  chapel  birfwe  him,  he 
would  aQmetimes  privately  request  them,  that  he  might 
have  a  sight  of  their  notes,  and  encourage  them  in  the 
kindest  tenns  imaginable^ 

Nor  did  he  in  the  highest  dftgnitaes,  wUch  he  posaetsed^ 
r^mit  of  hi^  applioation  to  aUidy.  Eneu  in  tbese  dag^s, 
when  it  aoiif  bt  hat^e  been  ««q>pofed  that  he  wooU  have  ee- 
laxod  fromh^s  former  dihgence^  yietirom  the  hour  hoTOio 
(his  prin^ale  devotaons  being  finiahed)  to  the  time  Jie  w«» 
c^d  t»  4iskv^g  which^  by  hb  onm  order,  iwas  not 

M  I 

S24  A  N  D  It  £  W  S, 

twelvie  at  noon  at  the  soonest,  he  continued  at  his  studie9| 
and  would  not  be  interrupted  by  any  who  came  to  speak 
to  him,  or  upon  any  occasion,  public  prayer  excepted  So 
that  he  would  be  displeased  with  scholars,  who  attempted 
to  speak  with  him  in  the  morning,  and  said^  that  he  doubt- 
ed they  were  no  true  scholars  who  came  to  speak  with 
hvax  before  noon.  After  dinner  for  two  or  three  hours 
space  he  would  willingly  pass  the  time,  either  in  discourse 
with  his  guests  or  other  friends,  or  in  dispatch  of  his  own 
temporal  aifairs,  or  of  those  who  by  reason  of  his  episco* 
pal  jurisdiction  attended  him.  Haying  discharged  which, 
he  returned  to  his  study,  where  he  spent  the  rest  of  the 
fiftemoon,  till  bed-time,  except  some  friend  engaged  him 
to  Supper,  and  then  he  ate  but  sparingly. 

He  had  a  particular  aversion  to  all  public  rices,  but  es^* 
pecially  to  usury,  simony,  and  sacrilege.  He  was  so  far 
from  the  first,  that  when  his  friends  had  occasion  for  such 
a  sum  of  money  as  he  could  assist  them  with,  he  lent  it  to 
them  freely,  without  expecting  any  thing  in  return  but  the 
principal.  Simony  was  so  detestable  to  him,  that  by  re- 
fusing to  admit  several  persons,  whom  he  suspected  to  be 
simoniacally  preferred,  he  suffered  much  by  law-suits, 
choosing  rather  to  be  compelled  to  admit  them  bylaw, 
than  voluntarily  to  ^ do  that  which  his  conscience  made  a 
scruple  of.  With  regard  to  the  livings  and  other  prefer-^^ 
ments  which  fell  in  his  own  gifts,  he  always  bestowed  them 
freely,  as  we  observed  above,  upon  men  of  merit,  without 
any  solicitation.  It  was  no  small  compliment  that  kin^ 
James  had  so  great  an  awe  and  veneration  for  him,  as  ia 
his  presence  to  refrain  from  that  mirth  and  levity  in  which 
he  indulged  himself  at  other  times.  What  opinion  lord 
Clarendon  had  of  him  appears  from  hence,  that,  in  men* 
tioniug  the  death  of  Dr.  Bancroft,  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, he  remarks,  that  ^^  if  he  had  been  succeeded  by 
bishop  Andrews,  or  any  man  who  understood  and  loved 
the  church,  that  infection  would  easily  have  been  kept  out 
which  could  not  afterwards  be  so-  easily  expelled.'*  Our 
great  poet  Milton  thought  him  worthy  of  his  pen,  and 
wrote  a  Latin  elegy  on  his  death. 

In  conversation,  bishop  Andrews  discovered  a  fatetiou^ 
turn,  which  was  not  more  agreeable  to  his  private  friends 
than  to  his  royal  master  James,  who  frequently  conversed 
very  freely  widi  the  learned  men  of  his  court.  In  all  pre- 
vious accounts  of  the  bishopi  a  story  to  this  purpose  has 

fllNDHirW&  S!25 

beett  t0M>  ftam  die  life  of  Waller^  wUch  we  ihM  imii  aiifS- 
|»rcfs8,  although  tbe  Isltter  pshrt  of  it  is  Imt  a  sorry  rtpartee 
4IH  the  part  of  the  monarch.':— Mr.  Walter  bating  been^ 
iciiteeii  into  the  last  parliament  of  king  ivme^  I.  in  which 
he  ietved  as  burgess  for  AgmondeshacB  in  Buc^ngfaam- 
lAlire,  and  that^  pai'tkbrient  being  dissalved,  on  tbe  day  df 
its  dissodation  ke  went  out  of  curiosity  or  respect  to  see  the 
Ung  sit  dinner^  with  vrhom  Were  our  bisbop  of  Winehest^^^ 
and  Dr.  N^al,  bishop  of  Darbam,  statiding  behind  tUe. 
kmg's  obaifi  There  happened  something  tiery  ex^raor^ 
dinary  in  the  eehversation  which  those  prelates  had  with 
the  l&ing,  on  wbieh  Mr.  Waller  often  reflected.  We  shali 
relate  it  a»  it  is  represented  in  his  hfe^  His  majesty 
ashed  tbe  btsbops,  *'  My  lords,  cannot  I  take  my  subject^ 
money  when  I  want  it,  withont  ail  this  formality  in  parlia* 
JDent?*^  Tbe  bishop  of  Dm'beim  readily  answered^  ^^  Ood 
foii>fd,  1^,  but  you  shasld;  you  are  the  breetth  q£  oifr- 
nostriW*^  Whefe^opon  the  king  turned,  and  said  tetiie 
lisfaop  of  Wincbestet,  "  Wdl,  my  lord,  what  saj  yen  ?*T 
**  Siry '  replied  tbe  bishop,  "  I  have  nof  skiU  to  judge  of 
pftiUdistet^i^  oases.' ^  The  king  an^swered^  '<  No  pu<Mxfis^ 
my  lord  ^  afiswer  me  p^esetitly."  ^^  Tbeny  sir,"  said  he^ 
**  I  think  k  lawful  fcft  you  tor  take  my  brother  NeaPs 
money,  for  he  offers  it."  Mr.  Waller  said  the  company 
itras  pteeteied  with  tbis  answer^  and  the  wit  of  it  seemed  to 
afieot  the  hitigi  For  a  eertain  lord  coteing  iw  so«>r  a^bei^ 
kM  mage^ty  etiei  out,  *^  O  nfiy  lord,  they  say  you  Lia  with 
my  lady.'*  **No,  sir,"  says  his  lordship  ih  confusion,  "  bojt 
I  like  her  o^ntp&fSy  because  she  has  so  much  wit."  '*  Why 
thc^'*  says  the  king,  ^^^  do  not  ^ou  liq  vi^itb  niy  lord  of 
Wkichen ter  there  ?' ' 

The  works  of  this  leanaed  prelate,  which  afe  tKm  best 
lMewi»,  are,  I.  *^A  yolMiie  of  ^rmotis,"  Londpn,  16^29^ 
9mA  \eil^  folio,  consksthig  of  fi^inety-si^,  upon  the  fteMr^ 
iis^ralsy  #r  M  tbe  ftiove  impe^ts^nft  doctrines  of  Ghri^ 
tiiteiity.  d>.  **  The  Moi^^  Law  eKpO'Mdedf,^  or  Lectcnres  on 
tbe  Ten  Commandments,  with  nineteen  S^itiM^  oh 
prayier/'  1649,  M.  S.  ^*  Collection  of  posthtvmous  and 
alrpmm  LeetMiresi  deKvet^d  m  St.  Paul's  and  St.  Gite#s,*'V 
LoAde\iy  1657^  M.  These  were  the  mostpof^bu;  of  adl 
his  productions,  and  although  very  exceptionable  in  point 
of  style,  accorcUng  to  the  modern  criteria  of  style,  they 
aiMNind  in  leaf  ned'  and  acute  Remarks,  and  are  by  no  mea^ 
so  full  bf  putt  dfnd  (juibbfe,  as  some  writers,  from  a  super-^ 

Vol.  IL  Q 

226  ANDRE 


ficial  Yxeif  of  them,  have  reported.  His  other  works  wer^ 
his  "  Manual  of  Devotions,"  Gr.  and  Lat.  often  reprinted^ 
and  translated  by  dean  Stanhope,  12mo;  and  several  Con* 
ciones  ad  Clerum,  or  other  occasional  sermons  preached 
before  the  university,  and  at  court — "  Responsio  ad  Apo«> 
logiam  CaBdinalis  Bellarmini,  &c."  1610,  4to. — "Theolo- 
gical determinations  on  Usury,  Ty  thes." — "  Rcsponsiones  ad 
Petri  Molina'.i  Epistolas  tres." — "  Stricturae,  or  a  brief 
Answer  to  the  eighteenth  chapter  of  the  first  booke  of  car* 
dinall  Perron's  Reply,  written  in- French  to  king  James  his 
Answer  written  by  Mr.  Casaubon  in  Latine." — "  An  Answer  to 
the  twentieth  chapter  of  the  fifth  book  of  cardinal  Perron's 
Reply,  written  in  French  to  king  James  his  Answer,  writ- 
ten by  Mr.  Cass^bon  to  the  cardinall  in  Latine." — "  A  Speech 
delivered  in  the  Starr-chamber  against  the  two  Judaicall  opi- 
nions of  Mr.  Traske.'*  The  two  Judaical  opinions  advanced 
by  Mr.  Traske  were,  1 .  That  Christians  are  bound  to  ab- 
stain from  those  meats,  which  the  Jews  were  forbidden  in 
Leviticus..  2.  That  they  are  bound  to  observe  the  Jewish 
Sabbath. — "  A  Speech  delivered  in  the  Starr-Chamber  con- 
cerning Vowes,  in  thecountesseof  Shrewesburiescase.'*  This 
lady  was  convicted  of  disobedience,  for  refusing  to  answer 
or  be  examined,  (though  she  had  promised  to  do  it  befote), 
alleging,  that  she  had  made  a  solemn  vow  to  the  contrary. 
The  design  of  > the  bishop's  speech  is  to  shew,  that  such 
vows  ^ere  unlawful,  and  consequently  of  no  force  or  obli» 
gation  upon  her.  These  pieces  were  printed  after  the 
author's  death  at  London  by  Felix  Kyngston,  in  1629,  4to, 
and  dedicated  to  king  Charles  L  by  Dr.  William  Laud 
bishop  of  London,  and  Dr.  John  Buckridge  bishop  of  Ely.* 
ANDROMACHUS,  a  native  of  the  island  of  Crete,  and 
physician  to  the  emperor  Nero,  A.  D.  65,  has  been  handed 
down  to  posterity,  as  the  inventor  of  a  medicine  named 
theriaca,  which  is  now  deemed  of  little  use.  It  however 
set  aside  the  mithridate^  which  till  then  had  been  held  in 
great  esteem.  Andromachus  wrote  the  description  of  his 
antidote  in  elegiac  verse,  which  he  dedicated  to  Nero*. 
His  son,  of  the  same  name,  wrote  this  description  in  prose. 
Damocrates  turned  it  into  Iambic  verse  in  a  poem,  which 
he  wrote  upon  Antidotes.     Galen  informs  us  that  Andro^ 

Unea  Cunotdy  voi  II.  p.  19,  ^0,  &c.-<-Coie'i  MS  Athens  ia  Brit  Mus. 


N^  R  O 

M  A  C  H  U  S.  227 

machus  the  father  wrote  a  treatise  '^  De  Medicamentis 
Compositis  ad  afFectus  externos,'*  and  that  he  was  a  man  of 
great  learning  and  eloquence.  Erotion  dedicated  his 
Lexicon  to  him,  and  some  writers  say  he  was  a  good  astro- 
loger.    He  was  the  first  who  bore  the  title  of  archiater. ' 

ANDRONICUS,  of  Rhodes,  a  peripatetic  philosopher, 
lived  at  Rome  in  the  time  of  Cicero,  69  years  before  the 
Christian  sra.  He  was  the  first  who  made  the  works  of 
Aristotle  known  at  Rome,  which  Sylla  had  brought  thither. 
He  had  formerly  been  a  professor  of  philosophy  at  Athens, 
but  quitted  it  when  the  taste  for  philosophy  departed  from 
that  city.  There  is  a  work,  of  doubtful  authority,  ascribed 
to  him,  entitled  "  Andronici  Rhodii  et  Ethicorum  Nicho- 
macheorum  Paraphrasis,'^  Greek  iand  Latin,  Cambridge, 
1679,  8vo,  a  very  scarce  book,  and  one  of  the  authors 
"  cum  notis  variorum?^  There  is,  however,  a  Leyden 
edition  of  1 6 1 7,  which  is  reckoned  more  correct.  St.  Croix", 
in  his  "  Examen  des  Historiens  d' Alexandre,"  says  that 
there  is  a  manuscript  in  the  imperial  library  of  Paris,  which 
ascribes  this  work  to  Heliodorus  of  Pruza,  * 

ANDRONICUS,  of  Thessalonica,  was  one  of  the  Greek 
refugees  who  brought  learning  into  the  West  in  the  fif- 
teenth century.  He  was  considered  as  the  ablest  pro- 
fessor next  to  Theodorus  Gaza,  and,  perhaps,  he  exceeded 
him  in  the  knowledge  of  the  Greek  tongue,  for  he  had  read 
all  the  authors  in  that  language,  and  was  well  skilled  in 
Aristotle's  philosophy.  He  taught  at  Rome,  and  lived  with 
cardinal  Bessarion..  The  stipend  which  was  given  him  was 
lio  small,  that  be  was  obliged  by  poverty  to  depart  fronv 
Rome;  upon  this  he  went  to  Florence,  where  he  was  a 
professor  a  long  time,  and  had  a  vast  number  of  auditors, 
but  upon  the  expectation  of  meeting  with  more  generous 
encouragement  in  France,  he  took  a  journey  thither,  where 
.he  died  in  1478,  in  a  very  advanced  age.' 

ANDRONICUS,  of  Cyresthes,  a  Greek  architect,  is 
celebrated  for  having  constructed  at  Athens  the  Tower  of 
die  Winds,  an  octagon  building,  on  each  of  the  sides  of 
which  was  a  figure,  in  sculpture,  representing  one  of  the 
winds.  He  named  them  Solanus,  Eurus,  Auster,  Africa^ 
iius^,  Favonius,  Corns,  Septentrio,  and  Aquilo.  On  the 
top  of  this  tower  was  a  small  pyramid  of  marble,  which 

^  Haller  Bibl  Med.  Pract.— Gen.  Diet. 

>  Gen.  D1ct^— Biog.  UDiTerseHe.-<^Faliric.  Bibl.  Gr.-*Saxli  Oapmasticon. 

» Ibid. 

a  2  - 

228  andbonicIjs. 

supported  a  pie^e  of  meehanism  somewhat  like  the  modem 
weathercock.  It  conaif ted  of  a  brass  Triton,  wbieh  tufoed 
on  a  pivot,  and  pointed  with  its  rod  to  the  side  of  the  tower 
on  which  was  represented  the  wind  that  then  happened  to 
blow.  From  the  bad  style  of  the  architecture  oi  the  figure^ 
it  is  supposed  to  have  been  ccmstructed  posterior  to  the 
time  of  Pericles.  Being  built  of  large  blocks  of  marble  it 
has  withstood  the  ravages  of  time,  and  the  upper  part  only 
is  destroyed,  but  the  whole  has  sunk  about  twelve  feet. 
As  each  of  the  sides  had  a  sort  of  dial,  it  is  cosjecla»ed 
that  it  formerly  contained  a  clypsedra,  or  water-clock. 
The  roof  was  of  marble,  shaped  in  the  form  of  tiles,  a  mode 
which  was  invented  by  Byzes,  of  Naxos,  in  580  B.  G.  It 
BOW  serves  as  a  mosc^ue  to  some  dervises.  Spon,«  Wheeler, 
l.ei^i,  and  Stuart,  have  given  amf4e  descriptions  of  this  an- 
cient structure.  * 

ANDfiONl'CUS  LIVIUS  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
who  wrote  theatrical  pieces,  or  what  were  called  regular 
j^ys,  for  the  Roman  stage,  abont  the  year  240  B.  C.  It 
is  also  said^that  be  was  a  slave,  of  Greek  ortgiu,  and  that 
he  received  his  name  from  Livius  SaUnator^  whose  children 
he-  taught,  and  who  at  length  gave  him  bia  liberty.  His 
(bramatic  productions  were  probably  rude  both  in  plan,  and 
style.  Livy,  the  histonon^  ascribes  to  him  the  barboKMis 
invention  of  dividing  the  deciaraation  and  gestares^  or 
8f>eaking  and  acting,  between  two  persons,  which  was 
never  thought  of  by  the  Greeks.  Andrenicus^  who  was  a 
player  as  well  as  a  writev,  it  is  supposed,,  adopted  it  to  save 
InmsesH'  the  fetigue  of  singing  io  his  €>wn  piece,  to  which 
ke^  bke  other  authors  of  his  time,  had  been  aecustomedl 
But  being  often  encored,  and  hoarse  with  repeating  his 
eai^tic'le  or  song^  he  obtained  pennission  to  transfer  the 
vocal  psdTt  to  a  young  performer,  retaining  to  faimsdfi  eirlj 
the  acting :  Ducfosy  however,  and  after  him  Dr.  Barney,  ave 
iaclined  to  think  that  the  words  of  the  historian  mean'  no 
move  than  that  the  singing  W9»  separated  froaii  the  dancing 
a  thing  credible  enoi^fav  but  absurd  in  the  highest  degree^ 
wheu  applied  to  sp^^ng  and  aetiog*  Aiidronicus  also 
composed  hymns  in  honoinr  of  the  gods.  There^are  frag- 
ments of  his  versesy  collected  from  the  gramnaarians  and 
critics,  in  the  ''Comaci  Latani,."  the  ^^  CfMrpua  p6Ctara[%'* 
and  the  "  Collectio  Pisaurensis."  * 

^  Biog".  tTnirerscHfe,  and  authors  mentione<f  in  the  text. 
«  Voisius  de  Poet.  Latin.— Fabr.  Bibl.  Lat.— Barney's  Hist,  of  Music, Tol.  I. 
— Biog.  Univ«rrsdle.— -JMoreri. 



'  ANDROUET-DU-CERCEAU  (James),  ah  emioent 
French  architect,  was  born  at  Orleans,  or,  according  td 
some,  at  Paris,  in  the  sixteenth  century.  Cardinal  d'Ar-* 
magnac  was  among  the  first  who  patronised  hira,  and  fur- 
nished bim  with  money  for  the  expenoes  of  his  studies  in 
Italy,  The  triumphal  arch,  which  still  remains  at  Pola  in 
Istria,  was  so  much  admired  by  him,  dnat  he  introduced 
an  imitation  of  it  in  all  bis  arches.  He  began  4hePoii€ 
Neuf,  at  Paris,  May  30,  1 57^,  by  order  of  Henry  IIL  bHt 
the  civil  wars  prevented  bis  finishing  that  great  work,  which 
was  reserved  for  William  Marchand,  in  fhe  reign  df  Henry 
IV.  1604.  Androuet,  however,  built  the  hotels  of  Car* 
navalet,  Fermes,  Bretonvilliers,  8ulty,  Mayenne,  and  otbeil 
palaces  in  Paris.  In  1596,  he  was  employed  by  Henry  IV. 
to  continue  the  gallery  of  the  Louvre,  which  had  been  be« 
gun  by  order  of  Charles  XI.  but  this  work  he  was  obliged 
to  quit  on  account  of  his  religion.  He  was  a  zealots  prH>f 
testant,  of  the  Calvinistic  church,  and  when  the  perse^U-* 
tion  arose  he  left  France,  and  died  in  some  foreign  coun«> 
try,  but  where  or  when  is  not  known.  Androuet  is  not 
more  distinguished  for  the  practice,  than  the  theory  of  his 
art.  He  wrote,  1.  "  Livre  d' Architecture,  contenant  les 
plans  et  dessins  de  cinquante  Batiments,  toiis  differents,'* 
1559,  fol.  reprinted  1611.  2.  **  Second  livre  d*ArcbitectiiTe,** 
a  continuation  of  the  former,  1561,fol.  S.  <<  Les  plus  exceU. 
lents  Batiments  de  France,"  1576,  I607,fol.  4.  "Livred' Ar- 
chitecture anquel  sont  contenues  diverses  ordonnanees  de 
plans  et  elevations  de  Batiments  pour  seigneurs  et  autres 
qui  voudront  batir  ^ux  champs,"  1582,  fol.  5.  *'  Les  Edi- 
fices Romains,"  a  collection  of  engravings  of  the  anti- 
quities of  Rome,  firom  designs  made  on  the  spot,  15S3,  fol. 
i.  **  Lemons  de  Perspective,*'  1576,  fol.  He  was  also  bis 
own  engraver,  and  etched  his  plates  in  a  correct  but  s:ome- 
what  coarse  style. ' 

ANDRY  (Nicholas),  sumamed  BaT9-RE6AKD,a  French' 
physician  and  medical  writer,  was  born  at  Lyons  in  1658^ 
and  came  to  Paris  without  any  provision,  but  defrayed  the 
expenses  of  bis  philosophical  studies  in  the  college  of 
the  Grassins  by  teaching  a  few  pupils.  He  was  at  length 
a  professor  in  that  college;  and,  in  1687,  became  first 
known  to  the  literary  world  by  a  translation  of  Pacatus* 
panegyric  on  Theodosius  tl^  Great.     Quitting  theology; 

1  Morf f l-p-Biof,  UmTerieUe.*»4Stn|U*f  piclipnaiy.  ^ 

13Q  A  N  D  R  Y; 

however,  to  which  he  had  hitherto  applied,  he  turned  t^ 
the  study  of  medicine,  received  his  doctor's  degree  at 
Rheims,  and  in  1697  was  admitted  of  the  faculty  at  Paris. 
Some  share  of  merit,  and  a. turn  for  intrigue,  contributed 
greatly  to  .his  success,  and  he  became  professor  of  the 
Royal  College,  censor,  and  a  pontributor  to  the  Journal 
des  Savants ;  and,  although  there  were  strong  prejudices 
against  him.  on  account. of  the  manner  in  which  he  contrived 
to  rise,  and  his  satirical  humour,  which  spared  neither 
friend  or  foe,  he  was  in  1 724,  chosen  dean  of  the  facnlty* 
His  first  measures  in  this  o£5ice  w^re  entitled  to  praise ; 
convinced  of  the  superiority  of  talent  which  the  practice  of 
physic  requires,  he  reserved  to  the  faculty  that  right  of 
inspecting  the  practice  of  surgery,  which  they  had  always 
enjoyed,  and  made  a  law  that  no  surgeon  should  perform 
the  operation  of  lithotomy,  unless  in  the  presence  of  a 
physician.  After  this  he  wished  to  domineer  over  the  fa- 
culty itself,  and  endeavoured  to  appoint  his  friend  Hel- 
vetius  to  be  first  physicie^n  tq  the  king,  and  protector  of 
the  faculty.  But  these  and  oth^r  ambitious  attempts  were 
defeated  in  1726^  when  it  was  degided,  that  all  the  decrees, 
of  the  faculty  should  be  signed  by  a  majority,  and  not  be 
liable  to  any  alteration  by  the;  dean.  After  this  he  was 
perpetually  engaged  in  disputes  with  some  of  the  members, 
particularly  Hecquet,  Lemery,  and  Petit,  and  many  abusive 
pamphlets  arose  from  these  contests.  Andry,  however, 
was  not  re-elected  dean,  and  had  only  to  comfort  himself 
l>y  somQ  libels  against  his  successor  Geoifroy,  for  which, 
and  his  general  turbulent  character,  cardinal  Fleury 
would  no  longer  listen  to  him,  but  took  the  part  of  the 
university  and  the  faculty.  Andry  died  May  13,  1742, 
aged  eighty-fpur.  His  worksi  were  very  numerous,  and 
many  of  them  valuable  :  1.  "  Traite  de  la  generation  des 
Vers  dans  le  corps  de  Thomme,"  1710,  often  reprihted,  and 
translated  into  most  languages.  It  was  severely  attacked 
by  LeI^ery  in  the  Journal  de  Trevoux,  in  revenge  for 
Andry's  attack  on  his  **  Traite  des  Aliments ;"  and  by 
Valisnieri,  who  fixed  on  him  the  nickname  otHonio  vermis 
^ulostiSj  ^s  be  pretended  to  find  worms  at  the  bottom  of 
every  disorder.  Andry  answered  these  attacks  in  a  publi-^ 
cation  entitlfid  ^*  Eclaircissements  sur  le  livre  de  genera- 
tion, 2cc.''  2.  ^^  Remarques  de  medicine  sur  differents 
0ujets,  principalement  siir  ce  qui  regarde  la  Saign6e  et  la 
Purgation,*'  Paris,  1710,  i2mo.     3.  ^f  Le  Regime  du  Ca-* 

A  N  D  R  Y.  231 

ireme,**  Paris,  1740,  12mo,  reprinted  1713,  2  vols,  and 
cifterwards  in  three,  in  answer  to  the  opinions  of  Hecquet. 
4.  **  Th6  de  PEurope,  ou  les  proprietes  de  la  veronique,'* 
Paris,  1712,  12mo.  5.  "  Examen  de '  difFeretits  points 
d*Anatomie,  &c,"  Paris,  1723,  8vo,  a  violent  attack  oii 
Petit's  excellent  treatise  on   the  diseases  of  the  bones. 

6.  "  Remarques  de  chemie  touchant  la  preparation  de  cer- 
tains remedes,"  Paris,  1735,  12mo,  another  professional 
and  personal  attack  on  Malouin's   "  Chimie  medicale.'*! 

7.  ^^  Cleon  a  Eudoxe,  touchant  la  pre-eminence  de  la 
Medicine  sur  la  Chirurgie.'*  Paris,  1738,  12mo.  8.  "  Gr- 
th(^edie  i  ou  Tart  de  prevenir  et  de  corriger,  dans  les 
enfonts,*  les  DifFormites  du  corps,"  Paris,  1741,  2  vols. 
fie  published  also  some  theses,  and  his  son-in-law,  Dionis, 
published  a  ti*eatise  on  the  plague,  which  he  drew  up  by 
^rder  of  the  regent.  * 

ANEAU,  in  Latin  ANULUS  (Bartholomew),  a  man 
of  eminent  learning  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at 
Bourges  in  France,  and  educated  under  Melchior  Volmar, 
a  very  able  instructor  of  youth.  He  made  great  advances 
under  him  in  polite  literature,  and  imbibed  the  principles 
of  the  protestant  religion,  which  Volmar  professed,  and 
Aneau  afterwards  embraced.  The  great  reputation  which 
he  soon  gained  by.  his  skill  in  the  Latin  and  Greek  lan- 
guages^ and  poetry,  induced  some  of  the  magistrates  of 
Lyons,  who  were  his  countrymen,  to  offer  him  a  professor- 
ship in  rhetoric  in  the  college  which  they  were  going  to 
erect  in  that  city.  Aneau  accepted  this  offer  with  pleasure, 
and  went  thither  to  take  possession  of  his  place,  which  he 
kept  above  thirty  years  till  his  death.  He  discharged  his 
professorship  with  such  applause,  that,  in  1542,  he  was 
chosen  principal  of  the  college.  -  In  this  situation  he  pro- 
pagated the  doctrines  of  the  reformation  among  his  scholars, 
which  was  done  secretly  for  a  long  time,  and  either  was  not 
perceived,  or  was  overlooked ;  but  an  accident  which  hap- 
pened on  the  festival  of  the  sacranaent  in  1565,  put  a 
period  to  all  his  attempts  in  favour  of  protestantism  by  a 
very  fatal  catastrophe.  Upon  that  day,  21st  of  June,  as 
the  procession  was  passing  on  towards  the  college,  ther^ 
was  a  large  stone  thrown  from  one  of  the  windows  upon  the 
host  and  the  priest  who  carried  it.  Whether  Aneau  wa« 
the  author  of  this  insult  or  not,  is  not  certain,  but  the 

I  Bioip.  Universelle.-^HalUr  BiM.  Med.  Praot. 


m  A  N  E  A  U. 

people^  being  ^ori^cfd  at  it^  brobe  inta  |he  icollf  ge  ia  f 
body,  aifd  assassinated  bim  ^  tbe  gif ilty  person,  and  tbf 
college  itself  was  sbut^  up  the  next  day  by  ocder  of  tb^  aity. 

Aueau  wrot!^  a  gre^t  many  verses  in  Latin  and  GrjB^ 
9.nd  other  wor]is ;  this  prinicipal  of  wbicb  are,  1.  ^^  Chant  fifi^T 
tal/*  containing  the  mystery  pf  the  nativity,  Ly^Rs,  1539, 
4 to,  and  1559,  with  the  title  ^^Qisnetbliac  musical  et  hi^ 
torical  de  la  Co^cfiption  et  Nativite  de  J.  C."  ^.  ^*  Lyon 
marchand/'  a  French  satire,  or  drapua  qf  tb^  hi^tpriqi^ 
l(:ind>  1^42,  4to.  3.  '^  Alciati's  emblems  tr«^nsl^te4,''  Lyoi\% 
.1549,  8vo,  155$,  16B1P.  4.  ^^  Picta  poesis/'  (l^yder),  IM9$ 
8vo,  a  collection  of  embl^oys,  witb  Gree^  and  t^atin  wf^m* 
5.  J^  translation  of  {(ir  Thomas  Mpre's  ^  U^opim''  ¥'W§ 
andi  Lyons.  6.  '^  Jl^lectox ;  on  le  Coq,"  ^  fy\}nloij^  h}9l^y» 
pret^ndedly  from  a  Greek  fragment,  Lypns,  15^0.  > 

ANELLO  (Thomas),  commonly  called  A^a^s^niello,  quo 
of  the  names  introduced  in  biographical  collections,  aU 
tbougb  more  prpperly  belonging  to  history,  if  as  ^  fisiievn 
man  qf  Naples,  ^nd  the  author  of  ^,  teniporary  fevolulioq^ 
lybich  ended  as  such  tumultuous  measur^a  generally  mkd^ 
i^ithout  meliorating  the  state  of  the  peqpl^  vtrbo  h^^ve  be^ii 
induced  to  take  ap  aptiv^  part  in  them.  In  ^6^3,  ivbeii 
tbis  map  wail  bom,  the  kingdom  of  Naples  w^  siil^^ot  Uk 
th^  house  of  Austria,  and  governed  by  a  viqerpy.  TllA 
Neapolitans  had  supported  the  government  in  this  bqvif 
with  great  loyalty  and  liberality,  and  submitted  then^aielve^ 
to  many  voluntary  impos^ions  and  burthenso^np  laiPpes  hsL 
support  of  it  But;  in  1646,  the  necessities  of  (bfi  J^ng- 
requiring  it,  e^  new  dpnative  was  projeiBted,  and  a  djdsigti 
was  formed  to  lay  a  fresh  tax  upqn  fruits,  ^mpreb^ding 
all  sorts,  dry  or  greeq,  s^t  far  ^  mulberries  girape^  figs, 
appleSj^  pears,  ^.c.  The  people,  being  thus  deprived  of 
their  ordinary  subsistence^  took  i^  resolution  to  disburden 
t^mselveSi  not  only  of  thi^^  but  of  all  other  inciuppi^rtj^hte 
exactions  forn^erly  imposed.  They  made  their  grieviineet 
known  to  the  viceroy  by  the  public  orias  aind  ^^n^ent^ti^m 
ojt  women  and  children,  as  he  passed  through  the  mark^ 
pl^ce,  and  petitioned  him,  by  mf  ans  qf  the  carditial  F^o« 
marinp,  tbe  archbishop,  and  oth^rs^  to  taj^e  o(F  the  said  tax, 
He  promised  to  redress  the  grievance,  and  ^nveaed  pr«T 
per  persons  to  find  out  some  n[)ethod  to  ta^e  off  the  tax  qb 
ip^tfi.    But  the  farmers,  be^^se  i|  w^pr^udicial  lo  theitf 

A  N  E  t  L  D;  t^S 

jift^^ti  fmm^  fiptnfi  Aircret  mAins  io  irustnrte  iiis  «tideiu- 
v^)irfl,  sm4  dl)ipii«id«4  bim  from  perfofmiBg  his  promisa  t# 
tb^  peQpi^ ;  r^reBefllipg  to  biin>  that  all  the  cbnnoitr  wof 
loiM^  by  0.  wr^cbed  rabble  onIy>  aot  woilii  rdgarding. 

T^PIPP^  An^Iloi  or  Maasaiikrlb,  now  in  the  24th  y^ar  of 
bis  nge^  4w^lt  i»  A  eonier  of  the  great  market-place  at 
K#|^le8.  {if»  wa9  atoiity  el*  a  good  eountenance^  and  a 
191(141^  9tiat|iY0«  He  wore  iinen  slops,  a  blqe  waistcoat,  and 
W§0^  balRdfQ^t,  with  a  mariner's  oap.  His  profemoQ  waa 
to  Wgle  lor  little  fish  with  a  cane,  hook,  and  line,  as  als^ 
tp  bpy  fiih  and  to  retail  tfae«.  Thi3  man,  having  observed 
the  iSlirmnring^  up  and  down  the  city,  wept  one  day  very 
angry  towards  his  house,  and  met  with  the  famous  Bandito 
J^rroiie  ^nd  bisjeompanion,  as  he  passi^d  by  a  church  where 
thf y  had  fit^  f^r  refuge.  They  asked  him,  what  ailed  hioi* 
Q«)  answered  in  gr^at  wrath,  ^^  I  will  be  bound  to  be 
bifti^ed»  but  I  wiU  vi^bt  this  oity.'^  They  laughed  at  hia 
WQIidft  saying)  ^^  A  proper  squire  to  right  the  city  of 
Nip^ !"  Masaauiello  replied,  ^^  Do  not  laugh :  I  swear 
^  G^,  if  I  bad  two  &c  three  of  my  humour,  you  should 
9^t  wb«t  I  eould  do.  Will  you  join  with  me?"  Tb^Y 
^fi^w^red,  "  Yea.'*  ♦♦  Plight  Hie  then  your  faith  :*'  whicll 
th#y  having  done,  be  departed.  A  little  after,  when  his 
fiib  w^  taken  from  him  by  some  of  the  court,  because  be 
kft4  QK>(  P^id  the  tax,  be  resolved  to  avail  himself  of  the 
mwmurings  of  the  people  againat  the  tax  on  fruit.  He 
Vifpt  stmong  the  fruit*shops  tbat  were  in  that  quarter,  ad- 
yising  them  that  the  neKt  day  diey  should  come  a)!  united 
t^  PW^ket,  with  a  resolutimi  to  tell  die  country  fruiterers 
thftt  tb^y  would  buy  no  mere  taxed  fruit. 

A  nUAiber  of  boys  u^ed  to  assemble  in  die  marketplace 
t^  pi^k  up  web  fruit  as  fieU.  Afeu»anieiio  got  among  these^^ 
IjKlHgjh^  ibem  some  cries  and  clarno^trs  suit^  to  his  purpose, 
ly^  e^roUed  such  a  numher  of  them  between  J  5  and  17 
ywm  of  age,  that  they  came  to  be  500,  and  at  last  2t)00, 
Of  tbb  militia  be  made  htnMielf  general,  giving  every  one 
of  tbec)  iu  their  hands  a  Uttle  weak  cane.  The  shoo* 
keepers  observii^  bis  instvuetions,  there  happened  the 
next  day  a  gi^at  tumuk  between  them  and  the  fruiterers, 
wjiicb  the  regent  of  the  oily  sent  Anaclerio,  the  elect  of 
the  people,  to  quieil.  Among  the  fruiterers  was  a  eousify 
of  Mafaaniella's,  who,  according  to  the  instructions  given 
him,  began  more  than  w^yto  inflame  the  people.  He  sttw 
tbftt.h^  eould  sell  his  fruit  but  ^t  a  low  priee^  whiebi  wb^fi 

M^  A  N  E  L  L  L  0/ 

the  tax  was  paid^  would  not  quit  cost.  He  pretended  t# 
listll  into  a  great  rage,  ttirew-  two  large  baskets  on  the 
ground,  and  cried  out,  ^^  God  gives  plenty,  and  tiie  bad 
government  a  dearth  :  I  care  not  a  straw  for  this  fruit,  let 
every  one  take  of  .it."  While  the  boys  eagerly  ran  to  ga- 
iher  and  eat  the  fruit,  Massanieilo  rushed  in  among  them^ 
crying,  ^^  No  tax  !  no  tax !"  and  when  Anaclerio  threaten- 
ed  him  with  whipping  and  ):he  gailies,  not  only  the  iruit** 
erers,  but  all  the  people,  threw  figs,  apples,  and  other 
fruits  with  great  fury  in  his  face.  Massanieilo  hit 'him  on 
the  breast  with  a  stone,  and  encouraged  his  militia  of  boys 
to  do  the  same,  which  obliged  Anaclerio  to  save  his  life 
by  flight. 

Upon  this  success,  the  people  flocked  in  great  numbers 
tp  the  market-place,  exclaiming  aloud  '  against  the  into* 
lerable  grievances  under  which  they  groaned,  and  pro-» 
testing  their  resolutioil  to' submit  no  longer  to  them.  The 
fury  still  increasing,  Massanieilo  leaped  Upon  the  highest 
table  that  was  among  the  fruiterers,  and  harangued  the 
crowd  ;  comparing  himself  to  Moses,  who  delivered  -the 
Egyptians  from  the  rbd  of  Pharaoh  ;  to  Peter,  who  was  a 
fisherman  as  well  as  himself,  yet  rescued  Rome  and  the 
world  from  the  slavery  of  Satan;  promising  them  a  like 
deliverance  from  their  oppressions  by  his  means,  and  pro- 
testing his  readiness  to  lay  down  his  life  in  such  a  glorious 
cause.  Massanieilo  repeated  these  and  such  like  words 
until  he  had  inflamed  the  n^inds  of  the  people,  who  were 
soon  disposed  to  co-operate  with  him  to  this  purpose. 
.  To  begin  the  work,  fire  was  put  to  the  house  next  the 
toll-house  for  fruit,  both  which  were  burnt  to  the  ground, 
with  all  the  books  and  accounts,  and  goods  and  furniture. 
This  done,  every  one  shut  up  his  shop,  and,  the  numbers 
increasing,  many  thousand  people  uniting  themselves  went 
to  other  parts  of  the  city,  where  all  the  other  toll-heuses 
were:  them  they  plundered  of  all  their  writings  and  books, 
great  quautities  of  money,  with  many  rich  moveables ;  all 
which  they  threw,  into  a  great  fire  of  straw,  and  burnt  to 
ashes  in  the  streets.  The  people,  meeting  with  no  resist-, 
ance,  assumed  more  boldness,  and  made  towards  the  palace- 
of  the  viceroy.  The  first  militia  of  Massanieilo,  consisting 
of  2000  boys,  marched  on,  every  one  lifting  up  his  cane 
with  a  piece  of  black  cloth  on  the  top,  and  with  loud  cries 
excited  the  compassion,  and  entreated  the  assistance  of • 
their  fe^ow- citizens.     Being  come  before  the  ps^aoe,  th^ 

A  N  E  L  L  O.  S3S 

tried  out  that  they  would  not  be  freed  of  the  fruit*tar 
oidy,  but  of  all  others,  especially  that  of  corn.  At  last 
they  entered  the  palace  and  rifled  it,  notwithstanding  the 
resistance  of  the  guards,  whom  they  disarmed.  The  vice-i 
roy  got  into  his  coach  to  secure  ^himself  within  the  church 
of  St.  Lewis,  but  the  people,  spying  kim,  stopped  the 
coach,  and  with  naked  swords  on  each  side  of  it  threatened 
him,  unless  he  would  take  off  the  taxes.  .  With  fair  pro- 
mises, and  assurances  of  redress,  and  by  throwing  money 
among  the  multitude,  which  they  were  greedy  to  pick  up, 
he  got  at  last  safe  into  the  church,  and  ordered  the  doors 
to  be  shut.  The  people  applied  to  the  prince  of  Bisignano, 
who  was  much  beloved  by  them,  to  be  their  defender  and 
intercessor.  He  promised  to  obtain  what  they  desired ;  but 
finding  himself  unable,  after  much  labour  and  fatigue,  to 
restrain  their  licentiousness,  or  quell  their  fury,  he  took 
the  first  opportunity  of  retiring  from  the  popular  tumult. 

Afi:er  the  retirement  of  the  prince,  the  people,  finding 
themselves  without  a  head,  called  out  for  Massaniello  to 
be  their  leader  and  conductor,  which  charge  he  accepted. 
They  appointed  Genoino,  a  priest  of  approved  knowledge, 
temper,  and  abilities,  to  attend  his  person  ;  and  to  him  thej 
added  for  a  companion  the  famous  Bandito^Perrone.  Mas- 
saniello^ by  his  spirit,  good  sense,  and  bravery,  won  the. 
hearts  of  all  the  people,  insomuch  that  they  became  willing 
to  transfer  unto  him  solemnly  the  supreme  command,  and 
to  obey  him  accordingly.  A  stage  was  erected  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  market-place,  where,  clothed  in  white  like  a 
mariner,  he  with  his  counsellors  gave  public  audience,  re- 
ceived petitions,  and  gave  sentence  in  all  causes  both  civil 
and  criminal.'  He  had  no  less  than  150,000  men  under  his 
command.  An  incredible  multitude  of  women  also  appeared 
with  arms  of  various  sorts,  like  so  many  Amazons.  A  lis^ 
was  made  of  above  60  persons,  who  bad  farmed  the  taxes, 
or  been  some  way  concerned  in  the  custom-houses  ;  and, 
as  it  was  said  they  had  enriched  themselves  with  the  blood 
of  the  people,  and  ought  to  be  made  examples  to  future 
ages,  an  order  was  issued,  that  their  houses  and  goods 
should  be  burnt ;  which  was  executed  accordingly,  and 
with  &o  much  regularity, .  that  no  one  was  suffered  to  carry 
away  the  smallest  article. — Many,  for  stealing  mere  trifles 
from  the  flames,  were  hanged  by  the  public  executioner  in 
|he  market-place,  by  the  command  of  Massaniello. 
.  While  these  horrid  tragedies  were  actipg,  the  viceroy 

f3«'  A  N  E  L  L  O/  4 

dsRi^  of  eterj  method  to  appease  the  people^  nni  ^n^ 
^01  to  aaftcoaininodation.  He  applied  to  tbe  archbishops 
ef  whose  attachment  to  tbe  goi^rnment  be  waa  weil  as^* 
sored,  and  of  whose  paternal-eare  and  affection  far  tbem 
the  people  bad  no  doubt.  He  gave  him  the  original  char- 
ter of  Charles  V.  (which  exen^pted  them  from  all  taxes^ 
and  upon  which  they  had  all  along  insisted)  ronfirmad  by 
lawful  authority,  and  Ukewise  an  indulgence  or  pardon  for 
a{i  offences  whatsoever  committed.  The  bishop  found 
Hieans  tp  induce  Maosaniello  to  convoke  all  the  es^itaina 
atid  chief  commanders  of  tbe  people  together,  and  g^eat 
bopes  were  conceived  that  an  happy  accommodation  would 
ensue.  In  the  mean  time  500  banditti,  all  armed  on  boT8e>* 
btock,  entered  the  city,  under  pretence  that  they  came 
fcr  the  service  of  the  people,  but  in  reality  to  destroy 
Bf  assaniello,  as  it  appeared  afterwards  ;  fur  they  discharged 
several  shot  at  him^  some  of  which  very  nairowiy  missed 
Ikim.  Thia  put  a  stop  to  the  whole  business,  and  it  was 
SKSspected  that  the  viceroy  had  some  hand  in  tbe  conapiracy. 
The  streets  were  immediately  barricaded,  and  orders  were 
given  that  the  aqueduct  leading  to  the  castle,  in  which 
were  the  viceroy  and  family,  and  all  the  principal  offioera 
of  state,  should  be  cut  off,  and  that  no  proviaions^  except 
wostne  few  roots  and  herbs,  should  be  carried  thither.  The 
viceroy  applied  again  to  the  ajrcbbishop,  to  assure  the 
fteople  of  his  sincere  good  intentions  towards  theni,  Ina 
abhorrence  of  the  designs  of  the  banditti,  axid  his  reeoiit* 
tioD  to  use  all  his  authority  to  bring  them  to  due  punish* 
nent*  Thus  the  treaty  was  again  renewed,  and  sogn  eom<« 
pleted ;  which  being  done>  it  was  thought  proper  that  Msa« 
aaniello  should  go  to  the  palaoe  to  (visit  tixe  viceroy.  Sm 
gave  orders  that  all  the  streets  leading  to  it  should  be  cleiA 
swept,  and  that  all  masters  of  fsunities  should  bang  their 
windows  and  balconies  with  their  richest  silks  mkA  ta- 
pestries. He  threw  off  .his  mariner^s  habit,  and  dressed 
himself  in  eloth  of  silver,  with  a  fine  piunie  of  feathers  in 
hia  bait ;  and  mounted  up6n  a  prancing  steed,  with  a  dvawfi 
sword  iu  his  hand,  he  went  attended  by  50,000  of.  tbe 

While  he  was  in  eonferenee  with  the  viceroy  in  a  bal** 
oony,  he  gave  him  siurprising  proofs  of  tbe  ready  obedience 
of  the  people.  Whatever  ery  he  gave  out,  it  was  imofee^ 
diately  echoed  ;  when  he  put  his  finger  upon  his  motitb, 
there  wassuch  a  profound  umversid  sileoce,  that  acarcea  maa 

A  M  C  L  L  O.  nn 

was  bdftrd  to  brealhe.  At  last  h^  ordered  that  tibey  riioiddl 
aU  r^tix^e^i  which  was  punctually  and  preseutly  obeyod^  as 
if  they  had  all  vanished  away.  On  the  Sunday  follawing 
the  ca|^i4:ulation9  were  signed  and  solemnly  sworn  to  in.  tkm 
cathedral  church  to  be  observed  for  ever.  Masisauieilo  de^ 
clared^  that  now,  having  accomplished  his  honest  designs^ 
be  would  retiirn  again  to  his  former  occupation.  If  be  bad 
kept  this  resolution^  he  might,  perhaps^  have  been  ranked 
among  the  benefactors  of  his  country  ;  but  either  tbrougk 
the  instigations  of  his  wife  and  kindred,  through  fear^  or 
allured  by  the  tasted  sweets  of  rule  and  power,  he  sttU  con- 
tinued bis  authority :  and  exercised  it  in  such  a  capricious 
and  tyrannical  manner,  that  his  best  friends  began  to  be 
afraid  of  him. 

He  seems  indeed  to  have  fallen  into  a  frensy,  whicb 
might  naturally  enough  be  occasioned  by  his  sudden  eie* 
vation^  hts  care  asid  vigilance  (for  he  setdom  either  ate  or 
slept  during  the  whole  transaction),  and  by  his  imaiodeiMr 
drinking  of  strong  wine,  wbicb  excess  he  gave  into  oti  ttifs 
happy  event.  Four  persons  took  ttn  opportunity  of,  assaak- 
sinattng  him.  As  he  fell,  he  only  cried  out,  *^  Ungrateful 
traitors!'*  His  head  was  thrown  into  ovse  ditch,  and  hjs 
body  into  another.  The  tumult,  however,  did  not  subside 
until  the  Nea{)oiitan8  were  entirely  fireed  from  the  yojie  of 
Spain.  ^ 

ANF09SI  (Pascal),  an  emhsent  Italian  maisiciany  wsts 
bom  about  the  year  ]73€,  and  studied  bis  art  at  Naples 
under  the  greatest  masters.  In  1771,  Piceini,  who  had  a 
£fiendship  for  him,  procured  him  an  engagemeot  as  cena^ 
poseif  for  the  theatre  delta  Danoe,  at  Rooie;  Hefre  Im  first 
attempts  were  not  very  successful;  yet  he  persisted,  and  in 
ll'iB,  esfcabUshed  bis  reputastion  ctooopl^tely  fay  kis  '*  In* 
conrnoe  persecutes ;''  ^  La  Finta  Gdardiniera  j"  and  "  II 
Gebso  in  cimento  >"  the  merit  of  all  vrtiieh  operas  was 
amply  acknowledged.  The  foidtnre^  howereir,  of  his  ^  Olya^^ 
ptside/'  and  sosae  other  unpleasant  circumstanees^  deter^ 
mined  fahu  to  tnwrel.  A^ecordingly,  be  visited  the  prio-* 
cipul  citites  of  Italy,  and  caine  to  Pasis,  with  tbe  title  of 
mswter  of  the  conservaitory  at  Venice.  He  presented  to 
tbe  royal  academy  o£  mussehis  **  Iwconnue  persecut^e," 
adapted  to  French  words,,  but  it  had  net  tbe  same  succeas 
ai  in  iuly.    In;  17»2  ki^  came  ta  London^  te  cake  tkt» 

.    •       I  ^^Mkrii  U«i«9ri(it  Uimryr  ^^  XXV. 

S38  A  N  F  O  S  S  t 

direction  of  the  opera :  but,  as  Dr.  Bumey  observes,  he 
arrived  at  an  unfavourable  time ;  for  as  Sacchini  had  pre-"- 
ceded  him,  and  as  the  winter  following  was  only  rendered 
memorable  at  the  opera-house  by  misfortunes,  disgrace, 
and  bankruptcy,  his  reputation  was  rather  dinunished  than 
increased  in  this  kingdom.  In  1787,  he  finally  settled  at 
Home,  where  his  reputation  was  at  its  height,  and  con« 
tinued  unabated  to  the  day  of  his  death  in  1795.  Besides 
bis  operas,  he  composed  some  oratorios  from  words  se- 
lected by  Metastasio.  * 

ANGE  DE  St.  Joseph  (le  Pere),  a  barefoot  carmelite 
of  Toulouse,  whose  real  name  was  La  Brosse,  lived  a  long 
while  in  Persia  in,  quality  of  apostolic  missionary  :  the  li- 
terty  he  enjoyed  in  that  country,  gave  him  an  opportunity 
to  acquire  the  language.  He  was  also  provincial  of  &is 
order  in  Languedoc,  and  died  at  Perpignan  in  1697.  The 
knowledge  he  had  acquired  in  the  East,  induced  him  to 
undertake  a  Latin  translation  of  the  Persian  Pharmacopoeia, 
inrhich  appeared  at  Paris  in  1681,  8vo.  There  is  also  by 
bim,  **  Gazophyfacium  linguae  Persarum,"  Arast.  1684,  foL 
He  there  explains  the  terms  in  Latin,  in  French,  and  in 
Italian,  in  order,  that  his  book  hiay  be  of  service  to  the  en- 
lightened nations  of  Europe  in  general.  His  reputation  as 
a  Persian  scholar  was  considerably  great  in  his  own  country, 
until  our  learned  Dr.  Hyde  published  his  "  Castigatio  in 
Angelum  a  St.  Joseph,  alias  dictum  de  la  Brosse."  The 
reason  of  this  castigation  was,  that  La  Brosse  had  attacked 
the  Persian  gospels  in  the  English  Poly^t,  and  the  Latin 
version  of  them  by  Dr.  Samuel  Clarke.  Dn  Hyde  imme- 
diately vnrote  a  letter  to  him,  in  which  he  expostulated  with 
him,  and  pointed  out  his  mistakes,  but  received  no  answer. 
At  length,  in  1688,  La  Brosse  came  over  to  England,  went 
to  Oxford,  and  procured  an  introduction  to  Dr.  Hyde, 
without  letting  him  know  who  he  was,  although  he  after- 
wards owned  his.  name  to  be  La  Brosse,  and  that  be  came 
over  to  justify  what  he  had  advanced.  After  a  short  dis- 
pute, which  he  carried  on  in  Latin,  he  began  to  speak  the 
Persian  language,  in  which  he  was  surprised  to  find  Dr. 
Hyde  more  fluent  than  himself.  Finding,  however,  that 
he  could  not  defend  what  he  had  asserted,  he  took  his  leave 
with  a  promise  to  return,  and  either  defend  it,  or  acknow- 
ledge his  error;  but,  as  he  performed  neither.  Dr.  Hyde 

A  Biog.  Universelle.— Barney's  Hist,  of  Music,  tqU  IV* 

A  N  G  E.  23* 

]|lublished  the  '^  Castigatio.''  In  this  he  first  states  La, 
Brosse's  objections,  then  shews  them  to  be  weak  anti  trifling, 
and  arising  from  his  ignoiunce  of  the  true  idiom  of  the  iPer- 
sian  tongue.  As  to  his  ^^  Pharmacopoeia,''  Hyde  proves 
that  it  was  really  translated  by  father  Matthieu,  whose 
name  La  Brosse  suppressed,  and  yet  had  not  the  courage 
.to  place  his  own,  unless  in  Persian  characters,  on  the  title* 
-This  appears  to  have  sunk  his  reputation  very  considerably 
in  France.  ^ 

ANGE  D£  St£  Rosalie,  a  barefoot  Augustine,  and  a 

learned  genealogist,  whose  family  name  was  Francis  Haf- 

.fard,  was  born  atBlois  in  1655,  and  died  at  Paris  in  1726. 

He  was  preparing  a  new  edition  of  the  History  of  the  Royal 

Family  of  France,  and  of  the  great  Officers  of  the  Crown ; 

b<^un  by  pere  Anselm,  the  first  edition  of  which  appeared 

in  1672,  2  vols.  4to,  and  the  second  in  1712,  improved  by 

M.  de  Foumi.  But  he  was  suddenly  seized  by  death,  leaving 

behind  him  the  memory  of  a  laborious  scholar ;  le  pere 

Simplicion,  his  associate  in  this  work,  published  it  in  9  vols. 

foL     Pere  Ange  also  composed  "  TEtat  de  la  France,"  in 

5  vols.^  12mo,  and  republished  in  17^6,  in  6  vols,  a  very 

rCurious  and  useful  work  on  what  may  now  be  termed  the 

ancient  history  and  constitution  of  France.  * 

,    ANGEL  (John),  an  English  clergyman  and  nonconform 

iQEiist,  was  bcHrn  about  the  latter,  end  of  the  sixteenth  cen* 

.tury,  in,  Gloucestershire,  and  admitted  of  Magdalen  halh, 

Oxford,  in  1610.     After  taking  bis  degrees  in  arts,  he  went 

into  the  church,    and  became   a  frequent   and   popular 

preacher.     Ip  1630  he  preached  a  lecture  at  Leicester^ 

but,  in  1634^  was  suspended  by  the  dean  of  the  arches  for 

preaching  without  a  licence.     In  1650,  the  Independents, 

who  then  were  predominant,  obliged  him  to  leave  Leicester, 

because  he  refused  to  subscribe  to  their  engagement.     On 

this  the  Mercers^  company  chose  him  lecturer  of  Grantham 

in  Lincolnshire,  where  he  remained  until  his  death  in  1655, 

an  event  which  was  deeply  lai^ented  by  his  Hock.     He 

wrote  "  The  right  government  of  the  Thoughts,"  London, 

1659,  8vo,  and  "  Four  Sermons,"  ibid.  8vo.  ^ 

.    ANGELI  (Bonaventure),  an  Italian  historian  of  some 

reputation,  was  born  at  Ferrara  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

lie  was  an  able  lawyer,  and  had  the  management  of  the 

J  Diet  Hislorique. — Biog;  Uaiverselle.— Bio^.  Britannica,  art.  Hyd«, 
<  JBioy.  tlnittncUe,"— Moreri.  ,        ^  Ath,  Ox,  vol.  11, 

940  A  N  G  E  L  L 

affaira  of  the  duket  of  FiKrrafa.  Bd  afterwso^  secdM  St 
Parmfty  and  became  tbe  kistoKiaa  of  the  placOi  GkmeHty 
i»  his  '' JUbiiotheqne  curieuse^"  informs nay  that  itevj^cii 
iMiTtog  oollecced  materials  from  aotaat  ^bservatioB  vibpMa- 
ktg  tbe  gNegpraphy  of  Italy^  Wttb  »  view  to  cormot  A^  «i^ 
.  Tars  of  PtoloBacy^  PKny,  and  the  modern  gmigft^ber^  took 
Paroia  in  his  waj,  and  was  reqoa»teid  to  write  its  btecofy. 
For  this  puf pose  Erasmus  Vietto,  tbe  booksetier,  aeeommd- 
dated  him  with  his  library,  and  the  history  Wsts  finished 
within  six  monlbsf^  but  was  no€  pabli^hed  liifitil  afiei^  his 
death,  if  be  died  in  1576,  as  is  assei*ted  by  Baruflbldiy  id 
the  supplement  to  his  history  of  the  Hfiiversity  of  VevftM, 
and  by  Mazzucbelfi  in  his  ^^  ScrittMi  UatiatYi"  Tbe  woric 
was  emided  "  Istoria  dertla  eitta  d»  Fiairmae  dkescrizi^fie  del 
Fiume  Parma,  lib.  Yill."  PaRrma^  \59\^4t0.  Eadb  book 
ist  dedicated  to  some  ode  of  the  principal  lords  of  Parmsy 
whose  pedigree  and  kdstory  i9  included  in  the  de€Hdtili<^tL 
7he  copies-  are  mm  beeoiae  scarce^  aad  espeeially  tboi^ 
which  happen  to  -contain,  ^me  passives  respecting  P<  L. 
Fatnese,.  which  were  cancelled  in  tbe  i^estof  the  i«tspressi<^tf. 
The  year  before,  a  work  by  the  same  author  Wiis^  puMistf €9d 
which  ought  to  be  joined  with  bis^  history,  tfn^^e*  She  ti^ 
<^  Descrizione  di  Pasaia,  svKvi  JE^'iiiini,  e  larger  terrttorid^"  H^ 
wrote  abo  the  <^  Ltfe  of  LadoTico  Catti/"^  ajawyer,'  1^4, 
and  some  other  tireadses^  **  De  nOK  sepeiieffdi^  itfortais  f 
*^  Gli  dogi  degb  eves  Estentd^"  mA  *^  Oi^corAl  kiio#M 
rorigine  de  Gardiimli,''   1505.' 

/  ANGELiCO  (Fra  GicrrAKVPf),  ^  Fiesdlor  ^  ciO^ 
fKHA  the  place  vdnere  he  was  h^f  in  1387.  H^#te  tti 
first  the  diseiple  of  Giotftiao,  but  afteriMrA  b€k:»aie  s(  Do^ 
aoamcaii  friar,  and  in  that  station.  wa#  as  mu>6hadtfiii^  for 
bts:  piety  ass  fads  paintings  His  devout  mafihfi^  ftbttfteA 
him  the  iiaane  of  Aagelico,  e«  tbe  an^Ue  pstbilir,  Ai^  it 
18  said  that  he  never  took  ap  bis  petioil  witbotil  a  fnrayei^ 
and  had  h»  eyes  Medwith  Kfeifs  wfaeo  re|Svei^6li€ifig  tM 
sufferings  of  our  Satiow^.  Niebotas  V.  empfoiyed  h^  lift 
.bia  chapel,  to  paint  hissoricadi  sublets  Oiif  a  l»rg^  sdA\dyit§A 
prevailed  on  him  soon  after  to  deeoriMe  several  b<Mc4s  ^kk ' 
Boriniatore  paiintingiK  Altbeugh  there  are^  itf  ki:^  &<69t  psAn th- 
ings considerable  de&c«s,  yet  be  was  a  sriost  skillel  Hi#mie- 
tor,  and  bis  aoviabte  temp«ir  ptfeca^ed  binl'  ttMinf  s#llM«M 
He  always  painted  religious  subjects^  and  it  is  given  as  a 

1  Biog. 

A>I  GEL  I  b  O.  Ul 

IHibof  bt  bis  €»itni€hrdiRary  humiUty,  that  be  refused  the 
uaithkb&pnc  of  Florence  when  tendered  to  him  by  Nicholas 
V.  ad  Kbe  ireward  of  his  talents.  With  respect  to  the  ob- 
jections iiHide  to  his  pictures,  we  are  farther  told,  that  he 
purposely  left  some  great  faiilt  in  them,  lest  his  self-love 
might  be  too  mueh  flattered  by  the  praises  that  would  have 
been  beslowed ;  a  practice,  however  absurd  in  an  artist,  not 
tiBsfiitable  to  monkish  ideas  of  mortification.     He  died  in 

ANGELIERI  (Bonav£NTURE),  a  writer  of  the  seveta- 
feenth  oentury,  was  a  monk  of  the  order  of  the  minorites 
of  St«  Francis,  and  a  native  of  Marsalla  in  Sicily.  He  was 
ilso  viear*general  of  his  order  at  Madrid,  and  became  af- 
terwards one  of  the  fathers  of  the  Observance.  He  was 
Uvitig  in  1707,  as  in  that  year  Mongitore  speaks  of  him, 
among  living  authors,  in  his  **  Bibl.  Sicula.*'  I'his  monk 
published  two  volumes,  the  nature  of  which  may  be  judged 
from  the  titles :  the  first  was  called  '<  Lux  magica,  &;c. 
ocblestiura,  terrestrium,  et  inferprum  origo,  ordo,  et  subor- 
dinatioeunctorum,  quoad  esse,  fieri,  etoperari,  viginti  qua- 
tuor  voluminibus  divisa,^^  Venice,  1685,  4to.  This  he 
published  under  the  assumed  name  of  Livio  Betani,  but; 
prefixed  his  name  to  the  second,  entitled  "  Lux  magica 
aoademioa,  pars  secunda,  primordia  rerun)  naturalium,  sa- 
nabilium,  infirmarum  et  inourafailium  continens,*'  Venice, 
1987,  4to.  These,  as  appears  by  the  first,  were  to  be  fol- 
lowed by  twenty^two  more  volumes  on  the  same  subjects.* 

ANGEUO,  or  DEGLI  ANGELI  (Pet«),  an  eminent 
ttiJtati  scholar  and  Latin  poet,  was  bom  in  1517,  ^t  Barga 
in  Tuscany,  and  thence  surnamed,  in  Italian,  Bakoeo,  and 
in  Latin,  BhHQMVS.  He  received  hi^  early  education  un- 
der an  unde,  an  able  linguist,  and  was  mad^  acquainted 
with  Greek  and  Latin  when  only  ten  years  old.  It  was  at 
first  intended  that  he  should  study  law  at  Bolp^ia^  but  his 
taste  for  ttteralore  was  decided,  and  when  h^fouiia  that  hi^ 
unetes'woald  not  maintain  him  there,  if  he  oontinued  to 
Mttdy  the  belles  lettres,  he  sold  his  law  books,  and  jub- 
ilated OH  what  they  produced,  until  |t  rich  iBolognese,  6f 
the  family  of  Pepolt,  offered  to  defray  the  expence  of  his 
edttoatioA.  Ht»  poetical  turn  soon  appeared,  and  while  at 
the  university,  he  formed  the  plan  of  his  celebrated  poetp 
on  the  ehise,  but  having  written  soi^e  satirical  vetses  at  the* 

1  PilkiDgton.-«I>ict.  Htit.  «  Bnp.  V^tmllt^ 

Vol.  IL  R 

a^t  A  N  O  E  L  1  ©^ 

request  of  a  noble  lady,  with  whom  he  was  in  love^  Ii^ 
dreaded  the  consequences  of  being  known  as  the  autho?^ 
and  quitted  Bologna.  At  Venice,  whither  he  now  repaired>> 
he  found  an  asylum  with  the  French  an^bassador,  who  en** 
tertained  him  in  his  house  for  three  years,  and  employed 
him  to  correct  the  Greek  manuscripts,  which  Francis  I.  had 
ordered  to  be  copied  for  the. royal  library  at  Paris,  He 
afterwards  accompanied  another  French  ambassador  to 
Constantinople,  and  with  him  made  the  tour  of  all  the 
places  in  Asia  Minor  and  Greece  that  are  noticed  in  the 
works  of  the  classics.  In  1543  he  was  on  board  the  Aee% 
sent  by  the  jgrand  seignior  to  ^e  environs  of  Nice,  against 
the  emperor,  and  commanded  by  the  famous  Barbarossa  ^ 
and  he  was  with  the  above  ambassador  at  the  siege  of  Nice 
by  the  French.  After  encountering  other  hardships  of  war^ 
and  fighting  a  duel,  for  which  he  was  obliged  to  fly,  he  found 
means  to  return  to  Tuscany.  At  Florence  he  was  attacked 
with  a  tertian  ague,  and  thinking  he  could  enjoy  health 
and  repose  at  Milan,  to  which  place  Alphonso  Davalps  had 
invited  him,  he  was  preparing  to  set^ut,  when  he  received 
news  of  the  death  of  that  illustrious  Maece^ias. 

He  now  endeavoured  to  console  himself  by  cultivating 
his  poetical  talent,  an  employment  which  had  been  long  in* 
terrupted,  and  resumed  his  poem  on  the  chase,  for  whichk 
he  had  collected  a  great  many  notes  and  observations  ii> 
the  East  and  in  France.  In  1546,  the  inhabitants  of  {leg* 
gio  chose  him  public  professor  of  Greek  and  Latin,  with  a 
handsome  allowance,  and  the  rights  of  citizenship.  In  this 
office  he  continued  about  three  years,  after  which  the  grand 
duke,  Cosmo  I.  invited  him  to  be  professor  of  the  belles- 
lettres  at  Pisa.  After  filling  this  chair  for  seventeen  years, 
he  exchanged  it  for  that  of  moral  and  political  science,  and 
lectured  on  Aristotle's  two  celebrated  treatises  on  these  sub- 
jects. Such  was  his  attachment  to  that  universi^,  and  to 
the  grand  duke,  that  during  the  war  of  Sienna,  when  Cos*-* 
mo  was  obliged  to  suspend  payment  of  the  professors'  sala* 
ries,  Angelio  pawned  his  furniture  and  books,  that  he 
might  be  enabled  to  remain  at  his  po»t,  while  his  brethren 
fled.  And  when  the  Siennese  army,  commanded  by  PeteY 
Strozzi,  approached  Pisa,  which  had  no  troops  for  its  de-» 
fence,  our  professor  put  arms  into  the  hands  of  the  stu-? 
dents  of  the  university,  trained  and  disciplined  them,  and 
with  their  assistance  defended  the  city  until  the  grand  duke 
was  able  to  send  them  assistance. 

A  N  G  E  L- 1  O.  243 


-  In  1575,'  the  ictirdinal  Fei»dinflnd  de  Medicis^  who  watf 
afterwards  grand  duke,  took  Angelio  to  Rome  with  him^ 
settled  a  large  piension  on  him^  and  by  other  princely  marks 
of  farour,  induced  him  to  reside  there,  and  encouraged 
him  to  complete  a  poem,  which  he  had  begun  thirty  years 
before,  on  the  conquest  of  Syria  and  Palestine  by  the 
Christians.  Aiigelio  caused  all  his  poems  to  be  reprinted 
^  Rome  in  1585,  and  dedicated  to  this  cardinal^  who  re- 
warded him  by  a  present  of  two  thousand  florins  of  gold; 
When  he  became  grand  duke,  Angelio  followed  him  to 
Florence,  and  there  at  length  published  his  "  Syrias/^ 
He  was  now  enriched  by  other  pensions,  and  was  enabled 
to  pass  his  declining  years,  mostly  at  Pisa,  in  opulence  and 
ease.  He  died  Feb.  29,  1596,  in  his  seventy-ninth  year, 
and  was  interred  in  the  Campo  Santo,  with  great  pomp  ; 
and  a  funeral  oration  was  read  in  the  academy  of  Florence^ 
and,  what  was  still  a  higher  honour,  as  he  was  not  a  mem-' 
ber,  in  that  of  Delia  Crusca. 

•  Angelio's  published  works  are,  1.  Three  •*  Funeral 
Orations,"  in  Latin,  one  on  Henry  II.  of  France,  read  at 
Florence  in  1559,  the  second  on  the  grand  duke  Cosmo,  at 
Pisa  in  1 574,  and  the  third  on  the  grand  duke  Ferdinand, 
his  libeml  patron,  at  Florence,  1587.  2.  "  De  ordine  le-^ 
gendi  scriptores  Historiee  RotnansB,''  twice  printed  sepa- 
rately, and  inserted  in  Grotius  ^^  De  studiis  instituendis.'* 
3»  "  Poemata  varia,  diligenter  ab  ipso  reoognita,'*  Rome, 
1585,  4to.  This  collection,  the  greater  part  of  which  had 
been  printed  separately,  contains  the  poem  on  which  hia 
reputation  is  chiefly  founded,  the  **  Cynegeticon,"  or  the 
Chase,  in  six  books ;  and  the  **  Syrias,"  in  twelve  books, 
on  the  same  subject  as  Tasso's  "  Jerusalem  delivered.** 
4^.  **  De  |)rivatorum  "publicorumque  urbis  Romse  eversori- 
bus  epistola,'*  Florence,*  1589,  4to,  printed  since  in  the 
4th  volume  of  the  "  Thesaurus  antiquitatum  Romanarum.'* 
B,  "  Poesie  Toscane,**  published  with  a  translation  of  the 
CEdipus  of  Sophocles,  Florence,  1589,  8vo.  6.  Letters  in 
Latin  and  Italian  in  various  collections.  7.  ^^  Memoirs  of 
bid  life,"  written  by  himself,  and  published  by  Salvini  in 
the  "  Fasti  Consolari"  of  the  academy  of  Florence,  sftid 
abridged  in  the  present  article.  * 

ANGELIS  (DoMiNico  de),   author  of  several  pieces 
relating  to  the  history  of  literature,  was  born  the  14th  of 

}  Bioj.  Uniyersellc.«-»Mw.cri. 

a  2 


944  A  N  Q  EL  I  6. 

October  X^lSf  9X  Leecey  tiy^  cslpit4  of  Oferanto  in  the 
kingdom  of  Naples^  of  one  of  the  noblest  and  most  con<* 
aiderable  families  in  that  city.     He  began  his  studies  al 
Lecee,  aiKl  at  seventeen  years  of  age  went  to  finish  tbem  aft 
Naples,  where  he  ^plied  very  closely  to  the  Greek  lan-^ 
guage  and  geometfy*     He  went  afterwards  to  Maoerata^ 
where  be  was  admitted  LL.  D*     His  desire  of  improvement 
induced  him  also  to  travel  into  France  and  Spain,  wbene 
be  acquired  great  reputation.     Several  academies  of  I^y 
were  ambitious  of  procuring  him  as  a  member,  in  oonse* 
queiice  of  which  we  find  his  name  not  only  amongst  thos0 
of  the  Transformati  and  Spioni  pf  Lecce,  but  also  in  that 
of  the  Investiganti  of  Naples,  in^the  academy  of  Florence, 
and  in  that  of  the  Arcadians  at  Rome,  into  the  last  of  which 
be  was  admitted  the  8th  of  August  1698.     He  went  into 
orders  very  early,  and  was  afterwards  canon  and  grand  pe- 
nitentiary of  the  church  of  Lecce,  vicar  general  of  Viesti, 
Gallipoli,  and  Gragnano,  first  chaplain  of  the  troops  of  the 
kingdom  of  Naples  and  of  the  pope,  auditor  of  M.  Nicho- 
las  Negroni,    and  afterwards  of  the  cardinal  his  uncle. 
Whilst  Philip  V.  of  Spain  was  master  of  the  kingdom  of 
Naples,  he  was  honoured  with  the  title  of  principal  histo- 
riographer, which  had  likewise  been  given  him  when  he 
was  in  France,  by  Louis  XIV. ;  and  he  afterwards  became 
secretary  to  the  duke  of  Gravina.     He  died  at  Lecce  the 
^th  of  August  1719,  and  was  interred  in  the  cathedral  of 
that  city ;  or,  acoording  to  another  authori^,  Aug.  7,  1718. 
His  works  are,   i.  *'  Dissertazione  interna  alia  patria  di 
Ennio,''  Jlome,  1701,  Florence  in  the  title,,  but  really  at 
Naples,  1712.     In  this  he  endeavours  to  prove  that  Eonius 
was  born  at  Rudia,  two  miles  from  Lecce^  and  not  Rudia 
near  Tarento.     2.  ^  Vita  di  monsignor  Roberto  Caracciolo 
vescovo  d' Aquino  e  di  Lecce,  170S.*'     3.  ^^  Delia  vita  di 
Scipione  Ammirato,  patrizio  Leccese,  libri  tre,*'  Lecce, 
1706.    4.  "  Vita  di  Antonio  Caraccio  da  Nardo."    5.  "  ViU 
di  Andrea  Pescbiulli  da  Corigliano.*'     These  two  are  not 
printed  separately,  but  in  a  collection  entitled  ^'  Vite  de^ 
Letterati  Salentini.*'     6.  *^  Vita  di  GiacoB»o  Antonio  Fer- 
rtiri,**  Lecce,  1715.     7.  <' Vita  di  Giorgio  Baglivo^'*  Lec- 
cese.    8.    '^  Lettera  discorsiva  al  March.   Giovani  Gio- 
seffio  Orsi,  dove  si  tratto  deir  origine  e  progressi  de  signori 
s^ccademici  Spioni,  e  delle  varie  lorb  lodevoli  applicazioni," 
Lecce,  1705,  8vo.     9.  ^^  Discorso  historico,  in  cui  si  tratta 
deir  origine  e  delle  fondazione  della  citta  di  Lecce  e  d'Al- 

A  N  G  E  L  I  &  jiM 

cmme  nigfiori  e  piu  prineipati  ncniMe  4i  cii^Mty*'  Lecee, 
1 705.  1 0.  '<  Le  Vite  de  letterati  Salentini^  ftLtte  V  The 
lives  of  lAitt  learned  men  of  Terra  d^Otranto,  part  I.  Flo- 
renee  in  the  title^  but  really  Naples^  17  lO.  The  seceiMl 
part  was publislied  ait  Naples,  17 13,  in  4te.  II.  *' Ora- 
akme  funel>re  recitata  in  occasione  della  morte  delP  imp^** 
radore  Giuseppe-  nel  vescofval  donoo  4i  Gallipoli/'  Nap4eS| 
i7t6.  12.  ^  Scritto  istorieo  legs^  sopra  le  ragieni  detU 
suspensieiH  del'  interdetto  locale  generate  della  chiefa  di 
Leece  e  sua  dioeesi/'  Rome,  17 19.  1 S.  ^  Tre  lettere  le- 
gtie.^  These  thi^e  letters  were  vrntten  ill  ^lefenoe  of  the 
right  of  the^ovcti  ^f  Leece.  14.  He  wrote  likewise  se* 
iverat  poeniS)  portiGularly  seven  sonriets,  vrincti  are  published 
ill  die  sdcottd  part-of  the  ^  Rtmo  9celte  del  «ign.  Barto* 
lommeo  Lippi,**  printed  ait  Looca,  1 7 1 9.  * 

ANGELJS  (]|^t£(i),  apaintet^  of  considerable  note  in 
die  last  oenttiry,  was  born  ait  Donfaii^  in  I^S,  and  visiting 
Ftaaders  and  Gemiaiiy  in  cbe  coarse  of  his  ^Indies,  made 
the  longest  stay  kt  Dusseldorpe,  enchanted  v^h  tWe  trea<* 
snres  of  painting  in  thateicy.  -He  came  to  England  abcwt 
the  year  1712,  and  soon  became  a  favourite  painter;  but 
in  the  year  I^S4, 4ie  set  oot  for  Italy,  where  he  «pem  three 
years.  At  Rome  his  pictures  gave  greet  sertisfaction,  l^nt 
being  of  a  reseived  temper,'  and  ^ol  ostentations  of  -his 
merit,  he  dii^^led  several  hy  the  reJ'Actance  with  wtnA 
be  exhibited  Ms  works;  hi)»  itndious  and  sober  tenvper  4ii* 
dining  him  mot>e'to  the  pcHisnit  of  his  art  than  tie  the  -ad^ 
iBantage  of  his  fortune.  Yetiiis  attention  to  the  laitter 
prevented  his  Tetami ng  to  CwgVand,  as  be  intended  ^  ^oi^ 
stopping-at)  Rennes  ¥11  Brelagne,  a  rich  and  pai4ia«ienttS!rf 
town,  be  was  so  immediately  ^overwhehnecl  with  empley^ 
mrnit  theve,^  ihat^be  settled  9Htb«it  cky,  arM  died  therein* 
short  time,  ih  1784,  when  he  %vas  not  alnyve  f\9rty^niifie 
yea^rs  of  age.  He  eKecH^tied  <v)nversations  and  lands^T^apei 
wHh  small  '%nres,  which  he  was  iond  of  enriehi^ng  with  pe«- 
pvesentations  of  frnit  and  iish.  His  manner  was  a  mi?ctuf^ 
of  Teniers  and  Wattean,  wi^  more  grace  than  4be  formeri 
and  moi>e  natnre  than  the  latter.  His  pencil  was  ea^^ 
bright,  and  flowing,  bat  his  colouring  too  faint  »ad  newe^ 
less..  He  afterwards  adopted  the  habits  of  R'cd^eAs  and 
Vandyeh,  more  pictaresqne  indeed,  bnt 'not so pi^er'lo 

<    ■     -     . 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Biograpl^ie  eniverselle. 

24S  A  N  G  E  L  I  S. 

improve  his  pi*o.duclions  in  what  their  chief  beauty  consist* 
ed^  familiar  life.  ^  .     ,  ^ 

.  ANGELIS  (Stephen  de),  an  Italian  mathematician^ 
was  educated  under  BonavenUire  Cavalieri,  the  most  emi<« 
nent  Italiaii  scholar  in  that,  science  in  the  seventeenth  cen« 
tuiy.  He  was  at  first  a  Jesuit,  but  that  order  being 
suppressed  in  1668,  he  applied  closely  to  the  study  <^  ma* 
tbematics,  and  taught  at  Padua  with  great  success,  pub-^ 
Jishing  various  works,  and  carrying  on  a  controversy  on  ther 
opinions  of  Copernicus  with;  Ricqioli  and  others.  Moreri^ 
from  a  manuscript  account  of  the  learned  men^  of  Italy^ 
written  by  father  Ppissop,  gives  a  nifuuerous  list  of  his 
publications,  some  of  which  were  an  Latin,  and  some  in 
Italian.  We  have  only  seen  his  ^^  MisceUaneum  hyperbo-r 
licum  et  parabolicum,'\Venice>  16B,9,  4to,  and  "Delia 
gravitadeir  Aria  e  Fluids,  DialogiV."  Padua,  1671-^2, 
4to.  His  controversy  on  Copernicus  wa,j5.'beiguB  in  "  Con-^ 
fiiderazioni  sopra  la  forza  d'alcune  cagioni  fisicbe;  matema-" 
tiche  addote  dal  Pad.  Ricoioli,  &c."  Venice,  i667,  4to, 
and  continued  in  a  second,. third»  and  fourth  part,  1668 — 9^ 


ANGEILO,  ANGELICO,  or  ANGIOU  (Jamss),  a  Flo- 
feutin^  writer  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteeath  centuries,  waa 
bom  ^  Scarperia,  in  the  valley  of  MugeUc^  and. studied 
Koder  John  de  Ravenna,  Yargerius,  Scala^^  P^ggio,  and 
other  learned  v^n*  After  studying  math0mMicii  for  some 
time,  hp  wept  to  Con^jtantiuople,  whe?i$;;he  resided  nine 
years,  and  whence  h^  sent  a  great  number  o£. letters  to 
£mmanuel  Cbrysoioras  at  Florence..  Ji^re likewise  he  had 
im  oppprtunity  of  studying  tb$  Greek  language,  and  ac-, 
quired  such  an  accurate  knowledge  of  it  as  tp  attempt  va-* 
rious  translation^.  On  bis  return  he  went  to  Rome,  and 
was  a  candidate  fpr  the  place  pf  the  pope^3  secretary,  which 
^t  that  time  Leonard  d'^ez;?o  obtained,  but  Angelo  ap« 
pears  to  have  held  the  oifipe  in;  1410,  from  this  time  we 
)iave  no  account  of  him,  except  that  be  is  said  to  have  died 
in  the  prime  of  life.  He  translated  from  Greek  into  Latin^ 
1.  "  Cosmogjraphi^  PtQjomaei,  lib.  VUL"  2.  **  Ptolo-^ 
nisei  quadripartiti^m."  3.  *^  Ciceronis  vita,*'  from  Plutarch, 
4*  The  lives  of  Pompey,  Brutus,  Marius,  and  Julius  Csesari 

I  Walpole's  Anecdotes  of  Painting, 
f  Morex'U'9f'B9jvo?9  3ii>Uoteca  Itali^ip^. 


A  N  G  EL  O.  247 

^o'  trom  Plutarch,  but  not  printed.  There  is  likewise  a 
work  entitled  **  Jacobi  Angeli  historica  narratio  de  vita, 
i^busque  gestis  M.  Tullii  Ciceronis,'*  Wirtemberg,  1564, 
Berlin,  1581  and  1587,  which  Fabricius,  in  his  BibL  Lat, 
Med.  ^v.  says  is  a  diflPerent  work  from  the  translation  from 
Plutarch.  * 

ANGELONI  (Francis),  a  learned  antiquary  of  the 
seventeenth  'century,  was  born  at  Terni,  in  the  duchy  of 
Spalatto,  and  became  secretary  to  the  cardinal  Hippolito 
Aldobrandini,  and  apostolic  prothonotary.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  academy  of  the  Insensati  at  Perugia,  and 
made  so  extensive  a  collection  of  curiosities  of  art  of  every 
kind,  that  it  was  thought  worthy  of  the  name  of  the  Roipan 
museum. '  The  marquis  Viticenzo  Giustiniani  engaged  An- 
geloni  to  publish  his  series  of  imperial  medals,  which  ac- 
cordingly appeared  under  the  title  **  L*Istoria  Augusta  da 
Giulio  Cesare  Costatino  il  magno,"  Rome,  1641,  dedi- 
cated to  Loui^  XIII.  As  he  was  considerably  advanced 
in  age,  when  he  undertook  this  work,  many  defects  were 
found,  and  pointed  out  with  some  severity,  which  in- 
duced him  to  prepare  a  new,  enlarged,  and  corrected 
edition,  but  this  be  did  not  live  to  finish,  dying  Nov* 
29,  J  6  52,  It  was  at  length  published  by  J.  P.  Bellori,  his 
maternal  nephew,  in  1685,  fol.  Rome,  enriched  with  addi- 
tional plates  and  ttie  reverses  of  the  medals  which  Angeloni 
bad  neglected,  and  which,  his  own  collection  being  now 
^old  and  dispersed,  were  taken  from  the  museum  of  Chris- 
tina, queen  of  Sweden.  Angeloni  published  also  the  his- 
tory of  his  native  country,  "  Storia  di  Terni,**  Rome,  1646, 
4to,  and  1685,  with  a  portrait  of  the  author;  and  wrote 
9ome  letters  and  dramatic  pieces,  not  in  m^ich  estimation.* 
•  ANGELUCCI  (Th^dore),  in  Latin  Angelutius,  an 
Italian  poet  and  physJHan,  who  flourished  about  the  end 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  bom  at  Belforte,  a  castle 
near  Tolentino,  in  the  march  of  Ancona.  He  was  a  phV-- 
sician  by  profession,  and,  on  account  of  his  successiul 
practice,  was  chosen  a  citizen  of  Trevisa,  and  some  other 
towns.  He  acquired  also  considerable  reputation  by  a  li- 
terary controversy  with  Francis  Patrizi,  respecting  Aristotle. 
Some  writers  infoi^m  us  that  he  had  been  one  of  the  profes- 
sors of  Padua,  but  Riccoboni,  Tomasini,  and  Papadopoliy 
|be  historians  of  that  university,  make  no  mention  of  hifOU 

I  Marchand  Diet.  Hist— Biog.  UDiyerieUe.«*Saxii  OaoiustictOt 

II  Biog.  Universelle.— Diet  UlsU 

243  A  N  G  £  L  U  C  C  I. 

We  learn  from  himself,  in  one  of  his  dedicatjwasi  that  lift 
resided  for  some  time  at  Bx)me9  and  that  in  4593  he  wa&  at 
Venice,  an  exile  from  his  country,  and  in  great  distres<|  but 
he  says  nothing  of  a  residence  in  France,  whierei,  if  acoMrd-* 
ing  to  somey  he  had  been  educated,  we  cannot  suppose  he 
Would  have  omitted  so  remarkable  a  circumstance  in  Ipi^ 
history.  He  was  a  member  of  the  academy  of  Venice,  and 
died  in  l&OO,  at  Montagnana,  where  he  was  the  principal 
physician,  and  from  which  his  corpse  was  brought  for  intM*-; 
ment  at  Trevisa,  He  k  the  authov  of,  l .  <<  Seateoda 
quod  Metapbysica  sit  eadem  que  Physica,'^ .  Venice^  15$4^ 
4to.  This  is  a  defence  of  Aristotle  against  PatrUi,  whoi 
preferred  Plato.  Patrizi  answered  it,  and  Aogelucci  fe}* 
lowed  with,  2.  ^^  Exercitatioaum  cum  Patricio  liberi"  Ve* 
nice,  15S5,  4to.  3.  ^' Ars  Medica,  ex  Hippocnatas  et  Gale^ 
ni  thesauris  potissimum  deprompta,"  Yeoice,  li^93,  4to> 
4.  '*  ^e  natura  et  ouratione  maligass  Febris,''  Veaicf^ 
1593,  ito.  This  was  severely  attacked  by  DonateHi  4# 
Castiglione,  to  whom  Ang^cci  replied,  in  the  same  ye^fi 
in  a  tract  entitled  ^^  Bactria,  quibus  rudens  quidam  ac  £4-t 
sus  criminator  valide  repercutitur.''  5.  ^^  Deus,  ^aDaonl^ 
spirituale  di  Celio  ntagno,  &c.  con  di^e  Lezioni  di  T>  Au-^ 
gelucci/'  Venice,  1597,  4to.  $^  ^^  Capitolo  in  ledf  deUa 
paszia^^^  inserted  by  Garsoni,  to  whom  it  was  addressed 
in  his  hospital  of  fools,  <<  Oaipitale  de  pazzi/'  Venice,  ISM 
and  1601.  7.  ^'  lEneide  di  Virgilio,  tradotto  in  v&tMO  sci-» 
plto,**  Naples,  1649,  12mo.  This,  which  is  the  only  edi^ 
tion,  is  very  scarce^  and  highly  praised-by  the  Italian  critics^ 
but  «ome  have  attributed  it  to  father  Ignatio  Ang^ucci,  a 
Jesuit ;  others  are  of  opinion  that  tgnatio  left  no  woork  whieb 
can  ipduce  us  to  believe  him  capable  of  »ucb  a  translaticMi,.  ^ 
ANGELUS  (Chri$toph£k),  a  learnedGreek  ef  the  seven- 
teenth century,  author  of  several  learned  and  curious  work^ 
was  born  at  F^ofponnesus  in  Greece,  and  obliged  by  th# 
Turks  to  abandon  his  country  on  account  of  ^  TeUgioui 
fot  which  he  suffered  a  variety  of  torments.  He  -came  af<* 
terwards  to  England,  where  he  was  supported  by  the  bishop 
of  Norwich  and  several  of  the  clergy.  Qy  this  prelate's 
reaommendation,  he  went  to  Cambridge,  and  studied  about 
three  yeara  in  Trinity  college.  In  Whitsuntide  1610,  faf 
lemoved  to  Oxford,  and  studied  at  Baliol  college,  where 
lie  did  great  service  to  the  young  scholars  of  the  umversi^^ 

.  «  mag.  Itehrmctta^^^lMer  ek  Manfet.  BiM.  Mel. 

A  M  Q  S  L  V  9.  t4t 

^y  intlxii^ftii^  tbem  im  A^  Greok  Ungm^ ;  in  iifbicb  ami** 
nor  ^Q  Bii|ploy«4  hkit^f  uQ  bid  dMdi»  whtob  iMqppMied  on 
A^  m  of  F^Uroitty  i«sa.  He  wii$  buried  iti  :8U  £bbe*» 
chviKdi  or  ch«rcb*y«r4»  Oxfoidr 

.  To  libis  brief  Accovnt  from  Wood's  Atfaeineiy  we  Me  vom 
enabled  to  add  mstoy  p^vtieuUYs,  gtea^od  fivom  bis  wfnkm 
by  •  loora^d  oaireaiKaJadeAt  of  tbe  GentlMnn's  MagMine. 
It  appt^w^^at  be  W99  a  Craek  Gbiisdan^  a  naUfe  of  Pe-^ 
lojpooaoMV^  that  be  travelkid  throng  Oreooe  io  qitett  ^f 
seligioiis  tru^  and  instmction  ^  and  dmt  ivbea  be  came  to 
Atibeii%  tbo  Turkiib  gOTernor  thvew  him  into  priioii|  said 
inflac^d  4be  «ev«reat  ennriues  U|MHi  biiii»  beonuae  be  wonld 
not  «]^)«re  CMstiMicy,,  m^  impeacb  tbe  Atbeniaii  iBeis 
obant%  wbo  tbea  trafficked  widi  Veoto^,  of  baving  sent 
bi«^  P9  betray  Athena  to  die  Spaniards ;  an  ii!ipeacbn»nt 
sdki^ed  for  the  purpose  of  throwing  odium  on  the  Athe^ 
liiaa  CbnstiaiMSy  md  of  enabling  tbe  governor  to  arenge 
bips^  fer  oertain  oamplBiBts  tbey  bad  preferred  against 
bioi  W  ^  .««ibUne  Parte.  These  cu^uolties  be  anrvived) 
and  haying  been  lete^sed  £rom  pnaon  on  tbe  iotenccssion 
of  fiOm^  men  of  tank  and  influence^  be  escaped  by  tbe 
first  €0fiiFe}Wiee  ^  £iig)aiid«  He  lat«ded  at  Yarmootfa  m 
1608^  %iMi  fmn  <A|e  bishop  (Dr.  Jegoo)  luid  tleip^of  Nor* 
fqlk^  vmbo  cwtribnted  liberally  to  his  telief^.be  reoeirad 
letiofs  of  ^oaiftmendatsoR  to  the  beirds  of  tbe  university ,of 
Daoibfidge^  After  a  year's  residenoe  there^  be  ramoFod 
for  .4ibe  >ake  of  bis  heallb /to  Oldbrd,  wbeiie,  in  1617,  be 
IHibi^EAifefd  ibia  story  of  bis.  perseootion  at  Adieos,  and  of  bis 
kiM  receplioii  in  EngVsnr4>  to  wbioh  oouatry  and  its  inba^ 
biNwta  be  SD^i^oieed.  a  sihort  address  of  panegyric  This 
workf^bicfe  is  in  Qreek  ai>d  £T>g(tsb,  As  entitled  *^  Of  tbe 
many  stripes  and  tofsoeals  inilioted  on  him  by  the  Tucks, 
fw  tbe.  faith  w bicb  be  bad  in  Jesus  Cbcrist" 

Wff^  0;rfoFd  nest  year  be  seems  to  hanre  ffetnmed  «a 
Cambndge,  as  ia  \€19  he  published  <^  An  Eacomion  of 
tbe  faiHko^s  kii^dom  of  Gsreat  Britaine,  and  of  the  ttm 
flourisbiqg  sister  universities  of  Cambridge  and  Oxford,^ 
pjiso  GreSfi  and  £nglirii.  The  Greek  in  tibia,  aa  in  Us 
otb^r  w]QHing$»  tbou^  not  perfectly  chaste,  is  elegant  and 
perspicuous,  c^nd  the  ^n^  of  compositiQii  faecening  tjhe 
genius  of  Oieeoe^  except  pecbaps  in  certain  byperhotes  of 
panegyric,  which  seem,  however,*  to  have  sprung  from  tbe 
generous  ardour  of  gratitude  rather  than  from  tbe  base  ser* 
vility  of  adulation.     His  next  work^  tbe  same  year  as  tbe 

450  A  N  O  E  L  U  S. 

above,  and  from  th^  tiniTersitj«^pres8,  is  a  curious  account  of 
the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  the  Greek  church.  This  is  in 
Greek  and  Latin.  "  Enchiridion  de  institutis  Grifecorum.** 
Of  this  there  were  afterwards  two  editions  by  Fehlavius, 
Francfort,  1655,  i2mo,  and  Leipsic,  1676,  4to.  The  for- 
mer appears  to  (lave  been  the  Latin  only. 

His  fourth  work,  published  atLondon,  1624,  Sti  Gr.  and 
Lat.  is  entitled  **  Labor  C.  A',  de  Apostasia  Eccl^i®,  et 
dc  Homine  peccati,  scilicet  AntichristOj  &c.'*  The' object 
is,  in  the  first  insuince,  to  establish  a  distinctioh  "^betwixt 
the  apostacy  and  iAie  man  of  sin  in  2  Thess.  ii.'  3 ;  to  prove 
that  the  apostacy,  predicted  as  necessary  to  take  place  be- 
fore the  coming  of  Antichrist,  was  fulfilled  inthe^tirrender 
of  the  temporal  powers  to  pope  Boniface  by  the  emperor 
Phocas,  and  that  *  Mahomet;  who  appeared  within  eleven 
years  after,  was  the  Antichrist;  and  lastly,  to  demonstratei 
by  somev  ingenious  calculations,  which  are  also  applied  to 
6ther  subjects  of  prophecy,  that  the  destruction  of  the  last 
of  the  Mahomets,  to  all  of  whom  he  attaches  the  title  of 
Antichrist,  will  happen  in  the  year  1876,*    ^ 

ANGERIANO  (Girolamo),  was  an  Italian  poet  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  of  whose  history  we  have  nb  particulars. 
His  poems,  which  are  in  Latin,  were  printed  for  the  first 
thne  at  Naples,  1 520,  8vo,  under  the  title  of  "  De  obitii 
Lyd^ ;  de  vero  poeta ;  de  Parthenope.'*  His  Efc^iiFmymp, 
which  is  a  collection  of  love  verses,  dedicated  notwithstand- 
ing to  the  archbishop  of  Bari,  was  reprinted  at  Paris  in 
I5i2j  12mo, 'with  the  poetry  of  MartiUus  and  Johannes 
Secundus,  to  both  of  whom,  however,  he  is  inferior.  There 
was  another  edition  in  1582,  12mo.  Many  of  his  works 
are  also  inserted  in  the  **  Carm.  illust.  Poet.  Italdrum.*** 


ANGHIERA  (Peter  Martyr  d'),  an  Italian  scholar, 
was  born  in  1455,  at  Arona,  on  the  Lake  Major.  'His  fami- 
ly, one  of  the  most  illustrious  in  Milan,  took  the  name  of 
Anghiera,  from  the  same  lake,  which  is  partly  in  the  county 
of  Anghieca.  In  l477,  he  went  to  Rome,  and  entered 
into  the  service  of  the  cardinal  Ascanio  Sforza  Visconti, 
and  afterwards  into  that  of  the  archbishop  of  Mildn. 
During  a  residence  there  of  ten<  years,  he  formed  an  ac^ 

quaintance  with  the  most  eminent  literary  men  of  his  time, 

(■  . 

1  Wood's  Athenae,  vol.  I. — Gent.  Mag.  vol,  I^XIV. 
tBtog.  UiiiTer8«Ue.«->Roscoe's  Leo. 

A  N  6  H  I  E  R  A.  SSI 

and  anumg  odiers,  with  Pomponio  Leto.  In  1487,  he 
went  into  Spain  in  the  suite  of  the  ambassador  of  that 
court,  who  was  returning  home.  By  him  he  was  presented 
to  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  king  and  queen,  and  served  in 
two  campaigns,  but  quitted  the  army  for  the  church,  and 
was  appointed  by  the  queen  to  teach  the  belles  iettres  to 
the  youD^  men  of  the  court,  in  which  employment  he  con«^ 
tinued  for  some  time.  Having  on  various  occasions  shown 
a  capacity  for  political  .business,  Ferdinand,  in  ISOl,  em- 
ployed him  on  an  errand  of  considerable  delicacy,  to  the 
sultan  of  £g3rpt,  in  which  he  acquitted  himself  greatly  to 
his  majesty^s  satis&ction.  While  engaged  in  this  businesi^,' 
he  took  the  opportunity  of  visiting  some  part  of  Egypt,* 
particularly  the  pyramids,  and  returned  to  Spain  in  the 
month  of  August  1502.  .  From  this  time  he  became  vlU 
tached  to  the  cour*t,  and  was  appointed  a  member  of  the 
fdouncil  for  the  aflairs  of  India.  IHie  pope,  at  the  king*^ 
request,  made  him  apostolical  prothonotary,  and  in  ISaSy 
prior  of  the  church  of  Grenada,  with  a  valuable  benefice* 
After  the  death  of  Ferdinand,  Anghiera  remained  as  ihncfa 
in  favour  with  the  new  king,  and  he  also  waii  presented 
by  Charles  V.  to  a  rich  abbey.  He  died  at  Grenada  ini 
1526,  leaving  several  histcMdcal  works,  which  are  often 
quoted  by  the  name  of  Peter  Martyr,  aa  if  that  were  his 
femily  name;  and  in  the  Diet.  Hist,  he  is  recorded  under 
Martyr.  His  principal  works  are,  1.  <^  Opus  Epistolarum 
Petri  Martyris  Anglerii,  Mediolanensis,**  1530,  foL  re- 
printed mbre  correctly  in  Holland  by  Elzevir,  1670,  fol. 
with  the  letters  and  other  works,  Latin  and  Spanish,  of 
Ferdinand  de  Pulgar.  This  work,  which  is  much  esteemed, 
is  divided  into  thirty^eight  books,  comprehending  the  whole 
of  his  political  life  from  1488  to  1525,  and  contains  many  cu- 
riousUifitoricalparticularsnot  to  be  found  elsewhere.  2.  ^  De 
rebus  Oceanicis  et  orbe  novo  Decades,"  a  history  of  the  dis- 
covery of  the  New  World,  compiled  from  the  manuscripts  of 
Columbus,  and  the  accounts  he  sent  to  Spain  to  the  India 
council,  of  which  our  author  was  a  member.  These  Decades 
were  at  first  printed  separately :  the  first  edition  of  the  whole 
is  that  of  Paris,  1536,  fol.  which  has  been  often  reprinted. 
3..  '^  De  iosulis  nuper  inventis  et  incoiarum  moribus,''  Ba- 
sil, 1521,  4to,  15^3,  fol.  4.  ^<  De  legatione  Babyloi^ica, 
Jibri  tres,*'  printed  with  the  Decades,  which  contains  an  ac- 
PQunt  of  his  embassy  to  the  sultan  of  Egypt.     Some  other 

tn  A  N  G  H  1  E  B  A. 


works,  but  rathar  oh  .dovd^fal  autharitj,  h^reimnatM* 
bated  to  bim. ' 

ANGILBERT  (St.),  abbot  of  Centula,  or  St.  Riguwr, 
in  the  oiatii  centoryi  was  descended  from  a  oobie  family  of 
Ne^stria.  He  wa$  educated  at  the  court  of  Cbariemagne, 
where  he  studied  the  languages  with  that  prinoe  and  tiie 
otb^  courtiers,  under  the  learned  Alcuiuus,  who  sfterwards 
^nsidered  him. as  bis  son.  Charieiuagne,  having  caused 
bis  son  Pepin  to  be  crowned  king  of  Italy,  made  Angilbert 
that  prinoe^s  first  ikiinister :  he  then  went  with  iiira  iolo 
Italy,  and  returned  some  yeais  afber  to  Fr^ce,  wbca 
C!hMrleiiiagnit  ^te  him  his  daughter  Berdia  in  marriage ; 
^ttt  «ome  historians  say  that  this  marriage  was  rendeicd  ne* 
oeBsary  by  ^  lady's  being  delivered  previously  of 
Whatever  truth  may  be  in  this,  An^lhert,  being  how 
in-law  to  Charlemagne,  was  made  duke  or  govexmor  of  the 
coast  of  France  from  the  Scheldt  (to  the  Seine,  and  the  kiog 
also  made  him  his  secretary  and  prime  niinister;  .fant  Al^ 
owniis,  abbot  of  Coibie,  prevailed  on  him  to  tiecome  a 
monk  in  the  monastery  of  Centula,.  or  St.  Ricpiicir,  with  the 
Moaent  bo|h  of  his  wife  and  the  king.  Notwithstanding 
his  lovie  of  soh^ude,  he  was  frequently  obliged  to  leave  the 
monastery,  and  attend  to  the  aiEairs  of  the  diunchand  ataie, 
and  was  three  flimes  seat  to  the  court  of  Rome;  he  also 
acoompafiicd  Cfaariemagtie  thither,  in  the  year  iftOO,.  when 
that  prince  was  cnown^fd  in  that  city  emperor  of  the  West, 
lie  died  on  the  ISth  of  February  814.  Angiibevt  liad  micli 
a  luste  ibr  poetry,  that  Charlemagne  called  him  has  Hcmier. 
There  are  but  £aw  of  his  works  remaiiung,  exe^t  s  bistory 
pf  faismonastevy,  which  Mabiltonhas  inserted  in  his  ^Ayh- 
nidiea  de  Ttirdne  de  St  Benoit."  As  to  the  ^  flisteire  de 
premieres  expediticms  de  Charlemagne  pendant  sajcuoesse 
ttavavit  soQ  regne,^  1741,  8vOy  with  the  title  nf  ficxner, 
given  htm  by  Chaclemagne,  either  because  bm  delighted  in 
ihat  fwet,  or  because  he  was  himself  a  poet ;  it  is.  in  fact  a 
vomanoe  waritleB  by  Dufresne  de  Francheville.* 

ANGIOLELLO  (John  Maaio),  wlm  was  iborn  at  Vi* 
MAZa,  composed  in  Italian  and  the  Turkish  iaftigiiage  the 
^^  History  of  Mahomet  11/*  which  he  dedicated  to  him.  ~  It 
waa  ytry  kindly  received  by  that  haughty  suItaB,  who,  bje* 

1  Biog.  UDkerselle. — Diet.  Hist,  iioder  Martyr.— Cave,  tqI.  Xi,-^abziGii  BiM. 
IM.  Med. — '"Saxn  Onomaeticon. — Chaufepie,  under  Martyr. 
« Amv*  «]MwrMUe.**-«ci.  Kit.. 

A  N  G  r  O  L  i:  L  L  O.    '  Srss 

•ides  file  civilities  which  he  shewed  to  AogioleUp,  bestowed 
on  him  Tery  considerable  proofs  of  his  liberality.  The 
author  had  been  an  eye-witness  of  what  he  related ;  for^ 
being  one  of  the  slaves  of  the  young  sultan  Mustapha,  h<r 
followed  him  in  the  expedition  to  Persia  in  1473,  which 
Mahomet  carried  on  in  person  with  almost  200,000  soldiers 
into  the  dominions  of  Ussun*Cadsan.  It  is  somewhat  sur« 
prising  that  Angiolellp,  who  knewjvvithout  doubt  the  haughty 
disposition  df  ^is  emperor  of  the  Turks,  should  venture  to 
repeat  the  abusive  terms,  which  Ussuii-Cassan  used  in  re-i* 
proaching  him  with  his  illegitimate  birth,  when  he  viewed 
the  army  of  the  enemies  from  a'  hill  upon  the  bank  of  the 
Euphrates.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  Angiolello^s  book 
was  not  the  less  kindly  received,  or  the  less  amply  rewarded* 
There  was  printed  at  Venice  in  1553  a  piece  of  6to v.  Mario 
Angkilello,  **  Delia  vita  et  fatti  di  Re  di  Persia;*'  and  be 
wrote  also  '*  Relatione  della  vita  e  de'  fatti  del  signor 
Ussun-Cassan,"  inserted  in  the  second  volume  of  Ramusio'tf 
Voyage,  1559,  fol.  By  this  it  appears  that  he  was  living  in 
1524,  and  probably  old,  as  this  was  fifty-<one  years  after  the 
battle  on  the  Euphrates,  at  which  he  was  present.^ 

ANGLIC  US  (GILBERTUS),  aVy  as  Bale,  PiUs,  and  Tan-, 
ner,  call  him^  Gilbertus  LsotBUS,  was  priiysician  to  Hu- 
bert, archbishop  of  Canterbury,  in  the  time  of  king  John» 
or  towards  the  year  1210.  Leland  makes  him  flourish 
later ;  and  from  some  passages  in  his  works,  he  must  have 
lived  towards  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century.  The  me- 
moirs of  this  medical  writer  are  very  scanty:  Dr.  Freind 
has  commented  with  much  impartiality  upon  his  Compeu'* 
dium  of  Pbysicy  which  is  still  extant,  and  appears  to  be  the 
earliest  remaining  writing  on  the  practice  of  medicine 
among  our  countrymen.  That  elegant  writer  allows  him  a 
ibare  of  the  superstitious  and  empirical,  although  this  will 
not  make  him  inferior  to  the  medical  writers  of  the  age  in 
which  he  lived.  His  ^^  Compendium'*  was  published  at 
Lyons,  1610,  4to,  and  at  Geneva,  1608.* 



ANG08CI0LA,  or  ANGUSSOLA  (Sophonisba),  an 
eminent  Italian  paintress,  was  born  at  Cremona  in  1533,  of 

1  Oen.  Diet.— >M«rtri.<*-Biog.  Uaif  ertdle. 

*  Leland,  PitU»  Taaner.-^Freind't  Hist.  rol.  II.— •Mailer  Bibt.  Med.-^Aikia'^^ 
Bio;.  MMiQirff  d#  Mc^icini. 


2S4  A  N  G  O  S  C  r  O  L  A. 

a  distinguished  family.  The  author  of  the  Museum  tto* 
rentinumis  guilty  of  a  very  remarkable  anachronism,  ii| 
regard  to  Sophonisba;  for  he  fixes  her  birth  in  1559,  inr 
which  year  it  is  absolutely  impossible  she  could  have  beeit 
born.  This  appears  incontestably  from  Vasari,  who  tell^ 
MS,  that  she  paitited  the  ^portrait  of  the  queen  of  Spain,  by 
order  of  Pope  Paul  IV.  in  1561 ;  and  to  prove  this  fact,  he 
inserts  the  letter  which  she  sent  along  with  the  picture  to 
the  Pope,  and  also  the  Pope's  answer,  both  dated  in  1561  j 
Sophonisba's  from  Madrid  the  16th  of  September,  and  the 
Pope's  from  Rome  the  1 5th  of  October ;  at  which  time,  ac- 
cording to  the  Museum  Florentinum,  she  could  have  been 
only  two  years  old,  if  born  in  1559.  The  first  instructor  of 
this  eminent  paintress  was  Bernardini  Campo  of  Cremona ; 
but  she  learnred  colouring  and  perspective  from  Bernardo 
Gatti,  called  Soiaro.  One  of  her  first  performances  was 
the  portrait  of  her  father,  placed  between  his  two  children, 
with  such  strong  characters  of  life  and  nature,  with  a  pen** 
cil  so  free  and  firm,  and  so  lively  a  turn  of  colour,  that  hex 
work  was  universally  applauded,  and  she  was  acknowledged 
an  incomparable  painter  of  portraits.  Through  eveiy  part 
of  Italy  she  is  distinguished  by  no  other  name  than  that  of 
Sophonisba.  But  although  portraits  engrossed  the  greatest 
part  of  her  time,  yet  she  designed  several  historical  subjects^ 
with  figures  of  a  small  size,  touched  with  abundance  of 
spirit,  and  with  attitudes  easy,  natural,  and  graceful.  By 
continual  application  to  her  profession  she  lost  her  sight } 
and  it  is  recorded  that  Yandyck,  having  had  an  opportunity 
of  conversingjwith  Sophonisba,  used  to  say,  that  he*receive<( 
more  beneficial  knowledge  of  the  two  principles  of  his  ar^ 
from  one  blind  woman,  tha^i  by  studying  all  the  works  o£ 
the  greatest  masters  of  Italy.  At  Lord  Spencer's,  atWim-* 
bledon,  there  is  a  portrait  of  Sophonisba,  playing  on  the 
harpsichord,  painted  by  herself;  an  old  woiiian  appears  as 
ber  attendant;  and  on  the  picture  is  written,  Jussu  Patris^ 
And  at  Wilton,  in  the  Pembroke  collection,  is  the  marriago 
of  St.  Catherine,  painted  by  Sophonisba.  One  of  her  sis-* . 
ters,  named  Lucia  Angusciola,  painted  portraits,  and 
gained  by  her  performances  a  reputation  not  inferior  to 
Sophonisba,  as  well  in  regard  to  the  truth  and  delicacy  of 
her  colouring,  as  the  justness  of  the  resemblance.  And 
another  of  her  sisters,  named  Europa  Angusciola,  fronj 
her  infancy  manifested  an  extraordinaiy  turn  for  paintingi 

A  NO  O  S  C  I  O  t  A.  9SS 

gnd  shewed  such  tast^  and  elegance  in  her  manner  of  de- 
sign, as  to  procure  a  degree  of  applause  almost  equal  to 
Lucia  or  Sophonisba. 

A  portrait  of  .one  of  these  sisters,  by  Sophonisba,  a  circle 
in  pannel,  was  sold  in  1801,  at  the  sale  of  Sir  William  Ha- 
milton's pictures.  An  engraving  of  Sophonisba  was  given 
in  the  Gentleman^s  Magazine  for  October  180],  from  a 
miniature  in  Mr.  Gough^s  possession,  painted  by*herself. 
Round  the  monogram  is  this  inscription,  ^'  Sophonisba 
Angussola,  virgo,  ipsius  manu  ex  speculo  depicta  Cre- 
monae."  * 

ANGOULEME  (Charles  de  Valois  duke  d'),  the  na- 
tural son  of  Charles  IX.  and  Maria  Touchet,  was  bom 
April  28,  1575,  and  distinguished  himself  by  his  bravery 
during  the  reign  of  five  kings.  Being  intended  from  his 
infancy  for  the  order  of  Malta,  he  was,  in  1587,  presented 
to  the  abbey  of  Chaise-Dieu,  and,  in  1589,  was  made 
grand  prior  of  France.  Catherine  de  Medicis  having  be- 
queathed him  the  estates  of  Auvergne  and  Lauraguais,  he 
quitted  the  order  of  Malta,  with  a  dispensation  to  marry; 
^nd  accordingly  in  1591,  married  Charlotte,  daughter  of 
the  constable  Henry  of  Montmorenci.  In  1606,  Margaret 
de  Valois  applied  to  parliament,'  and  set  aside  the  will  of 
Catherine  of  Medicis,  and  the  estates  were  given  to  the 
jdauphin,  aftery^rards  Louis  XIII.  Charles,  however,  con- 
tinued to  take  the  title  of  count  d' Auvergne,  until  16]  9, 
when  the  king  bestowed  on  him  the  duchy  of  Angouleme. 
He  was  one  of  the  first  to  acknowledge  Henry  IV.  at  St. 
Cloud,  and  obtained  great  reputation  for  his  services  in  the 
battles  of  Arques,  Ivry,  &c.  In  1602,  being  implicated  in 
Biron's  conspiracy,  he  was  sent  to  the  Bastille,  but  obtained 
his  pardon.  Being,  hoyirever,  afterwards  convicted  of  a 
treasonable  attempt  in  concert  with  the  marchioness  de 
Verneuil,  his  uterine  sister,  he  was  arrested  a  second  time 
in  1604,  and  next  year  condemned  to  lose  Kis  head,  which 
Henry  IV»  commuted  for  perpetual  imprisonment;  but  in 
1616,  we  find  him  again  at  large,  and,  in  1617,  at  the  siege 
of  Soissons.  Being  appointed  colonel  of  the  light  cavalry 
of  France,  and  created  a  knight  by  order  of  the  king,  he 
was,  in  1620,  sent  as  t£e  principal  of  an  embassy  to  the 
emperor  Ferdinand  II.  the  result  of  which  was  printed  in 
1667,  undex  the  title  of  "  Ambassade  de  M.  le  due  d*An- 

^  PHkingt9B's  Dlct.^i-Gent.  Mag.  laoi.-^iog.  Univereeile. 

».  ■  ■  • 

s5«  A  N  G  o  i;  L  £  M  e: 

gooleme,  &c.^  fol.  The  narrative  i*  9cHi)6wiiat  dry,  fciit  it 
tontains  tiiany  particulars  of  considerable  interest  in  the 
history  of  that  time.  In  1 628^  the  duke  opened  the  famouii 
and  cruel  siege  of  Rocheile,  where  be  had  the  chief  com* 
matid  until  the  arrival  of  the  king.  He  also  bore  a  part  io 
liie  war  of  Langaedoc,  Germany,  and  Flanders.  He  dietl 
at  Paris,  Sept  24,  1650.  Frangoise  de  Nargonne,  whoni 
lie  married  for  his  second  wife,  In  1644,  died  one  hundred 
and  forty-one  years  after  her  father-in-law  Charles  IX. 
on  the  10th  of  August  1715,  aged  ninety-two.  The  duke 
d^AngouIeme  wrote,  1.  "  Memoires  tres-particuliers  du 
due  d'Angouleme,  pour  servir  a  l*histoire  des  regnes  de 
Henri  III.  et  Henri  IV.'*  ie6«,  l2mo,  Bineau,  the  editor 
of  this  work,  has  added  to  it  a  journal  of  the^negociations 
for  the  peace  of  Vervins,-  in  1598.  The  duke^s  meiiioirs 
also  form  tiie  first  volume  of  the  ^*  Memoires  pafticuliers 
pour  servir  iTHistoirede  France,"  1756,  4  vols.  12mo,  and 
the  third  volume  of  **  Pieces  fugitive*  pour  servir,  &c.** 
published  by  theinarquis  d*Aubais  et  Menard,  175S^,  3  vols. 
4to.  2.  ^*  Les^  harangues  prononcees  en  Fa^semblie  de 
M.  M.  les  princes  Protestants  d*Allemagn^,"  1620,  Svq. 
8.  **  Le  ffcnerale  et  fidele  relation  de  tout  ce  <jui  s*est 
pass6  en  r  Isle  de  Re,  &c.''  1627,  Svo.  4.  A  translation  of 
Diego  de  Torres*  history  of  the  kingdoms  of  Morocco,  Pet, 
&c:  Besides  these,  Bouthillier,  bishop  of  Troyes  in  th6 
beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  hsiid  a  folio  volume  of 
manuscript  letters,  written  by  the  duke  d*Angouleme,  from 
1633  to  1643,  and  another  collection  by  his  son,  Lo^is 
jEmmanuel  de  Valois,  count  d'Alais,  and,  after  his  father'^ 
death,  duke  d*Angouleme,  who  died  in  1653.* 

commonly  called  Michael  of  Bologna,  a  Romish  divine 
of  distiiiguished  learning  in  the  fourtcienth  century,  was 
bom  at  Bologna  in  Italy,  where  he  entered  of  the  order  of 
the  Carmelites;  but  studied  afterwards  in  the  university- of 
Paris,  and  there  received  the  degree  of  doctor.  In  the 
general  chapter  of  his  order,  which  was  held  at  Ferrara 
in  1354,  in  that  of  Bourdeaux  in  185S,  and  in  that  of 
Treves  in  1362,  he  was  named  regent  of  the  convent  at 
Paris.  After  arriving  at  other  honours  in  the  Romish  church, 
he  fell  under  the  displeasure  of  the  pope  Urban  VP.  and 
retired  to  the  coirvent  of  Bologna,  where  he  wrote  a  great 

>  Bkiv-  UaiverseHf ,**History  of  f^faoce. 

A  N  G  R  I  A  N  I.  ^57 

many  tiooklB,  «id  where  he  died  Nov.  16,  1400,  aecord- 
iug  to  fiitber  Lewis  de  Sainte  Terese ;  or  Dec.  1,  1416, 
according  to  Trithemius  and  Du  Pin.  The  editors  of  the 
General  Dictionary,  incline  to' the 'former  date.  Of  bis 
works,  there  were  published,  ^  Super  Sententias  libri  IV.** 
Milan,  1510;  and  Venice,  16S2,  fol.  <<  Commentaria  in 
Psalmos,**  which  was  first  published  at  Alcala  in  1524^ 
tinder  the  name  of  Ignotus,  as  the  author  was  not  then 
known ;  and  republished  in  the  same  manner  at  Lyons  in 
ljf88  and  1603.  These  and  commentaries  by  him  on 
other  parts  of  the  holy  scriptures  were  afterwards  pub«p 
lished  with  his  name,  fifst  at  Venice,  in3vols.  4to;  and 
at  Paris  in  1626,  in  two  vols,  folio ;  and  at  Lyons  in  1652 
and  1673,  in  the  same  form.  The  manuscripts  he  left  be- 
sides are  very  numerous,  and  were  preserved  with  great 
care.  One  of  them  was  a  dictionary  of  the  words  occur- 
ring in  the  Bible,  which  was  unfinished.* 

ANGUIER  (Francis  and  Michael),  the  sons  of  a  me- 
chanic in  the  town  of  Eu  in  Normandy,  became  very  emi- 
nent  for  their  skill  in  sculpture;  and  after  pursuing  their 
studies  at  Rome,  embellished  Paris  with  many  of  their  best 
works.  Of  these,  Francis  executed  the  altar  of  Val  de 
Grace,  the  fine  marble  crucifix  of  the  high  altar  of  the 
Sorbonne,  the  mausoleum  of  cardinal  de  BeruUe  in  the 
church  of  St.  Honorius;  and  ^specially  that  of  the  duke  of 
Montmorenci  at  Moulins,  and  the  four  figures  on  the  tomb 
of  the  diike  de  Longueville  at  Paris ;  the  figure  of  Pra« 
dence  is  esteemed  a  ^hef-d'ouvre '  of  graceful  expression* 
This  artist  is  said  to  have  exercised  bis  art  in  Endand^ 
but  we  do  not  find  him  noticed  by  Walpole.  He  died  at 
Paris  in  1699,  in  the  95th  year  of  his  age.  Michael,  who 
was  the  younger  brother,  born  in  1612,  executed  the  tomb 
of  the  grand  prior  of  Souvre,  the  ornaments  on  the  gate  of 
St.  Dennis,  the  figures  on  the  front  gate  of  Val'-de-grace, 
Amphitrite,  &c.  He  assisted  his  brother  likewise  in  some  of 
his  works,  and  died  in  1686,  aged  74.  They  were  both 
buried  at  St.  Roch,  where  they  are  honoured  with  an  epi- 

ANGUILLARA  (John  Andrew  de),  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  Italian  poets  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  bom 
about  1517,  at  Sutri  in  Tuscany,  of  viery  poor  parents. 
Afiber  feceiving  such  education  as  he  could  afford,  he  came 

*  Oen.  Diet,  «  Bhg.  Univcndlle.—Dict.  Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol.  IL  S 

25S  •    A  N  G  U  I  L  L  A  R  A. 

to  Rome,  and  engaged  hilnself  as  a  aorrector  of  the  preM  ^ 
but  an  intrigue  with  his  master's  wife,  in  which  he  was  de- 
tected, obliged  him  to  leave  Rome,^,witb  a  little  money  and 
a  few  cioatbS)  of  which  be  was  stripped  by  robbers.  He 
then  begged  his  way  to  Vienna,  and  there  got  immediate 
employment  from  Francescbi, .  the  bookseller ;  and,  while 
with  him,  wrote  his  translation  of  Ovid,  and  some  of  his 
original  works.  He  then  returned  to  Rome,  which  his  re- 
putation as  a  poet  had  reached,  but  his  misfortunes  also 
followed  hini ;  and  after  having  lived  for  some  time  oh  the 
sale  of  his  cloaths  and  books,  he  died  partly  of  hunger,  and 
partly  of  a  diseas6  contracted  by  his  imprudent  conduct, 
in  an  inn  near  Torre  de  Nona.  The  exact  date  of  his 
death  is  not  known,  but  it  appears  by  a  letter  addressed  to 
him  by  Annibal  Caro,  that  he  was' alive  in  1564.  His 
translation  of  the  Metamorphoses  still  enjoys  a  high  repu- 
tation in  Italy,  and  V^archi  and  some  other  critics  chuse  to 
prefer  it  to  the  paginal.  This  is  exaggerated  praise,  but  • 
undoubtedly  the  poetry  and  style  are  easy  and  elegant ; 
although  from  the  many,  liberties  he  has  taken  witK  the 
text,  it  ought  rather  to  be  called  an  imitation  than  a  trans- 
lation. The  editions  have  been  numerous,  but  the  best  is 
that  of  the  Giunti,  Venice,  1584,  4to,  with  engravings  by 
Franco^  and  notes  and  arguments  by  Orologi  and  Turchi. 
He  also  began  the  iEneid,  but  one  book  only  was  printed, 
1564,  4to ;  soon  after  which  period  it  is  supposed  be  died. 
His  other  works  are:  1.  "  CEdipo,"  a  tragedy,  partly  ori- 
ginal and  parUy  from  Sophocles.  It  had  great  success  in 
representation,  and  was  played, in  a  magnificent  temporary 
theatre  built  for  the  purpose  by  Palladio  in  1565.  2. 
**  Canzoni,"  addressed  to  the  dukes  of  Florence  and  Fer- 
rara.  3.  "  Poetical  arguments  for  all  the  cantos  of  Orlando 
Furloso.  4.  Four  "  Capitoli,"  or  satires,  printed  in  vari- 
ous collections  of  that  description.  It  appears  by  these 
last  that  he  was  gay  and  thoughtless  in  the  midst  of  all  his 
misfortunes.  * 

ANGUILLARA  (Loujs  or  Aloysio),  a  learned  Italian 

physician  and  botanist  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  - 

.  at  Auguillara,  a  s1n9.ll  town  in  the  ecclesiastical  states,  from 

.  which  he  took  his  namp.     The  republic  of  Venice,  in  con- 

,  sideration  of  the  character  be  acquired  during  bis  travels, 

bestowed  on  faiiu  the  title  of.Simplicista,  or  chief  botanist, 

1  Bip^.  -UniverseHe. 

A  N  O  U- 1  L  L  A  R  A.    *  25$ 

and  appointed  hinu  director  of  the  botanidsil  garden  of 
Padua.  This  office  he  appears  to  have  held  from  1540  to 
1561;  when,  disgusted  by  some  intrigues  formed  against 
him^  he  retired  to  Florence!  and  died  there  in  1570.  We 
have  very  few  particulars  of  his  private  history,  except 
what  can  be  gleaned  froca  the  only  work  that  has  appeared 
with  his  name.  His  studies,  facilitated  by  a  knowledge  .of 
the  ancient  languages,  were  principally  directed  to  bo« 
tany ;  in  pursuit  of  which  science  he  travelled  through 
Italy,  Turkey,  the  islands  in  the  Mediterranean,  Crete, 
Cyprus,  Corsica,  Sardinia,  and  part  of  Swisserland  and 
France.  The  knowledge  he  acquired  in  these  journies 
occasioned  his  being  consulted  by  the  most  eminent  bo- 
tanists of  his  time ;  and  a  collection  of  his  letters  on  botani- 
cal subjects  was  published,  with  his  consent,  by  Marinello, 
under  the  title  of  "  Semplici  dell'  eccelente  M.  Anguillara, 
li  quali^in  piu  pareri  a  diversi  nobili  nomini  scritti  appajouo 
et  nuovamente  da  M«  Giovanni  Marinello  mandati  in  luce,'* 
Venice,  1561,  8vo.  In  the  same  year  a  second  edition 
was  printed,  which  is  preferred  on  account  of  its  contain- 
ing two  plates  of  plants  not  in  the  first.  This  work,  al- 
though far  from  voluminous,  scfemed  to  establish  his  repu- 
tation, and  is  particularly  valuable  on  account  of  his 
learned  researches  into  the  ancient  names  of  plants.  ^ 

ANICH  (P£T£r),  astronomer,  geopietriciafl,  and  me- 
chanic, was  the  son  of  a  labourer  employed  in  agriculture. 
He  was  born  Feb«  22,  1723,  at  Oberperfuss^  a  village 
about  12  miles  from  Inspruck,  and  died  Sept.  1,  1766. 
While  engaged  in  the  menial  employments  of  labourer 
and  shepherd,  he  f^lt  an  irresistible  impulse  towards  astro- 
nomy and  geometry.  Pere  Hill,  a  Jesuit,  professor  in  the 
university  of  Inspruck,  discovered  his  talepts,  and  enabled 
him  to  cultivate  them  with  such  success,  that  in  a  short 
time  he  became  an  able  astronomer,  and  one  of  the  best 
mechanics  in  Europe.  He  made  a  pair  of  globes  for  the 
university  of  Inspruck,  which  are  acknowledged  to  be 
masterpieces  in  their  kind*  He  constructed  and  completed 
a  great  variety  of  mathematical  instruments,  and  drew 
maps  and  charts  of  admirable  accuracy  and  neatness. 
JSnatched  away  in  the  flower  of  hi9  age  from  the  arts  and 
scieaces,  he  was  deservedly  lamented  by  persons  of  real 
knowledge^ .  .  The  empress-queen,   whose  subject  he  was. 

26b  A  N  X.  C  H". 

and  who  had  granted  him  a  pension  pf  200  florins,  wfatcb 
he  enjoyed  hut  two  months,  settled  a  pension  of  50  florinai 
on  bis  sister,  to  testify  her  consideration  for  the  deceased. 
The  maps  which  he  left  were  puhlished  at  Vienna  in  1774, 
'^  Tyrolis  chorographia  ddineata  e  Petro  Anich  et  Blasio 
Hueber,  curante  Ign.  Weinhart.'*  Hi»  life  was  published: 
in  German,  at  Munich,  1767,  with  a  portrait. ' 

ANICHINI  (Lewis),  a  Venetian  engraver,  is  said  to 
have  acquired  s&  much  precision  and  delicacy  in  executing 
small  objects,  that  Michael  Angelo,  in  whose  time  he  ap- 
pears to  have  flourished,  considered  him  as  having  attained 
the  very  perfection  of  his  art :  he  principally  engraved 
medals ;  and  his  engravings  of  the  medals  of  Henry  II. 
ling  of  France,  and  of  pope  Paul  III.  which  has  on  the 
reverse,  Alexander  the  Great  kneeling  before  the  high 
priest  of  Jerusalem,  are  greatly  valued  by  connoisseurs* 
Strutt  mentions  another  Anichinv,  an  Italian  artist,  who 
Nourished  about  1655,  who  appears  to  have  been  an  en- 
graver of  some  note ;:  but  we  have  no  account  of  his  life.' 


ANNA-COMNENA,  a  lady  of  extraordinary  talents  in 
an  age  of  barbarism,  was  the  daughter  of  the  emperor 
Alexius  Comnenu's  I.  and  after  his  death  in  1118,  con- 
spired to  dethrone  his  brother  John,  and  {dace  the  crown^ 
on  the  head  of  ber  husband  Nicephorus  Briennius;  but 
while  she  displayed  the  spirit  and  intrigue  of  the  most  po« 
litre  of  the  male  sex,  her  designs  were  baffled  by  the  want 
of  vigour,  and  the  efieminacy  of  her  husband.  She  ap* 
plied  hei*self,  however,  to  such  studies  as  could  be  prose* 
cuted  in  that  age,  and  associated  much  with  the  learned 
men  of  Constantinople,  whose  fame  she  endeavoured  ta 
rival  by  the  "  Alexiad,"  or  **Tbe  life  of  the  emperor  Alex- 
ius Comnenns,''  her  father,  which  she  wrote  in  a  style 
that  was  much  admired.  It  i&  divided  into  fifteen  bodks ;; 
and,  making  some  allowance  for  the  flattering  portrait 
given  of  her  father,  her  frequent  digressions,  and  inaccvi- 
racy  as  to  dates,  contains  a  very  curious  assemblage  of 
facts,  and  many  spirited  remarics  on  the  Roman  pontiff^ 
whose  pretensions  to  spiritual  sovereignty  she  treats  with 
very  little  respect;  iidr  does  she  ever  mention  the  French 
nation  but  as  a  barbarous  pec^le,  whose  name  would  de-» 
file  the  beauty  and  elegance  of  history.     The  prestdefit 

'  Diet.  H1«t.— Biog.  Umrewelle. 

t  I^id»«-FelibieD  lur  let  Vitt  d«i  Peii|tre8,<-Mor€ri.— Strutt'i  DieU 



4.  N  N.A-e  Q  M  N.E  N  A.  261 

Cousin*  however,  published  a  very  correct  and  elegant 
French  translatiqu  of  the  life  of  Alexius,  which  is  in  the  4th 
rolume  of  the  Byzantine  historians.  There  was  also  an 
edition  printed  at  the  Louvre,  with  the  learqed  notes  of 
David  Hoeschelius,  1651,fol.  Her  husband  died  in  1137  ; 
but  th«(  time  of  her  own  death  has  not  been  ascertained.  ^ 


ANNAND  (WuLLiAM),  dean  of  Edinburgh  in  Scotland, 
the  son  of  W>lliam  Annand,  minister  of  Air,  in  Airshire, 
was  born  in  that  town  in  1633..  Five  years  after,  his  father 
was  obliged  to  quit  Scotland  with  hi^  family,  on  account  of 
their  loyalty  to  the  king,  and  adherence  to  the  episcopal 
government  establi^d  by  law  in  that  country.  In  1^51, 
young  Annand  was  admitted  a  scholar  ia  Vniversity-coU 
I^gGy  Ojcford ;  and  though  he  was  put  under  the  care  of  a 
Ptesbyteriaa  tutor,  }ret  he  took  all  occasions  to  be  present 
at  the  sermons  preached  by  the  loyal  divines  in  and  near 
Oxford.  In  1656,  being  then  bachelor  of  arts,  he  re- 
ceived holy, orders  from  the  hands  of  Dr,  Thomas  Fulwar, 
bishop  of  Ardifert,  or  Kerry  in  Ireland ;  and  was  appointed 
preacher  at  Weston  on  the  Green,  near  Bicester,  in  Oxf 
fordshire ;  where  he  met  with  great  encouragement  from 
air  Francis  Norris,  lord  of  that  nianor.  After  he  had  taken 
his  degree  of  M.  A.  he  was  presented  to  the  vicarage  of 
Leighton^Buzzard,  in  Bedfordshire;  where  he  distinguished 
himself  by  his  edifying  manner  of  preaching,  till  .1662,  when 
be  went  into  Scotland,  as  chaplain  to  John  earl  of  Mid- 
dleton,  the  king's  high  commissioner  to  the  church  of  that 
kingdom.  In  the  latter  end  of  1663,  he  was  instituted  to 
the  Tolbooth  church,  at  Edinburgh;  and  from  thence  was 
removed  some  years  after  to  the  Trone  church  of  that 
city,  which  was  likewise  a  prebend.  In  April  1676,  he  was 
nominated  by  the  king  to  the  deanery  of  Edinburgh ;  and 
in  1685  he  commenced  D.  D.  in  tike  university  of  St.  An- 
drews. He  died  June  13,  1689,  and  was  honourably  in« 
tei*red  in  the  Grey-friars  church  at  Edinburgh.  As  his 
life  wai$  pious  and  devout,  so  hia  sickness  and  death  af- 
forded great  consolation  to  those  who  attended  him  in  his 
)a$t  moments. 

His  works  are :  ^^  Fides  Catholica,  or  the  doctrine  of  the 
4CathoUc,church,  &c."  Lond.  1661 — 2,  4to.  **  PanemQuo- 
tidianum/'  in  defence  ofset  forms  and  of  the  book  of  Com* 

1  (Sen.  Dict.«-«M«r«ri.«-Sa3LU  OnomasticoiL 

J62  A  N  N  A  N  D. 

mon-prayer/'  1661, 4to.  ^^  Pater  Noster,^^  a  treatise  on  the 
Lord*8-prayer,  Lond.  1670,  8vo.  "  Mysterium  Pietatis,"  or 
the  mystery  of  godliness,  &c.  Lond.  1672,  8vo.  "  Doxo* 
logia,"  or  the  Doxology  reduced  to  glorifying  the  Trinity, 
Lond.  1672,  Syo.  ^^  Dnalitas,**  a  two-fold  subject,  on 
the  honour,  &c.  of  Magistracy,  Edin.  1674,  4to.  ^ 

ANNAT  (Francis),  confessor  to  Lewis  XIV.  was  born 
EtRouergne,  in  1590.  He  became  a  Jesuit  in  1607^  and 
professed  the  fourth  vow  in  1 624.  He  taught  philosophy  at 
Toulouse  six  years,  and  divinity  seven  ;  and  having  dis- 
charged his  duty  in  each  of  these  capacities  with  great 
applause,  he  was  invited  to  Rome,  to  act  as  censor-gene- 
ral of  the  books  published  by  the  Jesuits,  and  theologist  to 
the  general  of  the  society.  Upon  his  return  to  his  own 
province,  he  was  appointed  rector  of  the  colleges  of  ,Mont- 
V  pellier  and  of  Toulouse.  He  assisted  as  deputy  of  his 
^  province  at  the  eighth  congregation-general  of  the  Jesuits 
held  at  Rome  in  1645,  where  he  distinguished  himself  in 
such  a  manner,  that  father  Vincent  Caraffa,  general  of  the 
Jesuits,  thought  no  person  more  fit  to  discharge  the  office 
of  assbtant  of  France,  which  had  been  vacant  for  som^ 
time.  The  ninth  congregation  gave  him  the  same  post, 
tinder  Francis  Picolimini,  general  of  the  society,  upon 
whose  death  he  was  made  provincial  of  the  province  of 
France.  Whilst  he  was  engaged  in  this  employment,  he 
lyas  chosen  confessor  to  the  king  1654;  and  after  having 
discharged  this  office  16  years,  he  was  obliged  to  solicit 
his  dismission ;  his  great  age  having  much  impaired  his 
hearing.  Father  Sotueil,  from  whom  these  particulars  are 
taken,  gives  him  the  character  of  a  person  of  great  virtues, 
perfect  disinterestedness,  modesty,  and  humility ;  exact  in 
practising  the  observances  and  discipline  of  his  order ;  ex«' 
tremely  cautious  in  using  his  interest  for  his  own  advan- 
tage, or  that  of  his  family  ;  and  of  uncommon  zeal  for  re- 
ligion. ^^  He  was  the  hammer  of  heretics,"  says  he, 
^^  and  attacked  particularly,  with  incredible  zeal,  the  new 
heresy  of  the  Jansenists.  He  strenuously  endeavoured  to 
get  it  condemned  by  the  pope,  and  re-strained  by  the  au- 
thority of  the  king.  Besides  which,  he  confuted  it  with 
such  strength  of  argument,  that  his  adversaries  had  no- 
thing solid  to  reply  to  him.*'  There  are  many  (says  Mr. 
Bayle)  whom  father  Sotueil  will  never  convince  in  this  last 

1  Atb.  Ox.  yolf  IL — Bipgraphia  Britanntca. 

A  N  N  A  T.  263:; 

point ;  but  he  seems  to  agree  with  him  in  the  character  of 
disinterestedness  which  he  gives  to  Annat,  who  stirred  so 
littte  for  the  advancement  of  his  family,  that  the  king  is 
reported  to  have  said,  he  knew  not  whether  father  Annat 
bad  any  relations. 

Father  Annat  wrote  several  books,  some  in  Latin,  which 
were  collected  and  published  in  three  vols;  4to,  Paris, 
r666 ;  and  others  in  bad  French,  mostly  upon  the  disputes 
between  the  Jesuits  and  Jansenists.  lie  died  at  Paris  in 

ANNE.     See  BOLEYNE,  CLEVES,  &c. 
*  ANNESLEY '  (Arthuh),    earl  of  Anglesey,  and   lord 
privy  seal  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  was  born  July  10, 
J  6 14,  at  Dublin,  and  continued  in  Ireland  till  he  was  ten 
years  old,  when  he  was  sent  to  England!     At  sixteen  he. 
was  entered  fellow  commoner  at  Magdalen  college,  Ox- 
ford, where  he  pursued  his  studies  about  three  or  four 
years.     In  1634  he  removed  to  Lincoln^s  Inn,  where  he, 
studied  the  law  with  great  assiduity  till  his  father  sent  him* 
to  travel.     He  made  the  tour  of  Europe,  and  continued 
^ome  time  at  Rome,  whence  he  returned  to  England  in- 

i640,  and  was  elected  knight  of  the  shire  for  the  county  of 
Radnor,  in  the  parliament  which  sat  at  Westminster  in  No- 
vember of  the  same  year ;  but  the  election  being  contested, 
he  lost  his  seat  by  a  vote  of  the  house,  that  Charles  Price, 
esq.  was  duly  elected.  In  the  beginning  of  the  civil' war, 
Mr.  Annesley  inclined  to  the  royal  cause,  and  sat  in  the 
parliament  held  at  Oxford  in  1643  ;  but  afterwards  recon- 
ciled himself  so  effectually  to  the  parliament,  that  he  was 
taken  into  their  confidence,  and  appointed  to  go  as  a  com- 
missioner to  Ulster  in  1645.  There  he  managed  affair^ 
with  so  much  dexterity  and  judgment,  that  the  famous 
Owen  Roe  O'Neil  was  disappointed  in  his  designs ;  and  the 
popish  archbishop  of  Tuam,  who  was  the  great  support  of  hi4 
party,  and  whose  counsels  had  been  hitherto  very  success- 
ful, was  not  only  taken  prisoner,  but  his  papers  werd 
Seized,  and  his  foreign  correspondence  discovered,  whereby 
vast  advantages  accrued  to  the  protestaut  interest.  The 
parliament  had  sent  commissioners  to  the  duke  of  Ormond, 
for  the  delivery  of  Dublin,  but  without  success ;  and  the 
state  of  aflairs  making  it  necessary  to  renew  their  corre- 
spondence with  him,  they  made  choice  of  a  second  com- 

^  Gen.  Diot— 'Moreri. 

264  A  N  N  E  S  L  E  Y. 

TX&tteef  and  Mr.  Annesley  was  placed  at  the  head  of  this 
commission.  The  commissioners  landed  at  Dubhu  the  7th 
of  June  1647  ;  and  they  proved  so  successful  in  their  ne- 
gotiations, that  in  a  few  days  a  treaty  ,was  concluded  with 
the  lord  lieutenant,  which  was  signed  on  the  19  th  of  that 
month,  and  Dublin  was  put  into  the  hands  of  the  parlia« 
ment.  When  the  commissioners  had  got  supreme  power^ 
they  were  guilty  of  many  irregularities :  Mr,  Annesley  dis- 
approved of  their  conduct,  but  cpuld  not  hinder  then)  from 
doing  many  things  contrary  to  his  judgment :  being  there- 
fore displeased  with  his  situation,  he  returned  speedily  to 
England,  where  be  found  all  things  in.  confusion.  After 
the  death  of  Cromwell,  Mr.  Annesley,  though  he  doubted 
whether  the  parliament  was  not  dissolved  by  the  death  of 
the  king,  resolved  to  get  into  the  hou^' if  possible;  and 
h^  behaved  in  many  respects  in  such,  a  manner  as  shewed 
what  his  real  sentiments  were^  and  how  much  he  had  the 
resettling  of  the  constitution  at  heart.  In  the  confusiou 
which  followed  he  had  little  or  no  share,  being  trusted 
neither  by  the  parliament  nor  army.  $ut  when  things 
began  to  take  a  different  turn,  by  restoring  the  secluded 
members  to  their  seats,  Feb.  21,  1660,  Mr.  Annesley  was 
chosen  president  of  the  council  of  state,  having  at  that 
time  opened 'a  correspondence  with  Charles  II.  then  iir 

Soon  after  the  restoration,  Mr,  Annesley  was  created 
earl  of  Anglesey  ;  in  the  preamble  of  the  patent  notice  is 
taken  of  the  signal  services  rendered  by  him  in  the  king's 
restoration.  He  had  always  a  considerable  share  in  the 
Iiing's  favour,  and  was  heard  with  great  attention  both  at 
council  and  in  the  house  of  lords.  In  1667  be  was  made 
treasurer  of  the  navy ;  and  on  the  4th  of  February  1 6  7f , 
his  majesty  in  council  was  pleased  to  appoint  the  duke  of 
Buckingham,  the  earl  of  Anglesey,  the  lord  Holies,  the 
Jowl  Ashley  Cooper,  and  Mr.  secretary  Trevor,  to  be  a 
committee,  to  peruse  and  revise  all  the  papers  and  writings 
concerning  the  settlement  of  Ireland,  from  thq  first  to  the 
last ;  and  to  make  an  abstract  thereof  in  writing.  Ac- 
cordingly, on  the  12tb  of  June  1672,  they  wade  their 
report  at  large,  which  was  the  foundation  of  a  commission^ 
dat^d  the  1st  of  August  1672,  to  prince  Kupert>  the  dukes 
of  Buckingham  and  Lauderdale,  earl  of  Anglesey,  lords 
Ashley  and  Holies,  sir  John  Trevor,  and  sir  Thomas 
jChicheley,  to  inspect  the  settlements  of  Ireland^  and  all 

▲  N  N  £  S  t  £  T.  265 

procetdings  thereunto.    lii  I6'}3,   the  earl  of  Anglesey 
bad  the  office  of  lord  ptiVy  seal  conferred  upon  him.     tot 
October  1680,  his  lordship  was  charged  by  one  Dangers- 
field  in  ah  information  delivered  upon  oath;^  at  the'  bar  of 
the  house  of  commons,  with  endeavouring  to  stifle  evU 
dence  concerning  the  popish  plot,  and  to  promote  the 
belief  of  a  presby  teriaii  one.     The  uneasiness  he  received 
from  this  attack,  did  not  hinder  him  from  speaking  his 
opinion  freely  of  those  matters  in  the  house  of  lords,  par* 
ticularlyin  regard  to  the  Irish  plot.     In  1680,  the  earl  of 
Castlehaven  wrote  Memoirs  concerning  the  affairs  of  Ire- 
iand,  wherein  he  was  at  some  pains  to  represent  the  ge* 
neral  rebellion  in  Ireland  in  the  lightest  colours  possible, 
as  if  it  had  been  at  first  far  from  being  universal,  and  at 
last  rendered  so  by  the  measured  pursued  by  such  a^  ought 
to  have  suppressed  the  insurrection.    The  earl  of  Anglesey 
having  received  thede  memoirs  from  their  author,  thought 
fit  to  write  some  animadvoniohs  upon  ilhem,  in  a  letter  t6 
the  earl  of  Castlehaven,'  Whereih  he  delivered  his  opinion 
freely  in  respect  to  the  duke  of  Ormond  and  his  manage- 
ment in  Ireland.     The  duke  expostulated  with  the  lord 
privy  seal  on  the  s^ubject,'  by  letter,  to- Which  the  earl  re- 
plied.    In  1682,  the  earl  drew  up  i.very  particular  remon- 
strance, and  presented  it  to  king  Charles  II.     It  was  very 
warm  and  loyal,  yet  it  was  far  from  being  well  receivedl 
This  memorial  was  entitled.  The  account  of  Arthur  earl  of 
Anglesey,  lord  privy  seal  to  your  most  excellent  majesty, 
of  the  true  state  of  your  majesty*s  government  and  king- 
doms, April  27,  1682.     In  one  part  whereof  he  says,  "the 
fatal  cause  of  all  our  mistiUipfs,  present  or  apprehended^ 
and  which  may  raise  a  fir&,  which  may  burn  and  consume 
us  to'  the  very  foundation's,' is  the  unfeappy  perversion  of 
the  duke  of  York  (the  nekt  heir  to  the^fcrowii)  in  one  point 
of  religion  ;  which  Tlaturaliy  raises  jealqusy  of  the  power, 
designs,  and  practices,  of  the  old  enemies  of  our  religrbn 
mid  liberties,  and  undermines  and  emasculates  the  courage 
and  constancy  even  of  tho^e  and  their  posterity,  who  have 
been  as  faithful  to,  and  suffered  $ls  much  for  the  prown, 
1^  any  the  most  pleased  or  contented  in  our  impending 
miseries  can  pretend  to  have  dooe.'^     He  concludes  with 
these  words:  "Though  your  majesty  is  in  your  own  person 
above  the  reach  of  the  law,  and  sovereign  of  all  your 
people,  yet  the  law  is.  your  master  and  instructor  how  to 
govern  i  and  that  your  subjects  assure  themselves  you  wilt 

S€6  A  N  N  E  8  L  E  Y.   . 

never  attempt  th^  enervating  that  law  by  which  you  are 
king,  and  which  you  have  not  only  by  frequent  declara- 
tions, but  by  a  solemn  oath  lipon  your  throne,  .been 
obliged,,  in  a  most  glorious  presence  of  your  people,  to 
the  maintenance  of;  and  that  therefore  you  will  look  upon 
any  that  shall  pi^opose  or  advise  to  the  contrary,  as  unfit 
persons  to  be  near  you ;  and  on  those  who  shall  persuade 
you  it  is  lawful,  as  sordid  flatterers,  and  the  worst  and 
most  dangerous  enemies  you  and  your  kingdoms  have* 
What  I  set  before  your  majesty,  I  have  written  freely, 
and  like  a  sworn  faithful  counsellor;  perhaps  not  like  a  yirise 
man,  with  regard  to  myself,  as  they  stand :  bv\t  I  have 
discharged  my  duty,  and  will  account  it  a^  fewftr(r,.if  your 
majesty  vouchsafe  to  read  what  I  durst  i^^t  but  write^  ^nd 
which  I  beseech  God  to  give  a  blessij^  to.*' 

It  was  not  however  thought  pt^op^f  to  temove  him  from 
bis  hiffh  office  on  this  account;:  butrtbe  duke  of  Ormond 
was  prevailed  upon  to  exhil}|(,a  charge  against  him,  on 
account  of  his  reflectiQi^;.qn  jttie.  earl  of  Castlehayen's 
Memoirs.  This  product  a.  sharp  .contest  betwixt  tliese 
two  peers;  which  ended  in  the  earl  of  Anglesey's  losing 
his  place  of  lord  privy  seal,  tliougb  his  enemies  were 
forced  to  confess  thjf,t  he  was.  hardly  and  unjustly  treated. 
After  this  disgrace,  be  remalnei^  pretty  much  at  his 
country  seat  at  Blechingdonuin  Oxfordshire,  where  he  de- 
voted his  time  to  his  studies,  and  meddled  very  little  with 
public  affairs.  However,  he  got  into  favour  again  in  the 
reign  of  James  II.  audit  is  generally  believed  hp  would 
have  been  appointed  lord  cbanpellor  of  England,  if  not 
prevented  by  bis  de^^h,  which  happened  April  6,  1686, 
in  the  73d  year  of  his  .^ge.  He  was  perfectly  versed  in  the 
Qreek  and  iloman  history,  and  well  acquainted  with  the 
spirit  and  policy  of  those  nations.  He  had  studied  the 
laws  of  bis  country  with  such  diligence,  as  to  be  esteemed 
a  great  lawyer.  ^  His  writings  which  are  extant,  are  proofs 
of  his  learning  and  abilities ;  but  the  largest  and  most 
valuable  of  all  his.  works  was  lost,  or,  as  some  say,  de* 
stroyed.  This  was  "  A  History  of  the  Troubles  in  Ireland 
from  1641  to  1660.^*  He  was  one  of  the  firsf  English 
peers  who  distinguished  himself  by  collecting  a  fine  library^ 
which  he  did  with  great  care,  and  at  a  Urge  expence* 
But  after  his  decease,  all  his  books  were  exposed  to  sale. 
At  this  sale  the  discovery  was  made  of  the  earrs  famous 
memorandum,   ip  the  blank  leaf  of  an  EfK^yBa^ixucn;  ac-« 


tprdhg  to  which/  it  was  not  Charles  I.  but  bishop  Gauden^ 
ii4io  was  author  of  this  performance.  This  produced  a 
loo^  contcoyersy^  which  will  be  noticed  in  the  life  of  that 

The  eail  of  Anglesey  has  been  very  variously  characterised; 
Anthony  Wood  represents  him  as  an  artful  time-server  ^ 
by  principle,  a  Calvinist;  by  policy,  a  favourer  of  the 
Papists,  Burnet  paints  him  as  a  tedious  and  ungraceful 
orator,  and  as  a  grave,  abandoned,  and  corrupt  man,  whom 
no  party  would  trust.  Our  account  is  taken  from  the 
Biog.  Britannica,  which  steers  an  impartial  course.  Lord 
Orford,  iii  his  '^  Noble  Authors,"  is  disposed  to  unite  the 
severities  of  Wood  and  Burnet,  but  what  he  asserts  is  ra^ 
ther  flippant  than  convincing. 

His  lordship  published  in  his  life-time  the  following 
pieces:  1.  *^  Truth  unveiled,  in  behalf  of  the  Church  of 
England ;  being  a  vindication  of  Mr.  John  Standish^s  ser^ 
mon,  preached  before  the  king,  and  published  by  his 
majefity^s  command,^'  16769  4to.  To  which  is  added,  <<A 
short  treatise  on  the  subject  of  Transubstantiation.''  9,4 
^^  A  letter  from  a  person  of  honour  in  the  country,  written 
to  thet<earl  of  Castleha%n ;  being  observations  and  re« 
flections  on  his  lordship's. memoirs  isoucerning  the  Warft  of 
Ireland,"  1681,  8vo.  3.  '^  A  true  account  of  the  whole 
proceedings  between  James  duke  of  OrnSond,  and  Arthur 
earl  of  Anglesey^  before  the  king  and  his  council,  &c." 
1682,  fol.  4.  "  A  letter  of  remarks  upon  Jovian,"  1683, 
4to.  Besides  these,  he  rwrote  many  other  things,  some  of 
which  were  published  after  bis  decease ;  as  5.  <*  The  Pri- 
vileges of  the  House  of  Lords  and  Commons,  argued  and 
stated  in  two  conferences  between  both  houses,  April 
19  and.  22,  1671.  To  which  is  added,  A  discourse, 
wherein  the  Rights  of  the  House  of  Lords  are  truly  as- 
serted ;  with  learned  remarks  on  the  seeming  arguments 
jand  pretended  precedents  offered  at  that  time  against  their 
lordships."  6.  ^*  The  King's  right  of  Indulgence  in  Spi- 
ritual matters,  with  the  equity  thereof,  asserted,"  168S, 
4to.  7.  ^'  Memoirs,  intermixt  with  moral,  political,  and 
historical  Observations,  by  way  of  discourse,  in  a  letter 
to  sfar  Peter  Pett,"  1693,  8vo.  * 

,  1  Biog.  Bnt^Ath.  Ox»  rol  11.— Bonnet's  Own  Times.i^Orford'i  Royal  and 
Koblii  Anfhort,  hj  P»rk,  vol.  IIT, 

Mi  A  N  N  E  S  L  E  y. 

ANNESLEY,  or  ANELEY  (SamuAl),  a  rery  aniMfil 
nonconformist  minister,  was  the  son  of  John  Aneiey>  of 
Hare  ley,  in  Warwickshire,  where  his  family  were  pes* 
sessed  of  a  good  estate,  and  was  bom  about  the  year  16170. 
In  1635  he  was  admitted  a  student  in  Queen's  college,  Ox- 
ford, where  he  took  his  bachelor^s  and  master's  degrees. 
At  the  university  he  was  distinguished  by  extreme  fjem-^ 
perance  and  industry.  His  inclination  leading  him  to  the 
church,  he  feceived  holy  orders,  but  it  is  uncertain  whe-» 
ther  from  the  hands  of  a  bishop,  or  according  to  the  Pres- 
byterian way  ;' Wood  inclines  to  the  former,  and  Cakmy 
to  the  latter.  In  1 644,  however,  he  became  chaplain  to 
the  earl  of  Warwick,  then  admiral  of  the  parliament's  fleet^ 
and  afterwards  succeeded  to  a  church  at  Cliffe,  in  Kent, 
by  the  ejectnaent,  for  loyalty,  of  Dr.  Griffidi  Higges,  who 
was  much  beloved  by  his  parishioners.  On  July  26,  1648, 
he  preached  the  fast  sermon  before  the  bouse  of  cbmmons, 
which,  as  usual,  wa^  ordered  to  be  printed.  About  this 
time,  also,  he  was  honoured  with  the  title  of  LL.  D.  by 
the  university  of  Oxford,  or  rather  by  the  peremptory 
command  of  Philip  earl  of  Pembroke,  chancellor  of  the 
university,,  who  acted  there  with  boundless  authority^ 
The  same  year,  he  went  to  sea  with  the  carl  of  Warwick, 
who  was  employed  in  giving  chase  to  that  part  of  the 
English  navy  which  went  over  to  the  then  prince,  after- 
wards king  Charles  II.  Some  time  after  this,  he  resigned 
his  Kentish  living,  although  he  had  now  become  popular 
there,  in  consequence  of  a  promise  he  made  to  his  pa- 
rishioners to  '^  resiorn  it  when  he  had  fittied  them  for  the 
reception  of  a  better  minister.'*  In  1657,  he  was  nomi- 
nated by  Cromwell,  lecturer  at  St.  Paul's;  and  in  1658 
was  presented  by  Richard,  the  protector,  to  the  vicarage 
of  St.  Giles's,  Cripplegate.  But  this  presentation  be-* 
coming  soon  useless,  he,  in  1660,  procured  another  frond 
the  trustees  for  the  approbation  and  admission  6f  ministers 
of  the  gospel,  after  the  Presbyterian  manner.  His  second 
presentation  growing  out  of  date  as  the  first,  he  obtained, 
in  the  same  year,  a  third,  of  a  more  legal  stamp,  from 
Charles  II. ;  but  in  1662,  he  was  ejected  for  nonconfor- 
mity. He  was  offered  considerable  preferment,  if  he 
would  conform,  but  refused  it,  and  continued  to  preach 
privately  during  that  and  the  following  reign.  He  died 
in  1696,  with  a  high  reputation  for  piety,  charity,  and 
popular  talents.     His  works,  which  are  enumerated,  ^y 

A  N  N  E  S  L  E  Y.  '  26d 

C^Aamy,  cotisist  of  occasional  sermons,  and  some  funeral 
sern^ions^  with  biographical  memoirs.  He  was  the  prin-^ 
cipal  suppcMTt,  if  not  the  institutor,  of  the  morning  lecture, 
or  course  of  sermons  preached  at  seven  o* clock  in  the 
morning,  at  vartous  churches^  during  the  usurpation,  and 
afterwards  at  meeting-bouses,  by  the  most  learned  and 
able  nonconformists.  Of  these  several  volumes  have  been 
printed,  and  of  late  years  have  risen  very  much  in  price. 
Collectors  inform  us^that  a  complete  set  should  consist  of 
six  volumes.' 

ANNICERIS,  a  Greek  philosopher  of  the  Cyrenaic 
sect,  and  who  gave  the  name  of  Annicerians  to  his  dis- 
ciples, was  born  at  Cyrene,  and  scholar  to  Paraebates. 
When  Plato,  by  the  command  of  Dionysius  the  tyrant  of 
l^icily,  was  sold  as  a  slave  at  uSgina,  our  philosopher  hap- 
pened to  be  present,  and  redeiemed  him  .tort twenty,  or, 
according  to  others,  thirty  minoe,  and  sent  him  to  Athens 
to  his  fnends,  who  immediately  returned  the  money  to 
Anniceris ;  but  he  Irefused  it,  saying,  that  they  were  not 
the  only  persons  who  deserved  to  take  care  of  Plato.  He 
was  particularly  emineiit  for  bis  skill  in  chariot-racing,  of 
which  be  one  day  gave  a  proof  before  Plato,  and  drove 
many  courses  round  the  academy  so  exactly,  that  his 
idieeis  never  went  out  of  the  track,  to  the  admiration  of 
all  who  were  present,  except  Plato,  who  reproved  him  for 
bis  too  great  attention  to  such  affairs,  telling  him,  that  it 
was  not  possible  but  that  he,  who  employed  so  much  pains 
about  things  of  no  value,  must  neglect  those  of  greater 
.  importance.  He  had.  a  brother  who  was  named  Nicoteles^ 
a  philosopher,  and  the  famous  Posidonius  was  his  scholar. 
The  Annicerians,  as  well  as  the  rest  of  the  Cyrenaic  phi- 
losophers, placed  all  good  in  pleasure,  and  conceived 
virtue  to  be  only  commendable  so  far  as  it  produced  plea- 
sure. They  agreed  in  all  respects  with  the  Hegesians^ 
except  that  they  did  not  abolish  friendship,  benevolence, 
duty  to  parents,  and  love  to  one's  country.  They  held, 
that  though  a  wise  man  suiFer  trouble  for  those. things, 
yet  he  will  lead  a  life  not  the  less  happy,  though  he  enjoy 
but  few  pleasures.  That  the  felicity  of  a  friend  is  not  de- 
sirable in  itself;  for  to  agree  in  judgment  with  another, 
or  to  be  raised  abov6  and  fortified  against  the  general 

»  Bio^.  Brit.— Ath,  0«.  yoI.  H.-rCalamy.— Walker's  Sufferinss.— Duaton't 
tiltf,  p.  330.    DuAton  was  bis  lon-in-law. 

t70  A  N  N  I  C  E  R  I  S. 

opinion,  is  not  sufficient  to  satisfy  reason  ;  but  we  mu^ 
accustom  ourselves  to  the  best  things,  on  account  of  our 
innate  vicious  inclinations.  That  a  friend  is  not  to  be 
entertained  only  for  useful  or  necessary  ends,  nor  when 
such  ends  fail,  to  be  cast  off,  but  out  of  an  intrinsic  good 
will ;  for  which  we  ought  likewise  to  expose  ourselves  to 
trouble  and  inconvenience.  Although  these  philosophers, 
like  the  rest  of  that  sect,  placed  the  chief  end  and  good 
of  mankind  in  •  pleasure,  and  professed  that  they  were 
grieved  at  the  loss  of  it,  yet  they  affirmed,  that  we  ought 
voluntarily  to  subject  ourselves  to  pain  and  trouble  out  of 
regard  to  our  friends.  * 

ANNIUS,  or  according  to  his  epitaph,  which  Bayle 
follows,  NANNIUS  (John),  commonly  called  Annius  of 
Viterbo,  where  he  was  born  about  1432,  was  a  Dominican 
friar,  and  highly  respected  among  his  brethren  for  his 
extensive  knowledge  of  Greek,  Listtin^  and  the  oriental 
languages.  He  was  also  a  zealous  preacher,  and  his  re- 
putation having  reached  Rome,  he  was  invited .  thither, 
and  received  with  great  respect  by  the  members  of  the 
sacred  college,  and  the  popes'  Sixtus  IV.  and  Alexander 
VI.  This  last  conferred  upon  him  in  1499,  the  honour- 
able situation  of  master  of  the  sacred  palace,  vacant  by 
the  promotion  of  Paul  Moneglia  to  the  bishopric  of  Chios: 
Annius,  however,  had  some  difficulty  in  preserving  the 
favour  of  characters  so  profligate  as  Alexander,^  and  his 
son  Csesar  Borgia ;  but  the  duchess  de  Valentinois,  wife 
ta  CsBsar,  and  as  virtuous  as  he  was  abandoned,  rendered 
Annius  every  service  in  her  power.  Her  husband,  pro« 
bably  on  this  account,  and  tired  with  the  advice  and  re- 
monstrances presented  to  him  either  by  her  or  by  Annius, 
determined  to  get  rid  of  the  latter,  and,  it  is  thought, 
.procured  him  to  be  poisoned.  Whatever  may  be  in  this 
report,  Annius  died  Nov.  13,  1502,  in  his  seventieth 

Annius  left  a  great  many  works,  two  of  which  were 
thought  valuable  ;  the  one,  *^  A  treatise  on  the  Empire  of 
the  Turks,*'  and  the  oth<&r,  /*  De  fiituris  Christianorum 
triumphis  in  Turcas  et  Saracenos,  at  Xystum  IV.  et  omnes 
principes  Christianos,*'  Genes,  1480,  4to,  a  commentary 
on  the  book  of  the  Revelations,  part  of  which  had  been 
the  subject  of  some  sermons  he  preached  in  1471.     He 

>  Qen.  Dwt.— Staoley's  Lives  pf  the  Plinotophen,^-Bnicker.  ■ 

A  N  N  I  U  S.  271 

published  also  **  Super  mutuo  Judaico  et  civili  et  dtvino,** 
1492)  4to,  without  place  or  printer^s  name  ;  and  the  Har- 
leian  catalogue  ascribes  to  him  a  commentary  on  Catullus, 
TibuUus,    and  Propertius,    Paris,    1604.      But   the  work 
which  has  rendered/him  best  known  in  the  literary  world, 
is  the  collection  of  antiquities  which  he  published  at  Rome 
in  149^,  entitled  ^*  Antiquitatum  variarum  volumiha  XVII. 
cum   commentariis   fr.    Joannis   Annii  Viterbensis,"    foL 
reprinted  the  same  year  at  Venice,  and  afterwards  several 
times  at  Paris,  Basil,  Antwerp,  Lyons,  &c.  sometimes  with, 
and  sometimes  without  his  commentaries.     In  this  collec- 
tion Annius  pretends  to  give  the  original  works  of  several 
historians  of  the  highest  antiquity,  as  :    **  Arcbilochi  de 
temporibus  Epitome  lib.  I. — Xenophontis  de  iEquivocis 
lib.  I. — Berosi  Babylonici  de  Antiquitatibus  Italiae  ac  totius 
orbis  lib.  V. — Manethonis  ^gyptii  supplementa  ad  Be- 
rosum  lib.  I. — Metasthenis  Persae,  de  judicio  temporum, 
.  &  Annalibus  Persarum  lib.  I. — Philonis  Hebrsei  de  tem* 
poribus  lib.  II. — ^Joannis  Annii  de  primis  temporibus,  & 
quatuor  ac  viginti  regibus  Hispaniae,  &  ejus  antiquitate 
lib.  I. — Ejusdem  de  antiquitate  &  rebus  Ethruriae  lib.  I.--^ 
Ejusdem  Commentariorum  in   Propertium  de  Vertumno 
sive  Jano  lib.  I. — Qi.  Fabii  Pictoris  de  aureo  seeculo,  & 
origine  urbis  Romie   lib.  II. — Myrsili  Lesbii  de  origine 
Italiee,   ac  TurrhenisB  lib.  I. — M.   Catonis  fragmenta  de 
originibus  lib.  I. — Antonini  Pii  Csesaris  Augusti  Itinera- 
rium  lib.  I. — C.  Sempronii  de  chorographia  sive  descrip- 
tione  Italic  lib.  I. — Joannis  Annii  de  Ethrusca  simul  !l 
Italica   Chronographia  lib.   I. — Ejusdem   Quaestiones    de 
Thuscialib.  I. — ^Cl.  Marii  Aretii,  Patricii  Syracusani,   de 
situ  insulae  Siciliae  lib.  L— Ejusdem  Dialogus  in  quo  His- 
pania  describitur.^'     The  author  dedicated  these  books  to 
Ferdinand    and  Isabella,    because  they  had  been  found 
when  their  majesties  were   conquering  the  k|n{Tdom  of 
.  Granada,     He  pretends,  that  be  met  with  them  at  Mantua, 
whilst  he  was  there  with  his  patron  Paul  de  Campio  Ful- 
goso,   cardinal  of  St.  Sixtus.     But   they  had  not   been 
published  long,  before  doubts  began  to  be  entertained  of 
their  authenticity.     This  provoked  a  controversy,  in  the 
.  course  of  which  it  was  very  clearly  proved  that  they  are 
entitled  to. lijttle  credit,  but  the  precise  share  Annius  had 
in  the  imposture  was  a  point  long  undetermined.     The 
*«cContehdihg  writers  on  the  subject  may  be  divided  into  four 
classes.    The  one  of  opinion  that  Annius  really  got  pos* 

it2  A  N  N.  I  U  8. 

possession  of  certain  fragments  of  the  ancient  authors,  but 
that  he  added  to  these  a  nuiuber  of  fables  and  traditioDS. 
Another  class  think  that  the  whole  coUection  is.  a  forgery^ 
but  that  Annius  was  himself  deceived^  and  published  what 
he  really  thought  to  be  genuine.     A  tliird  class  are  be- 
lievers in  the  authenticity  of  the  %vhole>  and  oooie  of  these 
were  themselves  men  of  credit  and  reputation,  aa  Ber* 
nardino  Bakli,  William  Postel,  Albert  Krant2,  Sigonius, 
Leander  Aiberti,   (see  vol.  I.  p.  3:^0),  and  some  others. 
Alberti  is  said  td  have  discovered  his  error,  and  ,to  have 
deeply  regretted  that  he  admitted  into  his  description  of 
Italy,  the  fables  which  he  found  in  Annitis.     A.  fourth 
class  of  critics  on  this  work  attribute  the  whole  to  the 
imagination  of  the  editor ;  and  among  these  we  find  tlie 
names  of  Anthony  Agostini,  or  Augustine,  Isaac  Casaubotl> 
Mariana,  in  his  Spanish  history,  Ferrari,  Martin  Hanckius> 
Fabricius,  Fontanini,  &c.     The  learned  Italiails,'&lso,  wko 
were  contemporaries  with  Annius,  were  the  first  to  detect 
the  fraud ;  as  Marcus  Antonius  Sabellicus,  Peter  Crinitos^ 
Volterre,  &c. ;  and  Pignoria  and  Maffd  were  of  the  «ame 
opinion.     In  the  sixteenth  century^  Mazsa,  a  dominican^ 
revived  the  dispute,  by  publishing  at  Verona,  in  1623,  fol. 
a  work  entitled  "  Apologia  pro  fratre  Giovaani  Annio  Vi- 
terbese.^'     His  chief  design  is  to  prove,  that  if  there  be 
any  fraud,  Anniuis  must  not  be  charged  with  it     But  he 
goes  farther,  and  asserts,  that  these  works  are  genuine^ 
and  endeavours  to  answer  all  the  objections  urged  against 
them.     This  apology  having  been  censured,  father  Ma- 
cedo  rose  against  the  censurer,  not  indeed  with  a  design 
to  assert  that  the  Berosus,  &c.  published  by  Annius  was 
the  genuine  Berosus,  but  to  shew  that  Annius  did  not  forge 
those  manuscripts,     A  more,  modern  apologist  pretends 
both.     He  calls  himself  Didin^us  Rapaligerus  Livianus« 
He  published  at  Verona  in  the  year  1678,  a  work  in  folk), 
entitled  **  I  Gothi  illustrati,  overo  IstoriA  de  i  Gothi  an-* 
tichi,'^  in  which  he  brings  together  all  the  arguments  he 
can  think  of,  to  shew  that  the  writings  published  by  Anniua 
are  genuine ;  and  that  this  dominican  did  not  forge  them* 
The    question    is  now  universally  given  against  Annius, 
while  we  are  left  to  wonder  at  the  perseverance  which  con- 
ducted him  through  a  fraud  of  such  magnitude. ' 

1  Gen.  Diet— Moreri.— Ginguene  Hist,  Litteraire  dUtalM^  vol.  UL  p.  40j>. 
«4ios*  VmTerMlle.«-8aiii  On<piutic»a. 

A  N  Q  U  E  T  I  L.  273 

ANQUETIL  (L&wis-Peter),  a  French  historian,  and 
political  writer,  was  born  at  Paris,  Jan.  21,  1723.    Hayings 
in  his  seventeenth  year  entered  the  congregation  of  St  Ge«- 
nevieve,  he  distinguished  himself  by  the  ability  with  which 
he  afterwards  discharged  the  office  of  teacher  in  theology 
and  literature.     His  residence  at  Rheims,  as  director  of 
the  academy,  seetns  to  have  suggested  to  him  the  first 
idea  of  writing  the  history  of  that  city.     In  1759,  he  was 
appointed  prior  of  the  abbey  de  la  Roe,  in  Anjou,  and 
soon  after,   director  of  the  college  of  'Senlis,  where  he 
composed  his  work  entitled   *'  L* Esprit  de  la  Ligue."     In 
1766  he  obtained  the  curacy  or  priory  of  Chateau -Renard, 
near  Montargis,  which,  about  the  beginning  of  the  revolu- 
tion, be  exchanged  for  the  curacy  of  La  Villette,  near  Paris. 
During  the  revolutionary  phrenzy,  he  was  imprisoned  at  St. 
Lazare,  and  wrote  there  part  of  his  ^*  Histoire  universelle.'* 
When  the  Institute  was  formed,  he  wa^  chosen  a  member  of 
the  second  class,  and  was  soon  after  taken  into  the  office  of 
the  minister  for  foreign  affairs,  whom  he  thought  to  oblige 
by  his  **  Motifs  de$  traites  de  Paix."     Enjoying  a  strong 
constitution,  the  fruit  of  a  placid  and  equal  temper,  ana 
aversion  to  the  luxuries  of  the  table,  he  was  enabled  to 
study  ten  hours  a  day ;  and  undertook,  without  fear  or 
scruple,  literary  undertakings  of  the  most  laborious  kind. 
Even  in  his  eightieth  year,  he  was  projecting  some  new 
works  of  considerable  size,  and  was  apparently  without 
a  complaint,  when  he  died,  Sept.  6,  1808,  in  the  eighty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age.     On  this  occasion  he  said  to  one  of 
his  friends,  *^  come  and  see  a  man  die  who  is  full  of  life.'* 
His  principal  writings  are !  1.  '*  Histoire  civile  et  po- 
litique de  la  ville  de  Reims,"  1756 — 7,  3  vols.   12mo; 
a  virork  in  the  true  spirit  of  antiquarian  research,  which  he 
wrote  in  concert  with  one  Felix  de  la  Salle,  and  when  they 
were  about  to  publish,  they  cast  lots,  as  to  whose  name  should 
be  prefixed,  and  the  lot  fell  on  AnquetiL     Towards  the 
end  of  his  life,  he  said,  '^  I  have  been  reading  the  history 
of  Rheims^  as  if  it  did  not  belong  to  me,  and  I  have  no 
scrapie  in  pronouncing  it  a  good  work.''     2.  ^^  Almanach 
de  Rheims,*'  1754,  24mo.     3.  <<  L'Esprit  de  la  Ligi\e ; 
ou  histoire  politique  des  troubles  de  France  pendant  fes 
.16  et  17  siecles,"'  1767)  3  vols.  12mo.    This  has  been 
often  repi^inted,  and  is  accurate  and  curious  as  to  facts, 
but  not  thought  profound  in  reasoning.     4.  ^^  Intrigue  du 
cabinet  sous  Henry  IV.  €t  sous  Louis  XIII.  termin^e  par 
Y»u  II.  T 


Hi  A  N  ia  U  E  T  I  L. 

la  Fronde,''  1780,  4  vols.  12ino«  $.  ^^  Louis  XIV.  sa 
cour  et  le  regent/'  1789,  4  vols.  12mo,  1794,  3  vok. 
i  2mo,  translated  likewise  into  Englisli*  It  is  a  kind  of 
sequel  to  the  preceding,  and  a  collection  of  anecdotes 
wi^out  much  order,  which  has  lost  its  value  smce  the 
memoirs  have  been  published  from  whence  it  was  formed. 
6.  **  Vie  du  marechal  Villar^,  ecrite  par  lui-meme,  suivie 
du  journal  de  la  cour  de  1724  a  1734,"  Paris,  1787,  4 
vols.  12mo,  and  1792.  7.  "  Precis  de  FHistoire  nni* 
verselle,'*  1797,  9  vols.  12mo,  the  third  and*  best  edition^ 
corrected  by  M.  Jondot,  1807,  12  vols.  12mo«  This  work 
has  been  translated  into  English,  (1800,)  Spanish,  and 
Italian.  It  has  not  been  very  successful  in  this  country ; 
his  French  biographer  calls  it  merely  an  abridgment 
#f  the  English  universal  history,  and  says  that  it  must  be 
read  with  caution.  8.  ^^  Motifs  des  guerres  et  des  tndtes 
des  paix  de  la  France,  pendant  les  regnes  de  Louis  XIV. 
XV.  et  XVI."  1798,  8vo.  This  work  was  adapted  to  the 
state  of  the  French  government  at  the  time  it  was  written, 
but  the  author  lived  to  find  his  theory  overturned  by  the 
accession  of  a  monarchical  constitution.  9.  ^*  Histoire  de 
France,  depuis  les  Gaules  jusqu'a  le  fin  de  la  monarchie,^' 
1805,  &C.  14  vols.  12mo,  a  performance  of  which  his 
countrymen  do  not  speak  in  very  high  terms.  Besides 
these,  he  wrote  a  life  of  his  brother,  the  subject  of  the 
following  article,  and  several  papers  in  the  memoirs  of 
the  institute. ' 

.  ANQUETIL-DUPERRON  (Abrahab^Hyacinth),  bro- 
ther to  the  preceding,  was  born  at  Psiris,  Dec.  7,  1731. 
After  having  studied  at  the  university  of  Paris,  where  he 
acquired  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew,  he  was 
invited  to  Auxerre  by  M.  de  Caylus,  then  the  bishop, 
who  induced  him  to  study  divinity,  first  at  the  academy  in 
his  diocese,  and  afterwards  at  Amersfort,  near  Utrecht ; 
but  Anquetil  had  no  inclination  for  the  church,  and  re- 
turned with  avidity  to  the  study  of  the  Hebrew,  Arabic, 
and  Persian.  Neither  the  solicitations  of  M.  de  Caylus, 
nor  the  hopes  of  preferment,  could  detain  him  at  Amers- 
fort longer  than  be  thought  he  had  learned  all  that  was 
to  be  learned  there.  He  returned  therefore  to  Paris, 
where  his  constant  attendance  at  the  royal  library,  and 
diligence  in  study,  recommended  him  to  the  abb6  Sallier, 

*  Bips.  UBiT«ri«lle« 

A  N  a  U  E  T  I  L.  27S 

keeper  of  the  tnEnaistcnjlts^  who  made  him  known  to  his 
fzietlds^  and  furnished  turn  with  a  moderate  maintenance, 
luidex  the  character;  of  student  of  the  Oriental  languages. 
The  accidentsuly  meeting  with  some  manuscripts  in  tlie 
Zend,  the  language  in  which  the  works  attributed  to  Zo- 
xoaster  are  written,  created  in  him  an  irresistible  iuclina« 
tion  to  visit  the  East  in  search  of  them.  At  this  time 
an  expedition  for  India  was  fitting  out  at  port  POrient, 
and  when  he  found  that  the  applications  of  his  friends  wiNra 
not  sufficient  ta  procure  him  a  passage,  he  entered  as  a 
common  soldier;  and  ^on  Nov.  7>  1754,  left  Paris,  with 
his  knaf»sack  on  his  back.  His  friends  no  sooner  heard  of 
this  wild  step,  than  they  had  recourse  to  the  minister,  who 
surprized  at  so  luicommon  an  instance  of  literary  zeal, 
ordered  him  to  be  provided  with  a  free  passage,  a  seat  at 
the  captain's  table,  and  other  accommodations.  Accord-* 
ingly,  after  a  nine  months  voyage,  he  arrived  Aug..  10, 
1755,  >at  Pondicherry.  Remaining  there  such  time  as  was 
necessary  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the  modem  Persian, 
he  went  to  Chandernagoi:,  where  he  hoped  to  learn  the 
Sanscrit.;  but  sickness,  which  confined  him  for  some 
months,  and  the  war  which  broke  out  between  France  and 
England,  and  in  which  Cbandernagor  was  taken,  dbap* 
pointed  his  plans.  He  now .  set  out  for  Pondicherry  bjr. 
land,  Mid  after  incredible  fatigue  and  hardships,  perfcMrmed 
the  journey  of  about, four  hundred  leagues. in  about  aa 
l^uudred  days.  At  Pondicherry  he  found  one  of <  his  bro« 
th^s  arrived  from  France,  and  sailed  with  him  for  Surat^ 
but,  landing  at  Mahe,  completed  his  journey  on  focyt  At 
Suiat,  by  perseverance  and  address,  he  succeeded  ia 
procuring  and  .translating  some  manuscripts,  particulariy 
the  ^'  Vendidade-Sade,"  a  dictionary  ;  and  he  was  about 
to  have  gone  to  Benares,  to  study  the  language,  antiqui<* 
tiesj  and  liacred  laws  of  the  Hindoos,  when  the  capture  <>f 
Pondicherry  obliged  him  to  return  to  Europe.  Accordingly, 
he  came  in  an  English  vessel  to  London,  where  he  spent 
some  time,  visited  Oxford,  and  at  length  arrived  at  Paris 
May. 4,  1762,  without  fortune,  ortbewishto  acquire  it; 
but  rich  in  an  hundred  and  eighty  manuscripts  and  othe( 
curiosities.  The  abb6  Barthelemi,  however,  and  his 
other  friends,  procured  him  a  pension,  with  the  title  and 
place  of  Oriental  interpreter  in  the  royal  library.  In  1763, 
the  academy  of  belles-lettres  elected  him  an  associate, 
and  from  that  time  he  devoted  himself  to  the  arrangement 

T  2 

2T6  A  N;  a  tr  E  T  r  L. 

and  pubHcatidn  of  the  valuable  materiab  he  had  collectcxir 
In  1771,  be  published  his  ^*  Zend-Avesta/'  3  vols.  4t0y 
a  work  of  Zoroaster,  from>  the  original.  Zend^  with  a  cu- 
rious account  of  his  travels,  and  a  life  of  Zoroaster.  In 
1778  he  published  bis  ^^  Legislation  Orientale/'  4tb,  itt 
which,  by  a  display  of  the  fundamental  {principles  of  go^^^ 
vernment  in  the  Turkish,  Persian,  and  Indian  dominions, 
he  proves,  first,  that  the  manner  in  which  most  writers 
have  hitherto  represented  despotism,  as  if  it  were  absolute 
in  these  three  empires,  is  entirely  groundless ;  secondly,* 
that  ill  Turkey,  Persia,  and  Indostan,  there  are  codes  of 
written  law,  which  affect  the  prince  as  well  as  the  sMibject ; 
aod  thirdlyv  that  in  these  three  empires,  the  inhabitants 
are  possessed' of  property,  both  in  movable  and  immovable 
goods,  which  they  enjoy  with  entire  liberty.  In  1786 
appeared  his  ^^  Recherches  historiquea  et  geographique» 
sar  rinde,"  followed  in  1789,  by  his  treatise  on  the  dig* 
liity  of  Commeree  and  the  commercial  state.  During  the 
revolutionary  period,  he  concealed  himself  among  bis 
boCidLs,  but  in  1798  appeared  again  as  the*  author  of 
/^L'lndeau rapport  avec  I'Europe,"  2  vols.  8va  In  1804y 
he  published  a  Latin  translation  from  the  Persian  of  tbo 
^^'Oupnek^  hat,  or  Upanischada*"  i.  e.  ^^  secrets  which  must 
not  be  revealed,"  2  vols.  4to.  Not  long  before  his  death 
he' was  elected  a  member  of  the  institute^  but  soon  after 
gave  in  his  resignatibn,  and  died  at  Paris,  Jan.  17,  1805« 
Besides  the  works  already  noticed,  he  contributed  many 
pivpevs  to  the  academy  on  the  subject  of  Oriental  language^ 
and  antiquities,  and  left  behind  him  the  character  of  on^ 
of  the  ablest  Oriental  scholars  in  France,  and  a  man  of 
great  personal  worth  and  amiable  manners.  '  His  biogra4 
pher  adds,  that  he  refused  the  sum  of  30,000  livres,  whiob 
was  offered  by  the  English,  for  his  manuscript  of  the  Zehd^ 
Avesta;  * 

.  AN S ART  (Andrew  Joseph),  a  French  historian,  and 
ecclesiastical  Writer,  was  born  in  the  Artois,  in  1723,  and 
became  a  Benedictine,  but  being  appointed  procurator  of 
one  of  the  houses  of  that  order,  he  disappeared  with  the 
funds  intrusted  to  his  care..  How  he  escaped  aftQrward% 
his  biographer  does  not  inform  us,  but  he  attached  him<» 
self  to  the  order  of  Malta,  became  an  advocate  of  parlia^ 

1  Bio;.  UnWerselle.  — Moatb,  Ser,  toI.  LXI.-— Diet,  Hkitorique,  •— Saxii 
OnomasticoD^  toU  VIII. 

A  N  S  A  R  T.  .    »  277 

tBent,  frtid  doctor  of  laws  of  the  faculty  of  Paris.  He  was 
ftfterwards  made  prior  of  Villeconin,  and  a  member  of  the 
^ademies  of  Arras  and  of  the  arcades  of  Rome.  H#  died 
about  1790^  after  having  published :  1-  ^'Dialogues  sar 
Futility  des moines rentes,"  1768,. igmo.  2.  "Exposition 
«ir  le  Cantique  des  Cantiques  de  Salomon,"  1770,  12mo. 

3.  «  HistOire  de  S.  Maur^  abb^  de  Glanfeuil,"  1772, 
1 2mo.  The  first  part  contains  th©  life  of  St.  Maur ;  the 
6econd  and  third  give  an  account  of  bis  relics ;  and  the 
fourdi  is  a  history  of  the  dbbey  of  St.  Maur-des-Foss^s. 

4.  *^  Eloge  de  Charles  V.  empereur,"  from  the  Latin  ^f 
J.  Masenius,  1777,  12mo.  5.  "  Esprit  de  St.  Vincent  de 
PauV*  proposed  as  a  pattern  to  ecclesiastics,  1780,  12mo. 
6.  '^  Histoire  de  Sainte  Reine  d'Alise,  et  de  Tabbaye  de 
Flavigny,"  1783,  12mo.  7.  « Histoire  de  S.  Fiac're,"  1784, 
}2mo.  8.  "  Bibliotheque  litteraire  du  Maine,"  Chalons 
surMarne,  1784,  Svo^  in  which  he  has  revived  the  me- 
mory of  above  three  hundred  authors.  The  work  was  in- 
tended to  consist  of  eight  volumes,  but  no  more  was 
printed  than  this.  9.  ^*  La  Vie  de  Gregoire  CorteZj  Be- 
nedictine, eveque  d'Urbin,  et  cardiaaV  1786,  Ansart, 
according  to  his  biographer,  was  both  ignorant  and  idle, 
and  took  the  substance  of  all  the  works  he  published  widi 
ibis  name,  from  the  archives  of  the  Regime^  formerly  at 
Germain-des-Pres.  *  ? 

ANSCARIUS,  one  of  the  early  propagators  <^  Christi* 
wity,  and  the  first  who  introduced  it  into  Denmark  and 
Sweden,  and  henee  called  the  apostle  of  the  north,  was 
bom  at  Picardy,  Sept.  8,  in  the  year  801.  He  was  edu- 
cated in  a  Benedictine  convent  at  Corbie,  from  whence 
he  went  to  Corvey,  in  Westphalia,  where  ha  made  suc^ 
progress  in  his  studies^  that,  jin  the  year  821,  be  was  ap- 
pointed rector  of  the  school  belonging  to  the  convent. 
Harold,  king  of  Denmark,  who  had  been  expelled  from 
his  dominions,  and  haxl  found  an  asylum  with  Lewis,  the 
son  and  successor  of  Charlema^^ne,  who  bad  induced  him 
to  receive  Christian  baptism,  was  .about  to  return  to.  his 
joountry,  and  Lewis  enquired  for  some  pious  person,  who 
might  accompany  him,  and  confirm  both  him  and  his  at<r 
tendants  in  the  Christian  religion.^  Vala,  the  abbot  of 
Corbie,  pointed  out  Anscarius,  who  readily  undertook  the 
|i|^riIous  task,  although  against  the  remom$rances  of  hU 

>  Bios.  U»ivewelle» 

216  A  N  S  C  A  R  I  U  S. 

ifriend$.    Aubert,  a  monk  of  noble  birth,  offered  to  be  bli 
'  companion,  and  Harold  accordingly  set  out  with  thenj^ 
but  neither  he  nor  his  attendants,  whp  were  rude  and  bar- 
barous in  their  maimers,    were  at  all  solicitous  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  missionaries,  who  therefore  suffered 
much  in  the  beginning  of  their  journey.    When  the  com-r 
pany  arrived  at  Cologne,  Hadeb^ild,  the  archbishop,  coni-» 
miserating  the  two  strangers,  gave  them  a  bark,  in  which 
they  might  convey  their  effects ;  but,  when  they  came  to 
the  frontiers  of  Denmark,  Harold,  finding  access  to  his 
dominions  impossible,  because  of  the  power  of  those  who 
had  usurped  the  sovereignty,  remained  in  Friesland,  where 
Anscarius  and  Aubert  laboured  with  zeal  and  success,  both 
among  Christians  and  Pagans,  for  about  two  years,  when 
Aubert  died.     In  the  year  829,  many  Swedes  having  ex- 
pressed a  desire  to  be  instructed  in  Christianity,  Anscarius 
received  a  commission  from  the  emperor  Lewis  to  visit 
Sweden.     Another  monk  of  Corbie,  Vitmar,  was  assigned 
as  his  companion,  and  a  pastor  was  left  to  attend  on  king 
Harold,  in  the  room  of  Anscarius.     In  the  passage,  they 
fell  in  with  pirates,  who  took  the  ship,  and  all  its  effects. 
On  this  occasion,  Anscarius  lost  the  emperor^s  presents, 
and  forty  volumes,  which  he  had  collected  for  the  use'of 
the  ministry.     But  his  mind  was  determihed,  and  he  and 
his  partner  having  reached  land,  they  walked  on  foot  a 
long  way ;  now  and  tbep  crossing  some  arms  of  the  sea  in 
boats.     At  length  they  arrived  at  Birca,  from  the  ruins  of 
which  Stockholm  took  its  rise,  though  built  at  some  dis- 
tance from  it.    The  king  of  Sv^eden  received  them  favour- 
ably, and  his  council  unanimously  agreed  that  they  should 
renlain  in  the  country,  and  preach  the  gospel,  which  they 
did  with  very  considerable  success. 

After  six'  months,  the  two  missionaries  returned  with 
letters  written  by  the  king^s  hand,  into  France,  and  in- 
formed Lewis  of  their  success.  The  consequence  was, 
that  Anscarius  was  appointed  first  archbishop  of  Hamburgh; 
i^nd  this  city,  being  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Denmark, 
Was  hencefoi^  colisider^d  af  the  metropolis  of  all  the 
countries  north  of  the  Elbe  which  should  embrace  Christ 
tianity.  The  mission  into  Dendaark  was  at  the  same  time 
attended  to;  and  GausbeKt|  a  relation  of  Ebbo,  arch- 
bishop of  Rheims,  who,  as  well  as  Anscarius,  was  concerned! 
fn  these  missions,  was  sent  to  reside  as  a  bishop  in  Sweden; 
where  the  number  of  Christians  increased.      Anscariasi 

A  N  S  C  A  R  I  U  S.  «• 

mm,  by  order  of  the  emperor  Lewis,  went  to  Rome,  that 
he  might  receive  confirmation  in  the  new  archbishopric 
of  Hamburgh.  On  his  return,  he  applied  himself  to  the 
business  of  conversion,  and  was  succeeding  in  his  efforts^ 
when,  in  the  year  845,  Hamburgh  was  taken  and  pillaged 
by  the  Normans,  and  he  escaped  with  difSculty,  and  lost 
all  his  effects.  About  the  same  time,  Gausbert,  whom  he 
had  sent  into  Sweden,  was  banished  through  a  popular  in« 
surrection,  a  circumstance  which  retarded  the  progress  of 
religion  for  some  years  in  that  country. 

Anscarius, ,  however,  although  reduced  ta  poverty,  and 
deserted  by  many  of  his  followers,  persisted  with  uncom* 
moQ  patience  in  the  exercise  of  his  mission  in  the  north  of 
Europe,  till  the  bishopric  of  Bremen  was  conferred  upon 
him,  and  Hamburgh  and  Bremen  were  from  that  time 
considered  as  united  in  one  diocese.  But  it  was  not  with- 
out much  pains  taken  to  overcome  his  scruples,  that  he  was 
induced  to  accept  of  this  provision  for  his  wants.  Having 
still  his  eye  on  Denmark,  which  had  been  his  first  object^ 
and  having  now  gained  the  friendship  of  Eric,  the  king, 
be  was.  enabled  to  plant  Christianity  with  some  success  at 
Sleswick,  a  port  then  called  Hadeby,  and  much  fre* 
quented  by  merchants.  Many  persons  who  had  been 
baptized  at  Hamburgh  resided  there,  and  a  number  of 
Pagans  were  induced  to  countenance  Christianity  in  some 
degree.  At  length,  through  the  friendship  of  Eric,  he  was 
enabled  to  visit  Sweden  once  more,  where  be  established  the 
gospel  at  Birca,  from  whence  it  spread  to  other  parts  of  the 
kingdom.  After  his  return  to  Denmark,  he  died  Feb.  3,  in 
the  year  864.  Without  being  exempt  from  the  superstitions 
of  his  age,  Anscarius  was  one  of  the  most  pious,  resolute, 
indefatigable,  and  disinterested  propagators  of  Christianity 
in  early  times.^.  The  centuriators  only  bear  bard  on  his  cha« 
racter,  but  Mosheim  more  candidly  allows  that  his  la- 
bours deserve  the  highest  commendation.  His  ablest  de- 
fender,, however,  is  the  author  of  the  work  from  which  this 
account  is  abridged. 

Anscarius  wrote  many  books,  but  none  are  extant,  ex- 
cept some  letters,  and  ^^  Liber,  de  vita  et  miraculis  S. 
.Wilohadi,'*  printed  with  the  life  of  Anscarius,  Cologne,^ 
1642,  8vo,  and  often  since.     Anscarius^s  life  is  also  in  the 
*^  Scriptores  rerum  Danicarum,'\  No.  30,  of  Langebek.^ 

*  Mnner*8  Chuirch  Hiftoiy,  toI,  III.  p.  S58,  principally  from  Fleuiy,  Allwi 
m^tieri  afi<}  U)e  Cent.  Ma^.^Hist.  Cimbri«  Literarise  Molleri.— Moreri. 


ANSEGISUS^  abbot  of  Lobies,  an  old  Benedictinie  ino<^ 
iiastery  upon  the  Saiubre^  in  the  diocese  of  Cambray,  lived 
in.  tbe  ninth  century.  Pithaeus,  Antonius^  AugustinuSy 
Valerius,  Andreas,  and  others,  being  too  implicit  in  {oU 
lowing  Trithemius,  have  made  this  Ansegisus  and  another 
of  that  name^  arcbbisbop  of  Sens,  the  same  persons.  Our 
Ansegisus  of  Lobies  was  in  great  esteeni  with  the  bishops 
and  princes  of /his  time,  and  his  learning  and  conduct  de-r 
served  it.  In  the  year  827,  he  made  a  collection  of  the 
capitularies  of  Charlemagne,  and  Levids  his  son,  entitled 
*^  Capitula  seu  Edita  Garoli  Magni  &  Ludovici  pii  Impera- 
torum."  We  have  several  editions  of  this  worfe ;  one 
printed  in  1588,  by  Pithaeus,  with  additions,  and  notes  of 
his  owa  upon  it :  it  was  afterwards  printed  at  Mentz  in 
1602,  and  by  Sirmundus  at  Paris  in  1640,  to  which  he 
added  a  collection  of  tha  capitularies  of  Charles  the  Bald. 
Lastly,  in  1676,  Baluzius  furnished  a  new  edition  of  all 
these  ancient  capitularies,  with  remarks  upon  them,  two 
volumes  in  folio*  But  Baluzius^s  impression  differs  con* 
diderably  from  those  before  him ;  for,  besides  a  great  many 
different  readings,  there  are  the  39th,  52d,  67th,  68th, 
74th,  and  79th  chapters  of  the  first  book  wanting:  there 
are  Hkewise  added^  the  89th  and  90th  chapters  of  the  third 
hook;  and  also  the  76th  and  77th  chapters  of  the  fourth 
book,  which  yet,  as  Le  Cointe  observes,  are  the  same  with 
the  29th  and  ^th  chapters.  There  are  three  appendixes 
annexed  to  the  four  books  in  the  Capitularies,  the  first  of 
which,  in  the  old  editions,  consists  of  33  chapters,  but  in 
theBaluzian  there  are  35.  The  second,  in  the  old  edi^ 
tions,  has  36  chapters,  but  the  Baluzian  impression  reaches 
to  38.  The  third  appendix  contains  10  chapters ;  with 
these  appendixes,  several  constitutions  of  the  emperors 
J»otfaarius  and  Charles  the  Bald  are  mixed.  He  died  in 
the  year  834.  * 

ANSELM,  archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  the  reigns  of 
William  Rufus  and  Henry  I.  was  an  Italian  by  birth,  and 
born  in  1033  at  Aost,  or  Augusta,  a  town  at  the  foot  of  the 
Alps,,  belonging  to  the  duke  of  Savoy.  He  was  descended 
of  a  considerabje  family :  his  father's  name  was  GunduU 
phus,  and  his  mother's  Hemeberga.  From  early  life  his 
religious  cast  of  mind  was  so  prevalent,  that,  at  the  age  of 
fifteen,  he  offered  himself  to  a  monastery,  but  was  refused^ 

>  Mor^ri.— Care,  tqI.  II. — Saxii  Onomasticciiu 

A  N  S  E  L  M.  Ml 

lext  his  father  should  bai^e  been  displeased.  After,  how- 
ever, he  had  gone  through  a  course  of  study,  and  travelled 
for  some  tune  in  France  and  Burgundy,  he  took  the  mp<n 
nastie  habit  in  the  abbey  of  Bee  in  Normandy,  of  which 
Lanfranc,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  then 
(irior.  This  y^as  in  ^060,  when  he  was  twenty-seven  years 
old.  Three  years  auer,  when  Lanfranc  was  made  abbot  of 
Caen,  Anselm  succeeded  him  in  the  priory  of  Bee,  and  oa 
the  death  of  the  abbot,  was  raised  to  that  office.  About 
the  year  1092,  Anselm  came  over  into  England,  by  the 
invitation  of  Hugh,  earl  of  Chester,  who  requested  his  as- 
sistance in  his  sickness.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  William 
Rufus,  falling  sick  at  Gloucester,  was  much  pressed  to  fill 
up  the  see  of  Canterbury.  The  king,  it  seems,  at  that 
time,  was  much  influenced  by  one  Ranulph,  a  clergyman, 
who,  though  a  Norman  and  of  mean  extraction,  had  a  great 
share  in  the  king's  favour,  and  at  last  rose  to  the  post  of 
prime  minister.  This  man,  having  gained  the  king's  ear 
by  flattering  his  vices,  misled  him  in  the  administipationy 
and  put  him  upon  several  arbitrary  and  oppressive  expe^ 
dients.  Among  others,  one  was,  to  seize  the  revenues  of 
a  church,  upon  the  death  of  a  bishop  or  abbot ;  allowing 
the  dean  and  chapter,  or  convent,  but  a  slender  pension 
for  maintenance.  But  the  king  now  falling  sick,  began  to 
be  touched  with  remorse  of  conscience,  and  among  other 
oppressions,  was  particularly  afflicted  for  the  injury  he  had 
done  the  church  and  kingdom  in  keeping  the  see  of  Can* 
terbury,  and  some  others,  vacant.  The  bishops  and  other 
great  men  therefore  took  this  opportunity  to  entreat  the 
king  to  fill  up  the  vacant  sees ;  and  Atiselm,  who  then 
lived  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Gloucester,  being  sent  for 
to  court,  to  assist  the  king  in  his  illness,  was  considered 
by  the  king  as  a  proper  person,  and  accordingly  nominated 
to  the  see  of  Canterbury,  which  had  been  four  years  vacant, 
and  was  formerly  filled  by  his  old  friend  and  preceptor  Lan<» 
franc.  Anselm  was  with  much  difficulty  pretcaiied  upon  to 
accept  this  dignity,  and  evidetitly  foi*esaw  the  difficulties  6f 
executing  his  duties  conscientiously  under  such  a  sovereign 
^s  William  Rufus.  Beforehis  consecration,  however,  hegain- 
ed  a  promise  from  the  king  for  the  restitution  of  all  the  lands 
which  were  in  the  possession  of  that  see  in  Lanfranc's  time. 
And  thus  having  secured  the  temporalities  of  the  arch- 
bishopric, and  done  homage  to  the  king,  he  was  conse- 
crated ^ith  great  solemnity  on  the  4th  of  December,  I0d3« 

062  A  N  S  E  L  M. 

JSooh  after  his  consecration,  the  king  intending  to  wresi 
the  duchy  of  Normandy  from  his  broth  (Br  Robert,  and  en- 
deavouring to  raise  what  money  he  could  for  that  purpose^ 
Anselm  made  him  an  offer  of  five  hundred  pounds ;  which 
the  king  thinking  too  little,  refused  to  accept,  and  the  arch- 
bishop thereby  fell  under  the  king's  displeasure.  About 
that  time,  he  had  a  dispute  with  the  bishop  of  London, 
touching  the  right  of  consecrating  churches  in  a  foreign 
diocese.  The  next  year,  the  king  being  ready  to  embark 
for  Norjoiandy,  Anselm  waited  upon  him,  and  desired  his 
leave  to  ccHivene  a  national  synod,  in  which  the  disorders 
of  the  church  and  state,  and  the  general  dis^lution  of 
manners,  might  be  remedied :  but  the  king  refused  his 
request,  and  even  treated  him  so  roughly,  that  the  arch* 
bishop  and  his  retinue  withdrew  from  the  court,  the  licen* 
tious  manners  of  which,  Anselm,  who  was  a  man  of  inflexi- 
ble piety,  had  censured  with  great  freedom.  Another 
cause  of  discontent  between  him  and  the  archbishop,  was 
Anselm's  desiring  leave  to  go  to  Rome,  to  receive  the  pall 
from  pope  Urban  II.  whom  the  king  of  England  did  not 
acknowledge  as  pope,  being  more  inclined  to  favour  the 
party  of  his  competitor  Guibert  To  put  an  end  to  this 
ihisunderstanding,  a  council,  or  convention,  was  held  at 
Bockingham  castle,  March  11,  1095.  In  this  assembly, 
Anselm,  opening  his  cause,  told  them  with  what  reluc* 
tancy  he  h&d  accepted  the  archbishopric;  that  he  had 
made  an  express  reserve  of  his  obedience  to  pope  Urban ; 
jmd  that  be  was  now  brought  under  difficalties  upon  that 
score.  He  therefore  desired  their,  ad  vice  how  to  act  in 
such  a  manner,  as  neither  to  fail  in  his  allegiance  to  the 
king,  nor  in  his  duty  to  the  holy  see.  The  bishops  were 
of.  opinion,  that  he  ought  to  resign  himself  wholly  to  the 
king's  pleasure.  I'hey  told  him,  there  was  a  general 
.complaint  against  bim,  for  intrenching  upon  the.  king's 
prerogative ;  and  that  it  would  be  prudence  in  him  to  wave 
bis  regard  for  Urban ;  that  bishop  (for  they  would  not  call 
him  pope)  being  in  no  condition  to  do  bim  either  good  or 
harm.  To  this  Anselm  returned,  that  he  was  engaged  to 
be  no  farther  the  king's  subject  than  the  laws  of  Chris- 
tianity would  give  hini  leave ;  tliat  as  he  was  willing  <^  jto 
Tender  unto  Caesar  the^  things  that  were  Caesar's/'  so  ha 
must  likewise  take  in  the  othe^  part  of  the  precept,  and 
"  give  unto  God  that  which  was  God's."  Upon  this  VVil- 
Hami  bishop  of  Durham^  a  court  prelate,  who  had  inflaAigd 

A  N  S  E  L  ML  91$ 

the  difFeretice,  and  managed  the  argument  for  theking, 
insisted,  that  the  nomination  of  the  pope  to  the  subject 
was  the  principal  jewel' of  the  crown,  and  that  by  this  pri- 
vilege the  kings  of  England  were  distinguished  from  the 
rest  of  the  princes  of  Christendom.     This  is  sound  doc- 
trine, if  that  had  really  been  the  question  ;  but,  whatever 
may  be  now  thought  of  it,  Anselm  held  an  opinion  in 
l/rhich  sucfceeding  kings  and  prelates  acquiesced,  and  in  the 
present   instance,    there  is  reason   to  think  that  William 
Rufus's  objection  was  not  to  the  pope,  but  to  a  pope.     Be 
this  as  it  may,  the  result  of  this  council,  was  that  the  ma- 
jority of  the  bishops,  under  the  influence  of  the  court, 
withdrew  their  canonical  obedience,  and  renounced  An- 
selm  for  their  archbishop,  and  the  king  would  have  even 
had  them  to  try  and  depose  him,  but  this  they  refused.    In 
consequence  of  this  proceeding,  Anselm  desired  a  pass- 
port to  go  to  the  continent,  which  the  king  refused,  and 
would  permit  only  of  a  suspension  of  the  affair  from  March 
to 'Whitsuntide;   but  long  before  the  expiration  of  the 
term,  he  broke  through  the  agreement,  banished  several 
clergymen  who  were  Anselm's  favourites,  and  misa'abljr 
harrassed  the  tenants  of  his  see.     Whitsuntide  being  at 
length  come,  and  the  bishops  having  in  vain  endeavoured 
to  soften  Anselm  into  a  compliance,  the  king  consented  to 
receive  him  into  favour  upon  his  own  terms  ;  and,  because 
Anselm  persisted  in  refusing  to  receive  the  pall  from  the 
king's  hands,  it  was  at  last  agreed  that  the  pope^s  nuncio, 
who  had  brought  the  pall  into  England,  should  carry  it 
«lown  to  Canterbury,  and  lay  it  upon  the  altar  of  the  cathe- 
dral, from  whence  Anselm  was  to  receive  it,  as  if  it  had 
been  put  into  his  hands  by  St.  Peter  himself. 

This  may  appear  trifling ;  but  as  we  have  already  said 
that  the  king's  objection  was  to  a  pope,  and  not  to  the  pope^ 
it  is  necessary  to  prove  this  by  a  circumstance  which  oc- 
curred during  the  interval  above-mentioned,  especially  as 
this  part  of  Anselm's  conduct  has  been  objected  to  by  some 
late  biographers  more  acquainted  with  the  opinions  of 
their  own  time,  than  with  the  opinions  and  state  of  so- 
ciety in  that  of  Anselm.  During  the  above  interval,  Wal- 
ter, bidK>p  of  Alba,  was  sent  by  Urban  into  Engfand,  at« 
tended  by  two  clergymen,  who  officiated  in  the  king's 
chapel.  Tl^ese  ecclesiastics  had  been  privately  dispatched 
po  Rome,  to  inquire  into  the  late  election,  and  examine 
Tvhicii  of  the  two   pretenders,    Guibe^^t  or  Vcban,  wa« 

284  A  N  S  E  L  M. 

canbdically  chosen,  and  finding  the  right  lay  in  Urhav, 
applied  to  him,  and  endeavoured  to  persuade  him  to  send 
the  king  tlie  archbishop  of  Canterbury's  palL  This  was 
the  king^s  point ;  who  thought,  by  getting  the  pall  jiito 
hia  poss^ession,  he  should  be  able  to  manage  the  archhisbopt 
The  pope  complied  so  far,  as  to  send  the  bishop  of  Alba 
to  the  king  with  the  pall,  but  with  secret  orders  ooncem- 
ing  the  disposal  of  it.  This  prelate  arriving  at  the  £0g- 
lish  court,  discoursed  very  plausibly  to  the  king,  making 
him  believe  the  pope  was  entirely  in  his  interest;  in  conse-^ 
quence  of  which  William  ordered  Urban  to  be  acknow- 
ledged as  pope  in  all  his  dominions.  After  he  had  thus 
far  gratified  the  see  of  Rome,  he  began  to  treat  with,  thet 
legate  about  the  deprivation  of  Anselm ;  but  was  gneatly 
.disappointed,  when  that  prelate  assured  him  the  design 
was  impracticable.  As  therefore  it  was  now  too  late  to  go 
back,  he  resolved,  since  he  could  not.  have  his  reven^ 
upon  Anselm,  to  drop  the  dispute,  and  pretend  himsdf 
reconciled.  Matters  being  thus .  adjusted,  the  archbishop 
went  to  Canterbury,  and  received  the  pall  with  great  so- 
lemnity the  June  following.  And  now  it  was  generally 
hoped,  that  all  occasion  of  difference  between  the  king 
and  the  archbishop  was  removed :  but  it  appeared  noon 
after,  that  the  reconciliation  on  the  king^s  part  was  not 
sincere.  For  William,  having  marched  his  forces  io^ 
Wales,  and  brought  that  country  to  submission,  took  thM 
ppportunity  to  quarrel  with  Anselm,  pretending  he  vng 
not  satisfied  with  the  quota  the  archbishop  had  furaishMl 
for  that  expedition.  Finding  therefore  his  authority  too 
weak  to  oppose  the  corruptions  of  the  times,  Anselm  re-* 
solved  to  go  in  parson  to  Rome,  and  consult  the  popiev 
But  the  king,  to  whom  he  applied  for  leave  to  go  mxt  of 
the  kingdom,,  sealed  surprised  at  the  request,  and  gair« 
him  a  flat  deniaL  His  request  being  repeated,  the  king 
gave  his  compliance  in  the  form  of  a  sentence  of  banish- 
ment, and  at  the  meeting  of  the  great  council,  Oct.  1097, 
commanded  him  to  leave  the  kingdom  within  eleven  days, 
without  caiTying  any  of  his  effects  with  htm,  and  declared 
at'the  3ame  time  that  he  should  never  be  permitted  to  re- 
tum«  Anselm,  nowise  affected  by  this  harsh  conduct, 
went  to  Canterbury,  divested  himself  of  his  aochiepiscopal 
robes,  and  set  out  on  his  journey,  embarking  at  Dover, 
after  his  baggage  had  been  strictly  searched  by .  the  king's 
officers.  As  soon  as  the  king  heagrd  thf^t  he  had  crtosed  the 

A  N  S  E  L  M.  285 

cbalinel,  he  seized  upon  the  estates  and  revenues  of  thife 
archbishopric,  and  made  erery  thing  void  which  Anselm 
haA  done.     The  archbishop^  however^  got  safe  to  Rome^ 
ao4  was  honourably  received  by  the  pope,  and  after  a  short 
stay  in  that  city,  he  accompanied  the  pope  to  a  country 
seat  near  Capua,  whither  i^is  holiness  retired  on  account 
of  die  Unhealthiness  of  the  town.     Here  Anselm  wrote  a 
book,  in  which  he  gave  an  account  of  the  reason  of  our 
Saviour^s  incarnation.      The  pope  wrote  to  the  king  of 
£i^laad  in  a  stram  of  authority,  enjoining  him  to  re« 
iostatft  Anselm  in  all  the  profits  and  privileges  of  his  see; 
and  Anselia  wrote  into  England  upon  the  same  subject. 
The  king,  on  the  other  hand,  endeavoured  to  get  Anselm 
discountenanced  abroad,    and  wrote  to  Roger,   duke  of 
Apulia,  and  others,  to  tiiat  purpose.     But,  notwithstand- 
ing bis  endeavours,  Anselm  was  treated  with  all  imaginable 
lespect  wherever  he  ciame,  and  was  very  serviceable  to 
the  pope  in  the  council  of  Bari,  which  was  held  to  oppose 
the  errors  of  the  Greek  church,  with  respect  to  the  pro- 
cession  of  the  Holy  Ghost.     In  this  synod  Anselm  an- 
sweired  the  objections  of  the  Greeks,  and  managed  the 
argufxient  with  so  much  judgment,  learning,  and  pene- 
trattcm,  that  he  silenced  his  adversaries,  and  gave  general 
sausfiaction  to  the  Western  church.     This  argument  wa» 
afterwards  digested  by  him  into  a  tract,  and  is  extant 
among  his  other  works.     In   the  same  council   Anselm 
generously  interposed,  and. prevented  the  pope  from  pro- 
nouncing sentence  of  excommunication  against  the  king 
ef  Eng^aAd,  for  his  frequent  outrages  on  religion.     After 
the  synod  of  Bari  was  ended,  the  pope  and  Ans^lni  re* 
turned  to  Rome,  where  an  ambassador  from  the  king  of 
bigllmd  was  arrived,  in  order  to  disprove  Anselm's  alle* 
gations  and  complaints  against  his  master.     At  first  the 
pope  was  peremptory   in  rejecting  this  ambassador;  but 
the  latter  in  aiprivate  conference,  and  through  the  secret 
influence  of  a  large  sum  of  money,  induced  the  court  of 
Rome  to  desert  Anselm.     Still  the  pope  could  not  be  reso* 
lute;  for  when   the  archbishop  would  have  returned  to 
JLjojQS,  he  could  not  part  with  him,  but  lodged  him  in  a 
noble  palace,  and  paid  him  frequent  visits.  About  this  time 
tile  pope  having  summoned  a  council  to  sit  at  Rome,  An- 
•ekn  had  a  very  honourable  seat  assigned  to  him  and  his 
yucceators,  this  being  the  first  appearance  of  an  archbishdp 
<rf  Ca|itei1>ury  in  a  Roman  synod.     Nor  was  this  all,  for 

286  A  ]!9  S  E  L  M; 

the  bishop  of  Lucca,  one  of  the  members,  adluddd  tb  Ah^ 
selm's  case  in  a  manner  so  pointed,  that  the  pope  wat 
obliged  to  promise  that  matters  should  be  rectified.    Whetv 
the  council  broke  up,  Anselm  returned  to  Lyons,  vfh^ff 
he  was  entertained  for  some  time  by  Hugo  the  archbishop^ 
and  remained  there  until  the  death  of  king  William  and 
pope  Urban  in  1100.     Henry  L  who  succeeded  WiUiam, 
having  restored  the  sees  of  Canterbury,  Winchester,  and 
Salisbury,  which  had  been  seized  by  his  predecessor.  An- 
telm  was  solicited  to  return  to  England,  add  on  bis  arrival 
at  Ciugny,  an  agent  from  the  king  presented  him  with  «i 
letter  of  invitation  to  his  bishopric,  and  an  excuse  for  his 
majesty^s  not  waiting  until  Anselm's  reti|rn,  and  receiv- 
ing the  crown  from  the  hands  of  another  prelate. 
.    When  he  came  to  England,  September  1100^  be  was^ 
received  with  extraordinary  respect  by  the  king  and  peo^^ 
pie,  but  it  being  required  that  he  should  be  re-inveSted  hy 
the  king,  and  do  the  customary 'homage  of  his  predeces«> 
sors,  he  refused  to  comply,  alledging  the  canons  of  thtf 
late  synod  at  Rome  about  investitures.    This  synod  eiccom^ 
inunicated  all  lay  persons,  who  should  give  investitures  for 
abbies  or  cathedrals,  and  all  ecclesiastics  receiving  inves- 
titures  from  lay  hands,  or  who  came  under  the  tenure  of 
homage  for  any  ecclesiastical  promotion,  were  put  under 
the  same  censure.     Displeased  as  the  king  was  with  Aii« 
selm*s  adherence  to  this  law,  he  was  not  sufficiently  estab- 
lished on  the  throne  to  hazard  an .  open  rupture,  and  it  was 
therefore  agreed  that  the  dispute  should  rest  until  Easter 
following,  and  in  the  mean  time  both  parties  were  to  send 
iheir  agents  to  Rome,  to  try  if  they  could  pevsuade  the 
pope  to  dispense  with  the  canons  of  the  late  synod  in  rela« 
tion  to  investitures.     About  this  time,  Anselm  summoned 
a  synod  to  meet  at  Lambeth,  on  occasion  of  the  king*s  in« 
tended  marriage  with  Maud  or  Matilda,  eldest  daughter  of 
Malcolm  king  of  Scotland,  and  in  this  synod  it  was  deter^i* 
mined,  that  the  king  might  lawfully  marry  that  princess, 
notwithstanding  she  was  generally  reported  to  be  a  nun^ 
having  worn  the  veil,  and  had  her  education  in  a  religious 
house.     Soon  after  the  marriage,  which  Anselm  celebrated, 
he  was  of  signal  service  to  king  Henry  against  his  brother 
the  duke  of  Normandy,  who  had  invaded  England,  and 
landed  with  a  formidable  army  at  Portsmouth,  as  he  not 
only  furnished  the  king  with  a  large  body  of  men,  butwai 
very  active,  likewise,  in  preventing  a  revolt  of  the  great 

A  N  S  E  L  Ma  2Sr 

men  from  him.  To  engage  the  primate  to  perform  these 
services^  we  are  assured  by  Eadmer,  bis  friend,  secretary^ 
and  biographer,  that  the  king  solemnly  promised  to  go* 
Tern  the  kmgdom  by  his  advice,  and  submit  in  all  thing* 
to  the  will  of  the  pope,  a  promise  which  he  seems  to  have 
kept  no  longer  than  danger  was  in  view. 

The  agents,  sent  by  the  king  and  the  archbishop  to 
Rome,  being  returned,  brought  with  them  a  letter  from 
pope  Paschal  to  the  king,  in  which  his  holiness  absolutely 
refused  to  dispense  with  the  canons  concerning  investi- 
tures. The  king,  on  his  part,  resolved  not  to  give  up 
what  for  some  reigns  had  passed  for  part  of  the  royal  pre- 
rogative, and  thus  the  difference  was  continued  betweea 
the  king  and  Anseim.  In  this  dispute  the  majority  of  the 
bishops  and  temporal  nobility  were  on  the  court  side ;  and 
some  of  them  were  very  earnest  with  the  king,  to  break 
entirely  with  the  see  of  Rome ;  but  it  was  not  thought  ad- 
viseable  to  proceed  to  an  open  rupture  without  trying  a 
Darther  expedient ;  and  therefore  fred^  agents  were  dis- 
patched by  the  king  to  Rome,  with  instructions  to  offer 
the  pope  this  alternative ;  either  to  depart  from  his  former 
declaration,  and  relax  in  the  point  of  investitures,  or  to 
be  content  with  the  banishment  of  Anseim,  and  to  lose 
the  obedience  of  the  English,  and  the  yearly  profits  ac« 
eruing  from  that  kingdom.  At  the  same  time,  Anseim 
dispatched  two  monks,  to  inform  the  pope  of  the  menaces 
of  the  English  court.  But  the  king's  ambassadors  could 
not  prevail  with  the  pope  to  recede  firom  his  declaration ; 
his  holiness  protesting  he  would  sooner  lose  his  life  than 
cancel  the  decrees  of  the  holy  fathers,  which  resolution  he 
signified  by  letters  to  the  king  and  Anselor.  Soon  after, 
the  king,  having  convened  the  great  men  of  the  kingdom 
at  London,  sent  Anseim  word,  that  he  must  either  comply^ 
with  the  usages  of  his  father's  reign,  or  quit  England  ;  but 
^e  agents  disagreeing  iu  their  report  of  the  pope's  an- 
swer, Anseim  thought  proper  not  to  return  a  positive  an- 
swer till  farther  information.  And  thus  the  controversy 
slept  for  the  present.  The  next,  year  a  national  synod 
was  held  under  Anseim  at  St.  Peter's,  Westminster ;  at 
]which  the  king  and  the  principal  nobility  were  present,  and 
in  which  several  abbots  were  deposed,  for  simoayi  and 
many  canons  were  made.  By  one  of  these  the  mtfrted 
^^Tfy  ymre  commanded  to  put  away  their  wives^  and  bjr 


288  A  N  S  E  L  M. 

ftRother  it  was  decreed  that  the  soi^s  of  priests*  sbontd  not 
l;e  heirs  to  their  fathers'  churches. 

.  The  king  had  an  interview  with  the  archbishop  about 
mid-lent,  1 103,  in  which  he  laboured  both  by  threats  and 
promises,  to  bring  him  to  do  homage  for  the  tem;)oraliti69 
ef  his  see,  but  when  he  found  him  iuflexiblej  he  joined 
with<the  bishops  and  nobility  in  desiring  Anselm  to  take  a 
journey  to  Rome,  to  try  if  he  could  persuade  the  pope  to 
relax,  and  Anselm  accordingly  set  out,  April  29.     At  the 
same  time,  the  king  dispatched  one  Williain  Warelwast  to 
Borne,  who,  arriving  there  before  Anseim,   solicited  for 
the  king  his  master,  but  to  no  purpose,  as  the  pope  per- 
sisted in  refusing  to  grant  the  king  the  right  of  investiture. 
Bat,  at  the  same  time,  his  holiness  wrote  a  very  ceremo- 
/ftious  letter  to  ,the  king  of  England,  entreating  him  to 
vave  the  contest,  and  promising  all  imaginable  compliance 
in  other  matteri^.     Anselm,  having,  taken  leave  of  the  court 
of  Rome,  returned  to  Lyons,  where  he  received  a  sharp 
and  reprimanding .  letter  from  a  monk,  acquainting  him 
with  the  lamentable  condition  of  the  province  of  Canter- 
bury, and  blaming  him  for  absenting  himself  at  such  a 
critical  time.     During  the  arphbisbop^s  stay  at  Lyons,  the 
king  sent  another  embassy  to  Rome,  to  try  if  he  could 
prevail  with  the  pope  to  bring  Anselm  to  a  submission. 
But  the  pope,  instead  of  being  gained,  excommunicated 
some  of  the  English  court,  who  had  dissuaded  the  k^ng 
from  parting  with  the  investitures,  yet  be  declined  pro* 
Qouncing  any  censure  against  the  king.     Anselm,  per* 
ceiving  the  court  of  Rome  dilatory  in  its  proceedings,  re- 
moved from  Lyons,  and  made  a  visit  to  the  countess  Adela^ 
the  conqueror's  daughter,   at  her  castle  in   Blois.     Thin 
lady  inquiring  into  the  business  of  Anselqi^s  journey,  he 
told  her  that,  after  a  great  deal  of  patience  and  expecta-* 
tion,  he^must  now  be  forced  to  excommunicate  the  king 
ef  England.     The  countess  was  extremely  concerned  for 
her  brother,  and  wrote  to  the  pope  to  procure  an  accom^ 
Biodation.     The  king,    who  was  come  into  Normandy, 
hearing  that  Anselm  designed  to  excommunicate  him,  de- 
sired his  sister  to  bring  him  with  her  into  Normandy,  with 
a  promise  of  condescension  in  several  articles.     To  this 
Anselm  agreed,   and   waited  upon   the  king  at  a  castle 
called  L^Aigle,  July  1105,    where  the  king  restored  to 
l^im  the  revenues  of  the  archbishopric^  but  would  Diot4)er'' 

A  N  S  E  L  M.  289    ' 

mit  htm  to  come  into  England,  unless  he  would  comply  in 
the  affair  of  the  investitures,  wbich  Anselm*  refusing,  con-^ 
tinned  in  France,  till  the  matter  wa^  once  more  laid  before 
the  pope<  But  now  the  English  bishops,  who  had-  taken 
part  with  the  court  against  Anselm,  began  to  change  their 
minds,  as  appears  by  their  letter  directed  to  him  in  Nor-*. 
mandy,  in  which,  after  having  set  forth  the  deplorable 
state  of  the  church,  they  press  him  to  come  over  with  all 
speed,  promising  to  stand  by  him,  and  pay  him  the  regard 
due  to  his  character.  This  was  subscribed  by  Gerrard 
archbishop  of  York,  Robert  bishop  of  Chester,  Herbert 
bishop  of  Norwich,  Ralph  bishop  of  Chichester,  Sapi- 
son  bishop  of  Worcester,  and  William:  elect  of  Win^ 
Chester.  Anselm  expressed  his  satisfaction  at  this  conduct, 
of  the  bishops,  but  acquainted  them  that  it  was  not  in  hia 
power  to  return,  till  he  was  farther  informed  of  the  pt<i*. 
ceedings  of  the  court  of  Rome.  In  the  mean  time,  being 
told,  that  the  king  had  fined  some  of  the  clergy  for  a .  la^e. 
breach  of  the  canons  respecting  marriage,  he  wrote  to  hia 
highness  to  complain  of  that  stretch  of  his  prerogative^. 
At  length  the  ambassadors  returned  from  Rome,-  and 
brought  with  them  a  decisiop  more  agreeable. than  the  for* 
mer,  for  now  the  pope  thought  fit  to  make  ^ome  advances 
towards  gratifying  the  king,  aud  though  he  would  not 
give  u|>  the  point  of  investitures,  yet  he  dispensed  so  far 
as  to  ,giv^  the  bishops  and  abbots  leave  to  do  homage  for 
their  temporalities.  The  king,  who  was  highly  pleased 
witlx  this  condescension  in  d)e  pope>  sent  immediately  to 
ipvite  A^^^e.lm  to  England  ;  but  the  messenger  finding  him 
sicks  ^^  kt^  himself  went  over  into  Normandy,  and 
.visit^4,  hinoi  at.tlye  abbey  of  £ec,  where  all  differences  be* 
twj^en  thfi^  were  completely  adjusted. ;  As  soon  as  Anselm 
Xecoyere4^,  h^  epnbarked  for  England,  and  landing  at  Do* 
ifer, .was.jff^l^ived  with  ej^traordinary  marks  of  welcome^ 
tl^e  quefin.berself  travelling  before  him  upon  the  road,  to 

Jijco^de  (or.  his.  better  jentertainment.  From  this  time  very 
ittlef^pp^ued  in  the  life  of  thi^  celebrated  •  prelate,  ex* 
cept;i^g  o^ly  his., contest  with  Thom^s^  archbishop  ele^pt  of  ^ 
Vorjko/.whpi  di$engag,e  himself  .froqi  a  de* 
I^'^PfrJ^.^Pc^^  s^e. of  .Canterbury  ^  but  although.  Ansj^lni' 
dlfa;be^rej^^^  was  ojbligg^itf^ 

comply,  ana'  make  his  ;iu|>wia0ioc)L  as.^ual  to  rt))e  w^r 

Vol.  IL  U 

2»0  A  N  S  E  L  al» 

thb  ««v#nty-^i^th  yeat  of  hie  ^ig^  Md  tke  iiev^ttteeiiih  «f 
JuBprekey^  April  ei,  HOD. 

Aitt^lm'ft  chamt^l^T)  in  his  own  titnes,  Appears  to  httv^ 
b^N^  tbut  of  a  mftn  of  ardent  pidty,  extensive  lenming^ 
dtid  ^reat  firmtiess  and  constancy  in  pursuing  the  measures 
whieh  he  tHonght  most  conducive  tp  the  interests  of  th^ 
dhuft^fa.  tid«r  far  he  acted  right  in  his  adherence  to  the 
]l^apal  dotninic^n,  cannot  be  judged  from  what  is  now 
th.6ught  nn  that  <»ubjecl,  but  what  was  tlien  either  law  or 
|kitiH:iee.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  the  early  ages  of 
^b^  English  churchy  the  pope  had  a  kind  of  patriarchal 
pMrtt  in  England,  aod  although  we  find  instances  of  dis* 
putes  between  some  of  our  kings  and  the  couit  of  Rome  On 
thia  subject^  we  generally  also  find  that  they  ended  in  thes 
svlbmission  6f  the  former,  or  in  such  a  compromise  as  th^ 
HHitual  intereitii  of  the  contending  parties  required  for  a 
teitaporary  truce.  Never  until  the  reformation  was  the 
l^iht  completely  settled,  although  it  svas,  until  that  pt'^ 
liod,  a  perpetual  source  of  litigation,  and  sometiittes,  it 
rtUst  be  eoUfessed^  our  monarchs  shewed  a  firmness  that 
ihighthave  deprived  the  court  of  Rome  of  her  boasted 
supremacy,  hftd  they  not  beeli  thwarted  by  the  supersti* 
fiouft  fears  Of  thfei'r  subjects. 

m^  private  life  is  allowed  -to  have  been  pious,  humble, 
and  ^xemplaty^  and  his  works,  which  are  partly  schdastical^ 
and  partly  devotional,  prove  that  he  was  a"  man  t)f  first 
ifeattiing  andgehius  in  his  time.  Like  Augustihe,- whom 
he  neeink  to  have  followed  as  his  model,  and  whose  **  Medii. 
tatiOAfl,**  as  ifcey  are  cfeHed,  are  chiefly  abstracts  from  Ah^ 
Smith's  WWks,  heabouftds'both  in  profound  arg;^ttmetitiition  oA 
the  rtiost  abstrtrsfe  %.f»d  difficult  subjects,  and  in  tievout  stenti*- 
Iftehl^  onpi^actical  religion.  Brucker,  after  tertjarfclirg  th^; 
1*^  apfplied  the  subttety  of  logic  to  theology,  giVe?i  a:s  an  eit^ 
i^#ple  of  h^Vefit^^ttten t,  his  argunients  for  thebrfAg' bf  Gbff, 
flferivea  floih  thb  Abstract  idea  of  the  deity,  fefterwafdb  i^- 
Wttifea  by  iWs  Cirtes.  His 'writings  on  theVill  bf©^ 
oft  Jfre^  vtill^'  tfittb,  the  eonsifetency  of  the  doct^Jft^  ij^ditine 
j>r|?Sei6n^.  with  that  of  predestlfiation,  knd '  dttifer  .^Mmls, 
.iftilch  Kbotirid  "ih  logl<ial  an^  inetajphysical  ibslractlotil, 
es'fittehiift  to  tlhe  honour  df-havfeg  kfgelf  ^ct^tit^ribut^  tbl 
«^ifeft::ii«^j^fi«g'fte4ay  fer  «te  «:helaftic^sv^sfeiti/^^?fcfe 

^'  HiiHSr6?fe4»4veSb^'^ft<-tl^Peprint4a.'''1^^         SSSb^ 

A  N  S  K  L  M.  «»1 

is  tbat  of  Nuremberg,  1491^  fd.'   The  best  k  said  to  bf 
that  of  Gerberon,  Paris,  1675,  reprbted  in  1721,  and  a^aiii 
at  Venice^  1744,  2  vols,  folio.     In  the  library. ef  hyont* 
there  is  a  beautiful  manuscript  of  his  Meditations  an4 
prayers.     His  printed  works  consist  of,  U  ^*  Epistolami^ 
Jibri  iv."     2.  ^  Monobgium,  seu  soUloquium.**     $.  •*  Pro- 
sologium,  seu  alloquium.''    4.  '<  Liber  incesrti  autoris  pro^ 
insipiente  adversus  Anfelini  Prosologium."      S-4  **  Uiamr 
contra  insipientem,  seu  apologeticus  adversus  UkMOim  pre^ 
cedentem."     6.  *«  Dialogus  de  vefitate."     7.  *^  Dialpgup 
de    libero  arbitrio.*'      8.    '^  Diaiogus  de  casu  diaboH/' 
9.  '^  Disputatio  dialectica  de  grammatica.*'     10.  ^^Trao* 
tatus  de  sacramento  altaris,  seu  de  corpore  et  sanguine 
Domini."   1 1.  "  Liber  de  fide,  seu  de  Incarnatione  Ver|)i/' 
12.  "  De  Buptiis  consauguineorum/*     18.  "  Libri  ii.  <:oa- 
tra  gentiles,  cur  Deus  homo.''     1 4.  ^^  De  processione  Spi«- 
ritus  Sancti,   contra  Graecos."     15.  '*  Dp  conceptu  Vir^» 
ginali  active,  et  peccato  priginali.'*     16.  **  Fragmenta  va^ 
riorum  Anselmi  tractatuum  de  conceptu  Virgiaali  pa^sivo.'^ 
17.  ^^  De  tribus  Walleranni  questionibus  ac  proBseitim  de 
fermento  et  azymo."     18.  "  De  sacramentorum  diversi** 
tate."     19.  *^  Concordia  prescientise,  prsedestinationis,  et 
jjratisB  cum  libertate."     20.  *^  Liber  de  voluntate  Dei." 
21.  "  Meditationum  libri  x."     22.  "  Liber  de  saiuJte  ani^ 
maj.'*      23.  *^Meditatio  ad  sororem  de  beneficiis  Dei.** 
24«  ^^  Meditatio    de    passione  Christi.''      ^5,  ^^  Alloquia 
•caslestia,  rivet faculas  pix)ruma£Pectuum,^'  &c,     26^  ^'Mao^- 
iissa  meditationum  et  orationum  ia  quinque  partes  tributa.*f 
27.  '*  Hymni  et  psalterium  in  commemoratione  DeipBrad.*^ 
38.  ^*  Liber    de    excelientia    gloriosse   Virginis  Mai^ise.** 
S9.  **  Liber  de  quatuor  virtutibus  B.  Mariac,  ej usque  mb^ 
limitate.'^   30.  *^  Passio  S8.  Guigneri  sive  Fingaris,  Pialap, 
«t  Sociorum.''    31.  ^^  Liber  exbortationum  ad  contenoptum 
temporalium  et  derideriuQi  aeternorum."    32.  ^'  Adfoouitjo 
pro  moribundo.*'     83.  *^  Parsenesis  ad  virginem  Ispsam.*' 
8#.  ^  Sermo  sive  liber  de  beatitudine."     Z6,  **  Hooulia 
in  illud,  Introit  Jesus  in  quoddam  castellttm.*^     36.  '<  H0« 
mdiias  in  aliquot  Evangelia."    87.  *^  Carmen  de  contempta 
mundi,  et  alia  carmtna."     Theoe.  ane  some  othet  pieoe$ 
ascribed  to  Anselm  in  the  edition  of  Cologne,,  1612 ;  and 
in  the  edition  of  Ly6ns,  li^Spj  bvjit;  th^  ace., generally-' 
thought  supposititLousi. 

It  yet  remains  to  be  noticed  that  Aftselflpi-  Mfas  eanoni^edt 
in  the  xeigo  of  Henry  VII.  at  the  mstapqe  of  cardii^Mor* 

V  2 

292  ANSEL  M. 

toD,  theti  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  a  singular  m&rk  of 
Teiieration  for  one  who  bad  been  dead  so  long.  His  life 
was  written  by  Eadmer,  the  historian^  his  secretary,  and 
by  John  of  Salisbury,  but  the  account  given  by  the  latter 
is  deformed  by  many  supposed  miracles.^ 

ANSELME  DE  St.  Mary  (or  Peter  de  Goibours), 
commonly  called  father,  of  Paris,  of  the  Augustine  order, 
died^at  Paris,  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age,  in  1694.  He 
was  the  author  of  a  very  elaborate  work,  entitled  *^  His- 
toire  genealogiqUe  et  chronologique  de  la  maison  de  France, 
et  des  grands  officiers  de  Ja  couronne,'*  1673,  2  vols.  4t0. 
The  second  edition  was  published  with  considerable  addi- 
tipns  in  1712,  by  M.  du  Fourni,  auditor  of  accounts,  who 
did  not,  however,  put  his  name  to  it.  In  1725  father 
Ange,  an  Augustin  monk,  and  Simplicien,  of  the  same 
order,  projected  a  continuation  of  this  work  which  extended 
to  nine  vols.  fol.  and  appeared  in  1726  and  the  following 
years.  It  contains  a  vast  stock  of  historical  information, 
derived  from  sources  not  easily  accessible,  and  much  bio- 
graphical matter.  Bayle  mentions  that  Anselme  had  made 
preparations  for  a  general  history  of  the  sovereign  house  of 
Europe,  part  of  which  h^  left  in  manuscript.  * 

ANSELME  (Antony)>  a  celebrated  French  preacher, 
was  born  at  Isle-en-Jourdain,  a  small  town  of  Armagnac, 
Jan.  13,  1632;  and  first  distinguished  himself  by  odes  and 
other  poetical  compositions,  which  were  afterwards  less 
esteethed.  Being  appointed  tutor  to  the  marquis  D'Antin 
l>y  his  father 'the  marquis  Mentespan,  Anselme  removed 
to  Paris,  and  acquired  great  fame  in  that  metropolis  by 
his  sermons,  and  especially  by  his  funeral  orations.  It 
was  observed,  however,  that  although  elegant  in  style, 
they  wanted  much  df  that  fervency  which  touches  the 
heart.  His  noble  pupil  caused  to  be  revived  the  place  of 
historian  of  buildings,  and  bestowed  it  on  Anselme;  and 
the  Academy  of  Painting,  and  that  of  Inscriptions  and 
belles  lettres,  admitted  him  a  member.  Towards  the 
close  t)f  life  he  retired  to  the  abbey  of  St.  Severe  in  Gas- 
cony,  where  he  enjoyed  the  pleasures  which  his  books  and 
fais  garden  afforded,  and  became  a  public  beni^factor  r  pi*o-> 

.    tpaj-iccr  de.J^ntiq.    Britan.  £colc8.-«-Wbaiton'f   Anglia   Sacra. — Eadiqen 
Hist.<--Tamier  BIbl.  who'givei  a  lilt  of  hfs  MSS.  and  th9  libraries  In  which  they 
are  to  be  found.— Biog,  Britanaica.— Henrjr^s  Sist.  of  Great  Britain,  vol.  V. 
p.^80.>rol.  VI  ^  p.  )2S^.«^3odvia  de  Pretalibus  4  RicbardtoQ.-^AralMolofia, 
viiK  i,'  p.  5;^.r-Mitner*t  Churqk  Hist  vol.  II f.  pw  335.r-SaxiL Onomatticon. 
'  >  l^u^t.  Hist  -bMem.  of  Lkerature.  to!.  X/*«'Morerl«-<-Bio(:  UfiiirarMlle« 

A  N  S  E  L  M  E.  393 

jecting  new  roads,  decorating  churches,  founding  hoipitals, 
and  by  his  discreet  interposition,  adjusting  the  di(£ereii-« 
ces  which  fell  out  among  the  country  people.  He  died' 
Aug.  18,  1737,  in  his  ninety-sixth  year.  His  works  are  a- 
collection  of  ^^  Sermons,  Panegyriques,  &  OraisoM  Fune« 
bres,'*  7  vols.  8vo.  The  **  Sermons"  h&ve  been  reprinted' 
in  6  vols.  12mo.  He  has  also  several  '^  Dissertations"  in 
the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions,  from  the 
year  1724  to  1729. » 

ANSELME  (Antony)  of  Antwerp,  a  very  eminent  law- 
yer, died  in  his  80th  year  in  1668,  and  left  several  works 
on  civil  law,  written  with  method  and  perspicuity.  These 
are,  **  Codex  Belgicus,*'  Antwerp,  1649,  fol.  <<Tribuni-. 
anus  Belgicus,"  Brussels^  1663,  fol.  A  collection  of 
^<  Edicts,"  1648,  4  vols,  fol.;  and  another  of  <^ Consulta- 
tions," published  at  Antwerp  in  1671,  fol.  All  his  works 
are  written  in  Latin. ' 

ANSELME  (George),  a  Latin  poet  of  the  sixteenth- 
century,  was  bom  at  Parma,  of  a  very  ancient  family,  and 
was  afterwards  eminent  as  a  physician,  and  a  man  of  general 
literature.  The  volume  which  contains  his  poetry,  an^  is 
very  scarce,  is  entitled  ^^  Georgii  Anselmi  Nepotis  Epi* 
grammaton  libri  septem:  Sosthyrides :  Palladis  Peplus  ; 
Eglogae  quatuor,"  Vfenice,  1528,  8va  He  took  the  title 
of  Nepos  to  distinguish  himself  from  another  George  An- 
selme,  his  grandfather,  a  mathematician  and  astronomer, 
who  died  about  1440,  leaving  in  manuscript  ^<  Dialogues 
on  Harmony,"  and  *^  Astrological  institutions."  Our  au« 
thor  wrote,  besides  his  poems,  some  illustrations  of  Plautus, 
under  the  title  of  ^^  Epiphyllides,"  which  are  inserted  in 
Sessa's  edition  of  Plautus,  Venice,  1518;  and  had  before 
appeared  in  the  Parma  edition  of  1509,  fol.  He  wrote 
also  the  life  of  Cavicco  or  Cavicio,  prefixed  to  his  romance 
of  ^^Libro  de  Peregrino,"  Venice,  1526,  8vo,  and  1547. • 
He  died  in  1528. 

ANSLO  (Reiner),  a  Dutch  poet  of  considerable  cele- 
brity in  his  own  country,  was.  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1622. 
In  1649  he  travelled  to  Italy,  where  he  acquired  great  re** 
putation  as  a  writer  of  Latin  verse.  Pope  Innocent  X. 
gave  him  a  beautiful  medal  for  a  poem  which  he  had  com« 
posed  on  occasion  of  the  juhilee  cetebrated  in  1650,  an^ 
queen  Christina  g^ve  him  a  gold  chain  for  a  poem  in  Dutcli 

^  Moreri, — pict  Hist— Biog.  UniTeinelle, 

I  Pict,  Hittw-'-Feppcn  Bibl.  Belf .  9  J^iQg,  Unifen^Qo, 

!2M  A  N  S  L  0« 

which  he  addressed  to  bsr.  Some  have  discorered  in  his 
p<iems  an  inclination  for  the  Roman  catholic  religion*  He 
died  at  Peroose  in  Italy>  May  16,  1669.  The  collection 
of  his  works  was  printed  at  Rotterdanii  1715,  8vo;  and 
contains  the  **  Crown  of  St  Stephen  the  martyr/'  pub«» 
lished  in  1646;  and  his  tragedy  of  the  '^Parisian  miptiak^ 
or  the  massacre  of  St»  Bartholomew^"  which  first  appeared 
ia  1649.^ 

ANSON  (George),  an  eminent  naval  commander,  and 
disiin|^ished  nobieman>  of  the  eighteenth  century,  was 
descended  from  an  ancient  and  respectable  family,  which 
had  long  been  settled  in  Staffordshire.  He  was  bom  at 
Shngborough  manor,  in  the  parish  of  Colwicbi  in  that 
dounty,  on  the2Sd  April,  1697,  being  the  third  son  of 
William  AnsM,  esq^  by  Eli:^abeth,  eldest  daughteV  and 
ooheir  of  Robert  Carrier,  esG^.  of  Wirksworth  in  Derby- 
shire. The  navy  being  Mr.  Anson^s  choice,  be  went  early 
to  sea;  and  on  the  9th  of  May  1716,  was  made  second 
Itetstenanl  of  his  majesty's  ship  the  Hampshire,  by  sir 
John  Nonis,  commander  in  chief  of  a  squadron  sent  to  the 
Baltic.  In  the  following  year,  he  was  again  in  the  Baltic, 
in  the  fleet  commanded  by  sir  George  Byng ;  and  on  the 
15th  of  March,  1717<8,  was  appointed  secood  lieute* 
Bant  of  the  MoniUigu,  belonging-  to  sir  George  Byng's 
squadron,  ia  the  expedition  to  Sicily ;  and  was  present  in 
the  celebrated  action  near  that  island,  by  which  the  Spanish 
fleet  was  effectaally  destroyed,  and  the  designs  of  the 
king  of  Spain  against  Sicily  received  a  very  considerable 
check.  On  the  1 9th  June  1 722,  he  was  preferred  to  be 
master  and  commander  of  the  Weazel  sloop ;  and  on  the 
first  of  Febrnary  1723-4,  be  was  raised  to  the  rank  of 
post-captain^  and  to  the  command  of  the  Scarborough 
nail  of  war.  In  this  ahip  he  was  ordered  to  South  Caro* 
Kna,  in  which  station  he  continued  above  three  years; 
and  while  he  resided  in  that  province,  he  erected  a  town, 
Anton  Boorgh,  and  gave  name  to  a  bounty,  which  is  still 
called  Anson  toonty.  Being  commanded  home  in  Octo- 
ber 192T9  he  returned  to  England  in  the  foUowing  springs 
and  was  paid  off  in  May  1728.  On  the  1  Ith  of  October, 
m  the  same  ye^,  he  was  appointed  captain  of  the  Garlaad 
mm  of  war,  and  went  out  in  her  to  South  Canrfina ;  from 
ishenoe  he  was  ordered  hack,  m  December  1729»  a^d  the 

'  Biof.  UnvtoMne* 

A  N  3  O  N.  ei< 

$bip  was  put  out  of  commissiofn  at  She^rness.    He  did  not| 
bowe?er|  .remain  long  out  of  employ,  for  oh  the  IStb  or 
May   I73l»    the  command  of  the  Diamondi  one  of  .tb# 
tquAdron  iu  the  Dowqp,  was  bestowed  upon  bini|  vihiok 
be  held  about  three  months,  when  the  Diamond  was  paid 
off.     On  the  2 ^th  January  1731-2,  he  was  again  called 
into  public  service,  and  appointed  captain  of  the  Squirr^} 
aaaa  of  war ;  in  which  ship  he  was  orderedi  in  the  follow*, 
ing  April,  for  South  Carolina.     This  was  the  third  time  of 
his  being  placed  upon  that  station,  and  it  was  probably 
peculiarly  agreeable  to  him,  on  account  of  the  property  bf 
bad  acquired,  and  the  settlement  he  had  made  in  the  pro» 
rince.     Here  be  continued  till  the  spring  pf  the  year  ni9$ 
when«»  in  consequence  of  an  order  given  in  Oecembef 
1734,  be  returned  to  England;  and,  in  the  month  of  Juoei 
was  paid  oflf  at  Woolwich,     In  these  several  f  mployme];kts 
he  conducted  himself  with  an  ability  and  discretion  which 
gave  general  satisfaction.    On  the  9tb  of  December  ]17S7, 
be  was  put  into  the  command  of  the  Centurion^  aod^  iii 
February  following,  ordered  to  the  coast  9f  Quinea  $  ao4 
returned  home  in  July  1739.     In  this  voyiige  fa9  execut^ 
with  great  prudence  and  fidelity^  the  directions  of  govern^ 
ment  *,  and  obliged  the  French  to  desiat  from  their  atti^mM 
to  hinder  our  tnuie  on  that  coast,  without  coming  tp  ai^ 
action,  at  a  time  when  it  would  have  been  v#ry  iiicgave* 
Bient  to  the  British  court  to  have  had  an  <^ea  rtq^ttrii  vfitk 
Mr.  Anspn^s  conduct,  in  his  various  situations  a^d  em- 
ployments,  had  produced  so  favourable  an  opinion  gS  hia 
capacity  and  spirit^  that  when,  in  the  war  which  broke  out 
with  Spain  in  1739,  it  was  determined  to  attack  the  Spa« 
Aish  American  settkmentt  in  the  great  Pacific  Qceao^  and 
by  this  means  to  afiect  them  in  their  most  senuble  parts^ 
he  was  fixed  upon  to  be  the  commander  of  the  fleet  which 
was  designed  for  that  purpose.     As  the  history  of  thia  ex^ 
pedilion,  which  laid  the  foundation  of  ]m  fvvture  fortunesy 
ha^  in  cooaequcuce  of  the  excellent  accoiint  of  it,  wri^ttea 
by  the  late  Mr.  Robins,  aud  the  curioua  a^d  interesting 
oaturse  of  the  subject,  been  more  read  than  perhaps  any 
work  ^  the  kind  ever  publiidied,  it  is  not  pocessary  ta 
^ive  a  detail  of  it  htm.    It  may  suffice  to  aay»  that  hk  de« 
pavtuse  fattkig  nnacoountably  delayed  some  saotHfaft  beyond 
the  pnaper  aeaeoui  he  sailed  about  die  middle  of  Septem^^ 
Vo  M4^;  and  towrards  the  vernal  equino:ii;^  io  thid  miosi; 

296  ANSON. 

tempestuous  weather,  arrived  in  the  latitude  of  Cape  Horn, 
He  doubled  that  dangerous  cape  in  March  1741,  after  a 
bad  passage  of  40  days,  iii  which  he  lost  two  ships,  and  by 
the  scurvy  four  or  five  men  in  a  day.  He  arrived  off  Juan 
Fernandes  in  June,  with  only  two  ships,  besides  two  at« 
tendants  on  the  squadron,  and  i35  men.  He  left  it  iti 
September,  took  some  prizes,  and  burnt  Paita ;  and  staid 
about  the  coast  pf  America  till  May  1742.  He  then 
crossed  the  Southern  ocean,  proceeding  with  the  Centurion 
only,  (he  other  ships  having  been  destroyed  in  Angust. 
Having  refreshed  his  crew  at  Tinian,  he  sailed  in  October 
for  China;  staid  there  till  the  beginning  of  1743  ;  waited 
for  the  galleon  at  the  Philippine  islands,  met  her  on  the 
20th  of  June,  and  took  her.  Having  sold  the  prize  in 
China,  he  set  sail  for  England,  December  1743,  and  on 
the  15th  of  June  1744,  arrived  at  Spithead. 

It  may  be  necessary,  however,  to  mention  some  circum* 
stances  in  this  expedition,  which  more  immediately  relate 
to  the  personal  character  of  Mr.  Anson,  and  which  indicate 
the  turn  of  his  mind.  Before  his  departure,  he  took  care 
to  furnish  himself  with  the  printed  journals  of  the  voyages 
to  the  South-seas,*  and  the  best  manuscript  accounts  he 
could  procure  of  all  the  Spanish  settlements  upon  the 
coasts  of  Chili,  Peru,  and  Mexico,  which  be  afterwards 
carefully  compared  with  the  examinations  of  his  prisoners, 
and  the  information  of  several  intelligent  persons  who  fell 
into  his  hands ;  and,  through  the  whole  enterprize,  he 
acted  with  remarkable  discretion,  and  with  a  calmness 
which  particularly  distinguishes  his  character.  When  he 
was  ready  to  depart  from  St  Catherine's,  and  considered 
that  his  own  ship  might  possibly  be  lost,  or  disabled  from 
getting  round  Cape  Horn,  he  gave  such  directions  to  the 
other  commanders,  as  would  have  prevented  the  under* 
taking  being  abandoned,  even  in  that  case.  His  humanity 
was  displayed  at  the  island  of  Juan  Fernandes,  in  his  as- 
sisting with  his  own  labour,  and  obliging  the  officers,  with*^ 
out  distinction,  to  give  their  helping  hand  in  carrying  the 
sick  sailors,  in  their  hammocks,  to  shore;  At  the  same 
place  he  sowed  lettuces,  carrots,  and  other  gaiden  plants; 
^nd  set,  in  the  woods,  a  great -variety  of  plumb,  apricot, 
and  peach-stones,  for  the  better  accommodation  of  his 
eountrymen  who  should  hereafter  touch  there ;  and  he  bad 
afterwards  pleasing  intelligence  of  their  growth  from  Spa« 
nish  navigators.    Frpm  a  like  attention,  commodpre  Ansos' 

A  N  S  O  I^,  S9t 

was  particularly  industrious  in  directing  the  roads  and 
coasts  to  be  surveyed,  and  other  observations  to  be  made,, 
to  facilitate  future  voyages  in  those  s^s.  His  integrity 
and  generosity  in  the  tvtatment  of  some  female  prisoners 
who  had  fallen  into  his  hands,  and  his  care  to  prevent 
theit  meeting  wi^  any  degree  of  rudeness,  from  a  set  of 
sailors  who  had  not  seen  a  woman  for  nearly  a  twelvemonth, 
are  greatly  to  his  honour.  There  was,  indeed,  nothing 
from  which  he  derived  greater  credit,  or  which  reflected 
greater  glory  on  the  English  nation,  than  his  behaviour  to 
his  prisoners  in  general,  and  particuljtrly  to  the  women. 
Though  his  force  was  rendered  very  weak  by  the  sickness 
and  death  of  great  numbers  of  his  men,  and  by  the  sepa* 
ration  or  loss  of  the  larger  part  of  his  small  squadron,  he 
was  always  intent  upon  contriving  some  scheme,  by  which, 
if  possible,  the  design  of  his  expedition  might  be  answered* 
When  no  purpose  was  likely  to  be  effectual,  but  the  tak- 
ing of  the  Acapulco  ship  (the  galleon  above-mentioned), 
he  pursued  that  plan  with  the  greatest  sagacity  and  perse- 
verance.  In  no  instance  was  the  fortitude  of  his  mind 
more  tried,  than  when  the  Centurion  was  driven  out  to 
sea,  from  the  uninhabited  island  bf  Tinian  ;  himself,  many 
of  the  officers,  and  part  of  the  crew,  being  left  on  shore. 
In  this  gloomy  and  disconsolate  situation,  he  preser^^ed 
his  usui^l  composure  and  steadiness,  though  he  could  not 
be  without  his  share  of  inward  disquietude.  He  calmly 
applied  to  every  measure  which  was  likely  to  keep  up  the 
courage  of  his  men,  and  to  facilitate  their  departure  from 
the  island.  He  personally  engaged  in  the  most  laborious 
part  of  the  work  which  was  necessary  in  the  construction 
of  a  vessel  for  this  purpose ;  and  if  was  only  upon  thie 
pleasing  and  unexpected  news  of  the  return  of  the  Cen- 
turion, that,  throwing  down  his  axe,  he  by  his  joy  broke 
through,  for  the  .first  time,  the  equable  and  unvaried  cha- 
racter which  he  had  hitherto  preserved.  Commodore 
Anson,  when  he  was  at  Macao,  exerted  great  spirit  and 
address  in  procuring  the  necessary  aid  from  the  Chinese, 
for  the  refitting  of  his  ship.  In  the  scheme  of  taking  the 
Manilla  galleon,  and  in  the  actual  taking  of  it,  he  displayed 
united  wisdom  and  courage;  nor  did  the  accustomed 
calmness  of  his  mind  forsake  him  on  a  most  trying  occa- 
sion, when,  in  the  moment  of  victory,  the  Centurion  was 
dangerously  on  fire  near  the  powder-room.  During  his 
subsequent  stay  at  Canton,  he  acted,  in  all  respects,  with 

»a  A  N  S  O  N. 

the  greatest  spirit,  and  finnly  mauitamed  the  priviU^ 
and  honour  of  the  British  fiag.  The  perlb  witU  which  ^ 
bad  been  so  often  threateoed^  pursued  him  tq  tb&,.,k^^ 
for  on  bis  arrivsl  in  England,  be  found  th^^t  ha  ha4  9»ilt^ 
ibrough  the  midst  of  a  French  fleet  than  cruising  ii\  thj^ 
channel,  from  which  he  had  the  wbolo  time  been  pon» 
celled  by  a  fog. 

Mn  Anson,  a  few  days  after  his  return  int<^  bis  own 
country^  was  made  a  rear-admiral  of  the  biue^  and  in  a 
irery  short  time»  he  was  chosen  member  of '  parliament 
foir  Heydon  in  Yorkshire.  On  the  27ib  December  1744| 
when  the  duke  of  Bedford  was  appointed  first  lord  of  the 
admiralty,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioner^ 
of  the  admiralty ;  and  on  the  2  ad  of  April,  in  the  follow- 
iiig  year,  was  made  a  rear-admiral  of  the  white.  On  tho 
)4th  of  July  1746»  he  was  raised  to  the  rank  of  vice-ad<* 
sural ;  and  in  the  latter  end  of  that  year,  ao4  beginning  of 
1747,  be  commanded  the  squadron  in  the  channel  service, 
and  bore  the  inconveniencies  of  a  long,  and  tenopestu^us 
ivinter  navigations  with  bis  usual  patience  and  persever* 
anoe.  Nothing  wpuld  have  frustrated  tlie  Success  of  this 
expedition,  but  the  accidental  inteUigence  which  was 
given,  by  the  master  of  a  Putcb  vessel,  to  the  duke  cf 
P^Arville's  fleets  of  admiral  Anson*s  station  and  intention. 
jHoweVer,  being  employed  again  early  in  ^the  ensuing 
spring,  be  had  an  opportunity  of  rendering  a  very  signal 
service  of  bis  country.  Being  then  on  bmrd  the  Prince 
George,  of  90  guns,  with  rear-admiral  Warren,  in  the 
jDevon&bire»  and  twdve  ships  more  under  bis  command^ 
he  intercepted,  on  tbe  3d  of  May  1747,  off  Cdfe  fU 
nisterre,  a  considerable  fleet,  bound  from  FraMe  to  the 
^East  and  West  Indies,  and  laden  with  mercbendise,  Ireik 
sure,  and  warlike  stores  i  and  took  m  men  of  war^  w4 
four  East  Indiamen,  not  one  of  tbe  eaemy's  vessels  cf  w^ 
escaping*  By  this  successful  exploit,  be  defeated  tbe 
pernicious  designs  of  two  hostile  expeditions^  and  made  e 
considerable  addition  to  tbe  force  and  riches  of  our  own 
kingdom.  M.  St  George,  captain  of  the  Invincib]e|  in 
allusion  to  the  names  of  two  of  the  ships  which  ba4  .been 
taken,  and  pointing  to  them  at  tbe  same  time^  said,  when 
he  presented  bis  sword  to  tbe  coni^ueror,  ^^  MonsieuiTt  vous 
avez  vaineu  l^Inioincible^  et  la  Gioire  vous  sui^t.**  Oo  t^ 
1 3th  of  June  following,  tbe  king  raised  him  to  tbe  bonoupr 
ef  an  English  peerage^  by  tbe  style  and  title  oi  lord  Anson, 
baron  of  Soberton,  in  the  county  of  Southampton;  and 

A  N  S  Q  N.  9B^ 

hh  lordship  made  choice  of  a  motto^  ^  very  happily  suited 
to  biss  perils  and  his  successes,  Nil  desperandum.  Oa 
the  f25th  of  April  1748»  he  married  Elizabeth,  eldest 
daughter  of  Philip  lord  Hardmckey  at  that  time  lord  high 
chancellor  of  Great  Britain;  but  his  lady  died  without 
issue  en  the  ist  of  June  1760. 

On  the  12tb  of  July  1749,  bis  lordship  was  made  vice* 
admiral  of  Great  Briuin,  an  appointment  that. is  more  of 
a  civil  than  a  military  nature ;  but  which^  nevertheless,  is 
always  given  to  a  military  man.  On  the  12th  of  June 
1751,  he  was  preferred  to  be  first  commissions  of  the 
admiralty^  in  the  room  of  the  earl  of  Sandwich ;  and  in 
the  years  1752  and  1755,  be  was  one  of  the  lords  justices 
of  the  kingdom,  during  his  majesty's  absence.  The  aflair 
of  Minorca  occasioned  him  to  be  much  blamed  by  the 
party  writers  of  the  time,  in  his  character  of  first  lord  of 
the  admiralty  ;  but  when  this  was  inquired  into,  the  reso* 
Itttionsof  the  House  of  Commons  acquitted  him  and  his 
colleagues  of  any  neglect  of  duty.  Ou  the  16th  of  No«» 
vemb^  1756,  upon  a  change  of  administration,  he  re* 
signed  his  office  in  the  admiralty ;  but,  having  been  in 
the  interval  made  an  admiral,  he  was  again  placed  at  the 
head  of  the  board,  where  he  continued  during  the  remain* 
der  of  his  life.  He  came  in  >with  his  old  friends,  the  duke 
«f  Newcastle  and  the  earl  of  Hardwicke,  and  in  the  most 
hcmourable  manner ;  for  he  resumed  his  seat  with  the  con- 
currence  of  every  individual  in  the  ministry,  Mr,  Pitt  re- 
turning the  seals  aa  secretary  of  state,  and  with  the  parti- 
cidar  approbation  of  king  George  I).  All  the  rest  of  bia 
condtici,  as  first  commissioner  of  the  admiralty,  was  crowned 
with  success,  under  the  most  glorious  administration  which 
this  countjry  ever  saw.  The  last  time  that  be  commanded  at 
sea,  was  in  1758,  to  cover  the  expedition  against  the  coast 
of  Fmnceu  Being  then  admiral  of  the  white,  and  having 
koisted  bis  flag  on  board  the  Royal  George,  of  100  guns, 
he  sailed  from  Spithead,  on  the  first  of  June^  with  a  for-» 
ntdaUe  fleet,  sir  Edward  Hawke  serving  under  him ;  and 
by  cruising  coAtinually  before  Brest,  he  protected  the  de^ 
Qceeta  whidii  were  made  that  summer  at  St.  Malo\  Cher*< 
Wiftpg,  &c  The  French  fleet  not  venturing  to  come  out^ 
he  kept  hia  own  squadron  and  seamen  in  constant  exercise ; 
a  thing  which  be  thought  bad  been  too  much  disregarded^ 
On  the  SOth  of  July  1761,  bis  lordship  was  raised  to  the  * 
iigaky  of  a4mind  and  commander  in  chief  of  the  fileet ; 

SOO  A  N  S  O  N, 


txii  in  a  few  days  be  sailed  from  Harwich,  in  the  Charlotte 
yacht,  to  convoy  her  present  majesty  to  England.  In  1762, 
he  went  to  Portsmouth,  to  accompany  the  queen's  brother, 
prince  Charles  of  Mecklenburgh,  and  to  show  him  the 
arsenal,  and  the  fleet  which  was  then  upon  the  point  of 
sailing,,  under  the  command  of  sir  George  Pocock,  for  the 
Havannah.  In  attending  the  prince,  however,  he  caught 
a  violent  cold,  that  was  accompanied  with  a  gouty  dis«- 
order,  under  which  he  languished  two  or  three  months. 
This  cold,  at  length,  settled  upon  his  lungs,  and  was  the^ 
immediate  occasion  of  his  death.  He  died,  at  his  seat  at 
Moor  Park,  in  Hertfordshire,  on  the  6th  of  June  1762j 
and  was  buried  in  the  family  vault  at  Colwich.  His  cha- 
racter may  be  justly  estimated  from  the  particulars  we  have 
given.  In  his  official  department,  he  acted  with  great 
judgment,  and  was  a  steady  friend  to  merit.  Of  his  pri^ 
vate  virtues,  it  is  a  sufficient  test  that  he  was  never  the 
object  of  slander  or  blame.  It  has,  indeed,  been  asserted 
that  he  was  addicted  to  gaming;  but  the  author  of  the  life 
we  have  followed  in  this  account  denies  the  chargie,  admit- 
ting only  that  he  played  for  iamusement.  He  left  his  for« 
tune  to  his  brother  Thomas  Anson,  esq.  who  was  mdmbei^ 
of  parliament  for  Lichfield,  a  gentleman  well  known  fop 
his  liberal  patronage  of,  and  his  exquisite  skill  in,  the  {\M 
arts«  On  his  decease,  the  united  fortunes  of  the  family 
devolved  to  his  nephew,  by  his  eldest  sister,  George 
Adams,  esq.  who  assumed  the  name  of  Anson. 

The  history  of  lord  Anson^s  voyage,  although  published 
tinder  the  name  of  Mr.  Walter,  we  have  attributed  to  Mr: 
Robins.  A  general  and  uncontradicted  report  bad  fop 
many  years  prevailed,  that  the  work  was  drawn  up. by  MtL 
Robins,  nor  was  this  %  vague  report,  but  grounded  onr 
positive  testimony.  Dr.  James  Wilson  had  publicly  as-*' 
serted  the  faet,  in  the  short  account  of  Mr.  Robins,  which 
he  prefixed  to  bis  edition  of  the  mathematical  tracts  of 
that  ingenious  writer  \  and  Mr.  Martin  in  the  life  of  Robina 
in  his  <^Biographia  Philosophica,''  speaks  positively  to 
the  same  purpose,  although  probably  on  Dr.  Wilson's  k\\^ 
thopity.  iSoon  after  the  publication,  however,  of  the  first; 
volume  of  the  Biographia  Britannica,  in  which  the.  same 
assertion  was  repeated,  the  widow  of  Mr,  Walter .  ad-» 
dressed  a  letter  to  the  editor  of  that  work,  maintaining  Mr, 
Walter's  claim  as  author  of  the  work ;  but  in  our  opinion 
]ber  proofs  are  far  from  affording  more  than  a  'probay[>iUw>( 

ANSON.  301 

In  our  article  of  Robins  this  dispute  Mrill  be*  ndreirted  to 
more  particularly.  ^ 

ANSON  (Peter  Hubert),  a  miscellaneous  French 
writer,  was  born  at  Faris,  July  18,  17.44^  and  at  first  was 
in  practice  as  a  lawyer,  but  afterwards  was  taken  into  the 
office  of'thecontptroller  general  of  finances,  and  becaoie 
successively  receiver-general  for  Dauphiny,  a  member  of 
the  central  Committee  of  receivers-*general,  a  deputy  of 
the  constituent  assembly,  and  farmer  of  the  post,  which 
last  place  he  filled  until  his  death,  Nov.  20,  1810.  During 
the  reign  of  terror,  he  was  long  concealed  in  the  bouse  of 
one  of  the  members  of  the  Jacobin  club,  to  whom  he  pro- 
mised a  pension  for  this  service,  which  he  afterwards  paid 
most  punctually.  He  was  considered  as  an  able  financier, 
and  a  man  of  much  taste  in  literature.  He  wrote,  1 .  ^'  Anec- 
dotes sur  le  famille  de  Le  Fevre,  de  la  branche  d'Ormesson,** 
printed  in  the  Journal  Encyclopedique  for  1770.  2.  "  Deux 
memoires  historiques  sur  les  villes  de  Mi(ly  et  de  Nemours, 
printed  in  the  **  Nouvelles  rechercbes  sur  la  France,"  1766, 
2  vols.  l2mo.  3.  **  Les  deuK  seigneurs,  ou  TAlcbymiste,** 
sT  comedy,  1783,  partly  written  by  M.  L.Th.  Herissant. 
4.  A  translation  of  Anacreon,  1795,  :i  vols.  12mo,  of  which 
the  notes  are  thought  preferable  to  the  text.  5.  A  tranria*- 
tion  of  Lady  Montague^s  letters.  6.  Several  Reports  to  the 
Constituent  Assembly,  short  pieces  in  various  collections, 
and  songs,  &c.* 

ANSTEY  (Christopher);  an  ingenious  poet  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  was  born  Oct.  31,1 724.  He  was  the  son 
of  the  Rev.  Christopher  Anstey,  D.  D.  by  Mai'y,  daughter 
of  Anthony  Thompson,  esq.  of  Trumpington,  in  Caih«^ 
bridgeshire.  He  was  first  educated  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds^ 
under  the  Rev.  Arthur  Kinsman,  Skd  thence  removed  to 
Eton,  where  he  was  distinguished  for  industry  and  taients% 
In  1742  he  succeeded  to  a  scholarship  of  King^s  College, 
Cambridge,  and  soon  added  to  his  fame  as  a  classical 
scholar  by  the  Tripos  verses  which  he  wrote  for  theXIIatn- 
bridge  commencement,  while  an  undergraduate  in  the  yeiscr 
1745.  In  the  same  year  he  was  admitted  fellow  of  Kipg^ 
College,  and  in  1746  took  his  bachelor's  degree.  He  was,. 
however,  interrupted  in  his  progress  towards  his  master's 
degree  by  having  engaged  in  an  opposition  to  what  he 

>  Biographia  JftriUnnica^^Wilson'tf  Lift  oi  Robins.— ^^icholi's  Uff  of  BowyV/ 
▼ol.  n.  p.  205. 
'  3iog.  Uaiv«rs«U«. 

S0«  A  N  $  T  I  S. 

easional  conformity  :  for  which  bis  name  appeured  amongst 
the  ^^Tackera'*  in  the  prints  of  that  time.  He  wasap* 
pointed  in  1703  deputy-general  to  the  auditors  of  imprest^ 
but  he  never  executed  this  o£Sce  ;  and  in  the  second  ^ear 
of  queen  Anne^s  reign,  one  of  the  principal  commissioners 
of  prizes.  His  love  of,  and  great  knowledge  iU'the  science 
of  arms  so  strongly  recommended  him,  i\^^t  April  2, 17149 
the  queen  gave  him  a  reversionary  patent  for  the  place  of 
Garter.  Probably  this  passage  in  a  MS  letter  to  the  lord 
treasurer,  dated  March  14,  1711-12,  relates  to  his  having 
the  grant.  He  says,  *^  I  have  a  certain  information  it 
would  be  end^d  forthwith,  if  the  lord  treasurer  would  honour 
me  by  speakine  to  her  majesty  at  this  time,  which,  in  be- 
half of  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  I  most  earnestly  desire,  and 
luimbly  beg  your  lordship^s  assistance  therein.  If  it  be 
delayed  for  some  days,  I  shall  then  be  back  as  far  as  thp ' 
delivery  of  my  petition.  I  am  obliged  to  attend  this  morn« 
ing  at  the  exchequer,  about  the  tin  affair,  and  thereby^ 
prevented  from  waiting  upon  your  lordship.**  If  it  doei^ 
relate  to  the  reversionary  patent,  it  is  evident  that  he  lon|^ 
wished,  and  with  difficulty  obtained  it.  In  the  last  parlia** 
ment  of  Anne  he  was  returned  a  member  for  Dunh^ved,  or 
Launceston,  and  he  sat  in  the  first  parliament  of  George  I. 
He  fell  under  the,  suspicion  of  government,  as  favouring: 
a  design  to  restore  the  Stuarts,  was  imprisonedj  and  at 
this  critical:  time  Garter's  place  became  vacant,  by  the 
death  of  the  venerable  sir  Henry  St.  George*  He  imme* 
diately  claimed  the  office,  but  his  grant  was  disregarded ; 
and,  October  £6,1715,  sir  John  Vanbrugh,  Clarenceux, 
had  the  appointment.  Unawed  by  power,  fearless  of  dan- 
ger, and  confident  in  innocence,  he  first  freed  himself 
from  all  crimiuality  in  having  conspired  against  the  suc« 
cession  of  the  illustrious  house  of  Brunswick,  and  then  proT 
secuted  his'^]aim  to  the  office,  of  garter,  pleading  the  right 
of  the  late  queen  to  give  him  the  place.  It  was  arguedi 
that  in  ^  contest  about  the  right  of  nomination  in  the  reign 
ol'  Charles  II:  the  sovereign  gave  it  up,  only^^tainin^  the 
confirjEQatioQ  V  ^  the.  earl  mar^hars  choice :.  .Mr«>  An^tis 
urgejl,  tbQt.Cliarlesjonly  waved  hisxlaio^^^  The  matter 
canje  to  a  hearing- April  4,  1717,  and  tbe^^^mpetitojcs 
claime4  under  their ^()i^eveht  grants ^  but.t^e^^nitroversy 
did  not  end  until  April  ,20,  171S^  wb^cf '.t^jf;^ht  beij% 
acknowledged  to  be  in  Mr.  Anstis,  he  was  creat^  Carter, 
He  had,  for  some  time  previour  to  this  didcisioa  in  his 

ftrour^  tref^ided  in  tb^  college,  and  by  degi'ee^  gained  tbd 
good  opinion  and  favour  of  the  gbverninecftl.     He  even 
obtained  a  patent  under  the  great  sea^  giving  the*  office 
^f  garter  to  hiniy  and  bis  son  John  Anstii  junior,  esq*,  and 
to  the  suf'vivor  of  tjiem :  this  passed  June  8,  1727,  only 
two  days  before  the  death  of  George  I.     He  died  at  liiii 
feat,  at  Mortlake  in  Surrey,  on!  Sunday,  March  4,  1744-5; 
and  was  buried  the  23d  of  that  month,  in  a  vault  in  th0 
Jiarish' church  of  Dtilo  in  Gbrnwall.    In  hi  to,  it  is  said,  were 
joined  the  learning  of  Camdeti  and  the  industry,  without  the 
inaccuracy,  of  sir  William  Dugdale. '  lie  was  certainly  almost 
indefatigable  and  able  officer  at  arms ;  and  though  he  lived 
to  the  age  of  seventy- six,  yet  there  is  room  to  wonder  at 
the  extent  of  his  productions,  especially  as  he  was  a  persoa 
of  great  consequence,  and  busied  with  many.  avocati9na 
Out  of  the  college.     In  1 706,  he  published  d  ^*  Letter  cbn- 
eerning  the  honour  of  Earl  Marshal,'*  8vo.     **  The  form 
Of.  the  Installation  of    the  Garter'*  1720,  8v6.     *' The' 
Register  of  the  most  noble  Order  of  the  Garter,  usually 
failed  the  Black-Book,  with  a  specimeh  of  the  Lives  ot 
Ae  Knights  Companions,"   1724,  2  vols,  folio.    "  Obser^ 
vations  introductory  to  an  historical  Essay  on  the  K  nighthooCf 
of  the  Bath,'*  1725, 4to,  intended  as  an  introduction  to  the 
history  of  that  order,  for  whicii  it  is  there  said  the'  Society' 
of  Antiquaries  had  begun  to  collect  materials.     His  **  As-' 
pilogia,"  a  discourae  on  seals  in  England,  with*  beautiful 
draughts,  nearly  fit  for  publication,  from  which  Mr.  Drake' 
read  am  abstract  to  the  Society  in  1735-6,  andtwofbliQ 
volumes  of  Sepulchral  Monuments,  Stone  Circles,  Crosses^ 
and  Castles,  in  the  three  kingdoms,  from  which  there  are 
e^racts  in  the  Archaeolpgia,  vol.  XIIL  were  purchaiied^ 
with  many  other  curious  papers,  at  the  sale  of  Mr.  Anstis's 
library  of  MSS.  in  1768,  by  Thomas  Astle,  esq.  F.  R.  and 
A.  S.     Besides  these  he  left  five  large  folio  volumes^  on  the 
^<  Office,  &c.  of  Garter  King  at:  Arms,  of  Heralds  and; 
Pursuivants,  in  this  and  other  kingdoms,  both  royal,  prince- 
ly, and  such  as  belonged  to  our  nobility,"  now  in  the  pos*-' 
•^ssioq  of  George  Nayler,  esq.  York  herald,  and  genealo*- 
gi«t  of  the  Order  of  the  Bath,  &c,     '^  Memoirs  of  the 
Families  of  Talbot,  Carew,'Granvile,  and  Courtney."  "  The 
Antiquities  of  Cornwall,"    <'  Collections,  relative  to  the 
Parish  of  Coliton,  in  Devonshire,"  respecting  the  tithes^ 
owing  to  a  dispute  which  his  son,  the  Rev.  George  Anstis, 
the  vicar,  then  bad  with  the  parishioners,  in  the  court  of 
\ou  IL  X 

906  A  N  S  T  1  S. 

cxchc^quer  in  1742.  The  Itte  Dr.  Pucstrel 'possessed  it< 
<*  Collection*  relative  to  All  SouU*^  college,  ift  Oxford.'* 
These  were  very  considerable,  and  purchased  by  the  col- 
lege. Sixty-four  paged  of  bis  Latin  Answer  to  *^  the  Case  . 
of  Founders'  Kinsmen/'  were  printed:  in  4te,  with  many 
coats  of  arms.  His  ^'  Curia  MiUtaris,  or  treatise  on  the 
CQurt  of  Chivalry,  in  three  books :"  it  is  supposed  that  no 
more  than  the  pre&ce  and  contents  were  ever  published* 
Mr.)  Reed  had  those  parts ;  the  whole,  however,  was 
printed  in  1702,  Svo :  probably  only  for  private  friends^ 
Mr.  Prior  mentions  this  Garter  in  an  epigram  : 

^  But  coronetswe  owe  to  crowns. 

And  lavour  to  a  court's  affection ; 
By  nature  we  are  Adam's  sons* 

And  sons  of  Anstis  by  election.*' 

In  the  picture  gallery  at  Oxford  is  a  portrait  of  him  $. 
there  is  another  in  the'  hall  of  the  College  at  Arms.  In^ 
the  copy  of  his  letters  concerning  the  honour  of  the  Earl 
Marshal,  purchased  by  George  Harrison,  esc).Norroy,  foe 
1/.  2^.  at  the  sale  of  George  Scott,  of  Woolston  hall,  esq.. 
ijrere  many  MS  letters  of  Mr.  Anstis  to  Dr.  D.erham.  In 
Gutch's  Coll.  Curiosa  is  a  curious  history  of  visitatioa 
books,  under  the  title  of  ^'  Nomenclator  Fecialium  qui 
Anglian  et  Wallise  Comitatus  visit&runt,  quo  anno  et  ubi 
autographa,  seu  apog^pha  reperiuntur,  per  Johannem. 
Anstis,  Garter,  principal.  Regem  armorum  Anglicanorum,** 
taken  from  a  MS.  in  the  library  of  All  Souls'  college  in 
Oxford.  He  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  and  heir  of  Mr. 
Richard  Cudlipp,  of  Tavistock  in  Devonshire,  by  whom 
he  had,  I.  John  Anstis,  jun.  esq.  who  succeeded  him. as 
garter;  2.  the  Rev.  George  Anstis,  vicar  of  CoUton,  in 
Devon,  who  became  heir  to  his  eldest  brother ;  3,  th^  Rev, 
Philip  Anstis,  born  in  the  college,  and  the  same  day^ 
December  15,  1717,  baptized  and  registered  at  St  Bennetts 
Church,  Paul's  Wharf*;  4.  Mary;  5.  Catherine;  and  6. 
Rachael,  born  in  the  college,  May  17,  and  baptized  June 
^1,  172ll,  at  iSt  Rennet's. ' 

*  Out  of  the  «bove  brothers,  who  sex,  November  8/1736,  resi|paed  it 

was  in  the  churoh,  died  at  Axraioscer  Maroh  24,  1731,  to  another  Qetmge 

in  3oiiierdetohire,   October    14,  1758.  A»atis,  B.LL.   He  resigned,  March  $6,. 

Ooe  of  thJE^m  married  Elizabeth,  daugh*  1739,  to  Henry  Anstis,  B.LL.  who  like- 

I4f  of  iir  William  Pole,^Of  SkaU  in  wise  resigned  it  June  26,  1746.    H€^ 

Deyonsliiref  i^art.  There  w{is,«  ^eorge  died  hUTh  Noyember  3, 1766,  in  Fleet' 

Aoftis,  B.LL.  rector  of  3rad well  jn  £s«  street,  liondoi)^ 

I  MchoU'f  Bowf^j  vpL  Y.  p^  86d^T*NobU'f  C9lle|^  of  Anvs* 

lA  N  S  !r  |I  $.  ;  SQT 

ANSTIS  (John),  esq.,LL,.D.i  and  F^A^S, /eldest  spn  aad. 
Ireir  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  by  yirt<ue.  of;  the  grant , 
^as^edin  1727.     He  hs^i  been  educ^ed  ss  a  gentleman.; 
commoner  at  Corpus.  Christi  college  in  Oxford*    At  the 
reviva;l  of  the  order  of  the  Bath  he  was- n^atie  genealogist 
and  registrar.     He  was  presented  by  Dr.  Brookes,  regius 
professor  of  civil  law  in  Oxford^  with  the  degree  of  LL.D.  > 
April  22, 1749,  being  the  opening  of  the  Radcliffe  Library. 
July  21,  1736,  he  had  beea  elected  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries.     The  margrave  of  Anspach,  when, 
invested  with  the  order  of  the  garter,  presented  him  with 
SOD  ducats,  the  gold^hilted  sword  his  highness  then  wore^ 
and  gave  him  100  ducats  in  lieu  of  his  upper  rp^e,  wbichi 
Garter  claimed  as  belonging  to  him,  by  virtue  of  his  office*  ^ 
He  spent  most  of  his  time  at  Mortlake,  wbere^  indulging . 
himself  too  freely  with  wine,  it  shortened  his  life,  dyings 
there  December  5,  1754,  aged  only  forty-si](.  .  He  was 
undoubtedly  a  man  of  abilities,  but  harsh  ip  his  tempei^ 
especially  towards  the  meo^bers  of  the  coUegev    Never . 
having  married,  his  brother,  the  Rey»  Geprge  Ai^ati$,^  l;>e-« 
came  his  heir.    The  manuscripts  and  welUchosf  n  ppUectiouL ' 
of  books  which  had  been  possessed  by  his  father  weredis* 
posed  of  at  his  death.  *  '      ♦    *      .    .t 

ANTELMI  ( Josepq)  a  French  ecclesiastic  and  antiquftryj^ 
wa5  born  at  Frejus,  July  25,  1648.    Whfen  he  had  fipis^jed^ 
bis  studies,  he  succeeded  an  un^ple,  in  a  canppry  of  the 
cathedral  of  ths^t  city,  and  wrote  a  treatise  ^^  De;  peri^ulis 
Canonicorum,'*  on  the  dang/ers  to  which  the  lives  of  canons  ^ 
are  liable  :  this  curious  piece  his  brother  Chafles  intende4. 
to  publish,  remains  in  manu^criptr    In  16 80,  he 
published,  what  W9^  {Recounted  more  valuable,  a  Latin  dis« 
sertation  on  the  foundation  of  the  church  of  Frejus,  audits . 
history,  liye^  of  the  bishops,  &f..  ;This  vs[ajs.  .landed  as  an 
introduction  to. a  complete  history  of  th^  city. and  church, 
of  Frejus^  which  is  still  in  manuscript     lju,16S4,  on  ihe 
recommendation  of  father  X«a  Qhai^e*  uud^r  whom  he  had  ^ 
Studied  theology  at  LyoRS,  h^.wa^s^pointed  grand-vicar . 
aodpfficia]  to  J.  B»  de  Yertham^^^^rbi^hpp  of  Pfimiers,^  who 
employed  him  in  restoring  pefice  ,ts>  -hi^  diocdse,  which  had 
been  disturbed  by  the  reigale^^  a  7'ijght  ,so  called  in  Eranqe^ 
bv  which  the  French  king,  uppu  the  deaith  of  abishopi^ 
claimed  the  revenues,  and  fruits  of  his  se6*  and  thexoUa* 

1  Klcho1s*8  Bowyer,  vol.  V. p.  269— Noble^  MIegt  cf  Am«« 

X  2 

'  '*         •«-  •»   *'t.t  * 

308  ANT  E  L  M  I. 

tiettof^att  benefices  racani  in  tihe  diocese,  befbra  the  ap« 
poiBtmenl^  <^  a  new  biskop.  Antelmi  was  so  ^uccessAd 
in  this  underlakkig,  iA^t  the  bishop  on  his  arrival  found  hi& 
diocese  in  perfect  tranqHilUty.  He  then  continued  to  pro- 
aecate  his  studies,  and  wrote  i^veral  works,  particularly  his 
disquisition'  coneeming  the  genuine  writings  of  Leo  the 
Great,  and  Prosper  Aquitanus,  **  De  veris  operibus,  &c.*^ 
1689.  In  this  he  maintains  that  the  Capitida  concerning 
the  grace  of  €rod,^  the  Epistle  to  Demetrius,  and  the  two 
books  of  the  Cidling  of  the  Gentiles,  ascribed  te-Leo,,  were 
really  written  by  Prosper.  Father  Quesnel  was  hisepponent 
cm  this  suMect,  and  was  the  first  who  ascribed  these  book^ 
to*  Lea,  while  Baronius,  Sirmond,  Labbe,  and  Noris,  con- 
jec!ttired  that  pope  Celestine  was  the  author.  Quesnel  an- 
swered Anteliipii,  and,  in  M.  du  Pin's  opinion,  with  suoeess, 
AnteIiAi''S  other  and  more  interesting  work,  was  on  the 
authorship  of  Ae  Athanasian  Creed,  *^Nova  de  Symbi^ 
Athanasiatny  disquisitio,'*  Paris,  1693,  8yo.  Quesnel  as^ 
cribpd  tliis  creed  to  Virgilius  or  Vigilius  Thapsensis,  an 
Afiioafii  the  ^SLtb  century ;  Antelmi,  and  Pitbon 
before  fatm,  to  a  French  divine.  The  Greneral  Dictioaary 
gives  a  sutnmary-  of  the  arguments  on  both  sides. 

Of  Antel^i's other  works,  the  titles  may  suffice:  I.  '^  De 
a^nctife  m9,xitttBs:  Virginis  CalUdiantin  Forojuliensi  dioecesi 
cultu  et  patna,  Epistola  ad-  V.  CI.  Santelem  Papebjio- 
chium/' '  'This  letter  is  published  in  tbe- Antwerp  edition  of 
the  Acta  Sanctorum^  16th  of  May.  2.  *^  De  braiiskitione 
cbrporis  S.  Auxilii,  Epistola  ad  V.  CI.  Ludovicum  Thomas^ 
sinfim  de  Mazaoge."  The  bishop  of  Grasse^  vfho  raen« 
tion^  this  letter,  does- not  tell  us  when  it  was  printed^  3.  ^<  De 
iEtat^  S;  Miirtini'Turonensis  Episcopi,  et  quorundam  ejus 
gestorqm,  ordii^e,  anno  mortuati,  nee  non  de  S.  Priccio 
successoi:e,  Epistola  ad  R.P.  Ant.  Pagium,'*  Paris,  l^^S, 
9V6«  Anteltni  and  tather  Pagi  laboured  in  conjunction 
d^i  tbis  work; '  one  of  them  engaged  in  die  examination  of 
Gregory  Tuxpnensis,  and  the  other  in  that  of  Sulpicius 
SererusV  '"^^^ibsertio  pro  unico  S.  Eueherio^  Lugdanensi 
Epistopp^  Opus  posthuinum.  Accedit  Concilium  Bie^ 
giense  sub  Rbstagno  Metrop.  Aquensi  anni  1285,  nunc 
priixto  prodit  integrum  et  notis  iUustratum  opera  Car.  An- 
telmi desijgi^ati'  Spisc.  Grassens.  Ptnpos.  Foroj.*'  Paris,  1726, 
41o.  -This  work  was  the  only  one  found  entirely  finished 
among  9tir  ^tb<ij(|s  MSS.  to  which  the  editor  has  added  a 
Preface,  and  a^  short  acc9ui\t  of  the  life  and  writings  of 

ATU  T  %LVLh  eot 

Autelmi's  brother,  the  author.  ABtelnti  died  ^  Frejus^ 
Jane  $1^  1697,  leaving  the  character  of  aman^f  aeutenwi^ 
iearning,  aad  integrity,  but  credulous,  and  loo  ready  to 
deal  in  conjecture*/ 

ANT£$IGNANUS(P£TEa),aii  iaduatrioiisgramteamiii 
was  born  at  Rabaateins  in  the  Idth,  jcenlniry.  Hti  Gireak 
l^rammar  went  through  several  edittons,  aod  he  aflenvardi 
published  an  universal  graoimar^  .which  proved  l6fi»  useMl 
from  the  confused  arrMgeinenlNi  We  haif e  likewise  hf 
him  an  editios  o£  Terence,  whieh  proves  him  to  have  beesa 
a  writer  of  a  very  l^iorious  tuion*  He  published  die  eo^ 
medics  of  this  poet  in  three  different  methods  t  ^first^  with 
abort  notes,  aiid<  the  arguments  of  eveiy  seenb,  and  he 
marked  the  accents. upon  ei»sry  word  which  bed  more  than 
two  syllables^  <  and  likewise  at  the  side  of  every,  verse  th^ 
Jdianner  of  scanning  it  In  the  second  place,  he  pablsihed 
thear  vrith  the  i  entire  notes  of  almost  all  the  audiort  who 
hkd  written*  upnt  Teisenoe :  and  lasldy,  he  pubUihed  them 
with  new.  marginal  notes,  and  a  French  translation  and 
paraphiiisp  of  ?  the  three' first  comedies.  He  puts  between 
crotchets  whatever  is  in  the  translation,  and  not  earpressed 
an  the  originals  and  marks  with  letters  all  the  references 
from  the  translation  to  the  paraphrase.  The  various  read- 
ings have  likewise  each  their  parentheses,  and  their  notes 
of  referenca  This  edition,  which  is  not  noticed  by  Dn 
Harwobd,  appears  to  have  been  printed  at  LyonS|  by 
Matthew  Bon^^homme,  about  the  yearl 5S6.* 
'  ANTHEMIUS,  an  eminent  architect  of  the  sixth  ceil* 
tury,  was  born  at  Thdles  in  Lydhai .  His  fetber  had  five 
sons^  Olympius;  a  lawyer^  Dioacovus  Und  Al6xSiader,t  pby^ 
aicians,  MetrodorOs,  a  grammariasii  tad  our  Antbemius, 
wbo  was  an!  eatcelletit  mathematidHui,  and  availed  btmselF 
of  that  science  in  the  works  which  he  ertetedi  It^appeaHi 
lifcewiiie  i£at  he  >was  acquainted  with  the  more  modem 
•eeicts  of  pbilosfrphy  and.  d^iemistry,  as  hi^rians  infonh 
«s  ^athh  could  iftritate  thunder  and  lightning,  and  even 
th^'shoch  of  anearthquske*  In  oonaeqnence  of  n  ttiAitig 
jdiipnte  withSQena^  hie  netghbour^  reapeettngthe  iwallt  Or 
winddvffs  af-tbeir  oontiguoaa  koaseay  in  which  Zeno*a|ikk 
fieared  to  JNve  the  advantdge^  Antbemiiis  playeii^  Mm  a 
tribk,  whidi  is  thbs  deaaribed :  be  arranged  sev^ev^  ^etteh 
QX  cauldrons  of  water,  each  of  them  covered  by  the  vv^f 

)  Gen,  Pict^^MertTi.  !  IUid« 

510  A  N  T  H  t  M  I  U  S. 

bottom  of  a  leathern  t^e  vrhich  rose  to  a  naf  row  top,  and 
was  artifieiiAy  conveyed  among  the  joists  and  rafters  of 
(he  adjacent  building.  •  A .  fire  was  kindled  beneath  the 
cauldron,  land  the  steam  of  the  boiling  water  ^cended 
tkroogfathe  tubes :  tbe-  bou^e  was-  shaken  by  the  efforts  of 
Ae  imprisoned  aior,  and'the  trembling  inhabitants  wondered 
that«ttecit^  was  uQCOOScioiis  of  an  earthquake  which  they 
iek.  Attanother  time- the  ftiends  of  Zeno,  as  they  sat  at 
isble,  were  d^zisled  by  tber  intolerable  light  which  flashed 
sa  their  eyes  itom  the  lefleetiiig  mirrors  ^  Anthemius; 
(bey  were  astonished  by  the  noise  which  he  produced  from 
ft  collision  of  certain  minute  and  sonorous  particles :  and 
Zeno declared  to  tbe  senate,  that  a  mei^  obortal  must  yield 
to  the  power  of  an  antagonist  who  shook  tbe  earth  with 
the  trident  of  Neptune,  and  imitated  the  thunder  uid  light- 
ning of  Jo^e.'himself.  But  the  genius  of  Anthemius  ap- 
«peared  to  mosti  advantage  in  the  erection  of  the  iiewt:burch 
of  St.  SopUia  at  Xionstantiaoplei.  This  be  undertook  by 
order  of 'the .  pemperor  Jusltinian,  and^was  assisted  by  ten 
thousand-workmen,  whose  payment,  we  are  told,  doubtless 
:as  a  hiptttomodera^urveyGTO,  was  made  in  fine  silver,  add 
'never  delayed  beyond  tbe  evemitg.  It  was  completed  in 
five  yeaor,  eleven  months,  .aftd:ten  4ays.  Gibbon  bas  giveh 
a  splendid  description  of  tbis  edifice,  now*; the  principal 
.Turkish  mosque,  which  continues  to  excite  tbe  fond  ad- 
miraticn  of  the  i  Greeks,^  and  the  more  nusoual  curiosity  of 
European  travellers.  Anthemdrus  died,  about  the  year  5^4. 
'He  is  said  to  iiave  written  on  the  sid>jectof  machinery, 
and  Diipwf,!. secretary  to  the.  French  academy' of  inscrip* 
■ttons^  published  a  firagment  of  his  in  1777,  on  mecfaaoies 
.and  diopttics,  in  vhicii  Aatbemius  eodeavours<to  exjplain 
Jibe  lMiriiaiig.mim>Es  employed  by  Archimedes  in  destroying 
;lhe  Bomto  ships,  ^ 

n  ANTHONY  (St.)  tfae^  insitstutor  of  monastb  life,  was 
fbei^o  in  £gypt^  in  the  year  2ir  I .  Haviog  understood  some 
^a3sa|pe8  ip  ourSaviouris-ipireeepts  in  their' liiieral  senses  he 
:4Mposed  of  a  large  prc^rty  which  he  rinherited,  divided 
tbepioduioe  among  the:  poor,  and  retired  Stern  the  world, 
40  SI  solltudie. where  be  issadd  to  haire  been  tempted  by  tbe 
jflevit  iii>a  great.. variety  of  sbarpesy ^stories*  which  ace  too 
^bsiurd ! to  be.^UMT  revived    Itkadded,  fabweve^  that  for 

^  )  Bibf.  Ui|irerM)le.-^ibbon'*f  Roman  Hist,  and  uic  sntbort  tliere  qi|OtML--t 
furii  OnosMitticos.    .         '  '       .  .        '  i 

XN  T  H  O  N  T.  811 

r  t 

twtnty  ytears  resistaQce»  Anthony  received  the  gift  of 
miracles ;  a  vast  number  of  disciples  began  now  to  crowd 
abojat  him,  and  he  was  obliged  ito  erect  many  monasteries 
in  the  desert  to  which  he  had  retired.  Here  his  followers 
glassed  their  time  in  praj^r^  and  other  acts  of  devotion, 
and  In  manual  labour,  and  were  encouraged  and  supported 
by  the  example  and  precepta  he  gave  of  mortification  ;ind 
humility.  He  is  said  to  have  quitted  this  retreat  only 
twice;  once  during  the  persecution  under  Maximinus  in 
the  year  3i2>  when  he  endeavoured  to  assist  tb^  Christians 
who  were  then  suffering  martyrdom  for  the  gospel :  and  a 
second,  time,  in  the  year  S3  5,  at  the  request  of  St.  Atha« 
nasiusi  when  his  object  was  to  defend  the  faith  against  the 
Arians^  who  had  accused  him  of  being  of  their  opinion. 
When  at  Alexandria,  all  the  city  came  out  to  see  him;, 
even  the  Pagans  crowded  to  touch  htm,'  and  he  converted 
manyof  Uient  to  Christianity*  Constantine  and  his  family 
wrota  to  him  'as  to  a  father,  and  expressed  their  fervent 
desire  to  be  favoured  with  his  correspondence,  which  he 
complied  with.  He  was  frequently  visited  by  the  Pagan 
philosophers,  some  of  whom  endeavoured  to  perplex  him 
by  arguments  against  Christianity,  but  he  oonsttihtly  re« 
futed  them,  and  maintained  the  superiority  of  that  religion 
over  Paganism.  His  death  is  fixed  on  the  17  th  of 
January,  in  the  year  356,  in  the  1 06th  year  of  his  age. 
Much  supeipstitious  reg^d  was  paid  to  his  body,  which  is 
said  to  have  been  transported  into  Yienne,  in  Daupbiny,  in 
the  eleventh  century.  Tb^6  are  seven  letters  of  his  ex« 
tant  in  the  fiibl,  Patfum,  Hki  life  was  written  by  St,  Atba^ 
nasius.  -.  ■ 

Tradition  has  eonnected  the  name  of*  St.  Anthony  with 
that  of  a  very  painful  disorder, '  the  erysipelas.  Hence  he 
is  sometimes  represented  with  a  fire  by  his  side,  .signifying 
^at  »he  relieves  persons  from  the  inflammation  called  by 
koa  name  S  ^^t  he  is  always  accompanied  by  a  ho^,  pn  ad* 
count  lof  \i\%  having^ured  the  disorders  of  that  animal.  To 
do  ^im  ili#  g're^ter  honoui;,  die  Romanists  in  seyeval  places 
keep  at  coiiimon  chaises  a  bog  denominated  St.  Anthony's^ 
h^  (whenc)e<our  vulgarism  of  Tantony  pig)  fq^  which  they- 
have  'gr€»t'  veneratiop,'  8ome  have  St.  Antbony^s  picture' 
on  tlie  walls  oftfabii?  kou^^esy  hoping  by  that  to  be  preserved' 
froni  the  plague :  ^nd.  the  l^t^Ii^ns^  who  ^o  not  know  t^e 
tfue  significiltidti  of  the  flr^  painted  at  the  side  of  tb^Gt 
f ftio^i  coqpiud^  tbat  h^  preserves  houses  from  being  burnt| 

nt  A  JIT  HO  NX 

^nd  invokjB  h}ii^  on  spch  occasipus.  In  19^9 5^  9^  or4er  »( 
religious  was  founijed  in  Fr.anp^,  callfid  th^  prder.of  Sfc 
Anthony,  the  ipt^mber^  of  which  were  to  take  cu0  of  p^r^ 
pons  afflicted  with  St.  Anthpny's  fifie.' 

ANTPONY,  or  ANTpNY  (Dr-  Francis),  ^,  noted  em^ 
pine  and  chemist  i^  the  l$itt^r,end  of  the  ^ixte^ntb^qd  the 
jb^ginning  of  the  sev^nteei^jtb  centuries,  w^s  the  son  of  aa 
eminent  goldsmith  in  the  city  pf  l^ondpn,  who  had  an  em<v 
ployment  pf  considerable  value  in  the  jewel-^office  under 
the  rpign  gf  queen  Elizabeth.  He  was  born  April  16^ 
1550;  and  having  been  parefuUy  instructed  in  the  first 
rudiments  of  learning  while  at  home,  was,  about  the  year* 
1569,  sent  to  the  university  of  Caipbridge,  where  he  stUf 
died  with  great  diligence  and  success,  and  ^ome  time  in 
the  year  1574  took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts.  It^p*- 
pears  fropi  his ,  own  writings,  that  he  applied  himself  fof 
many  y/^ars  in  that  university,  to  the  theory  and  praotico 
of  chemistry,  with  sedulous  industry.  H^  came  up  to 
London,  probably  before  hiP  attained  d^e  ag<)  pf  fojrty,  and 
^egan  soon  after  his  arrival  tp  publish  to  the  world  the 
effects  of  his  chemical  studies.  In  thp  year  1^98,  he  sent 
abroad  bis  first  treatise,  (Concerning  the  exisellency  of  a 
medicine  drawn  from  gold  ;  foivt,  not  having  taken  the  ne-^ 
cessary  precautions .  of  applying  to  the  college  of  physi- 
cians fpf  their  U)E^eoce,  he  was,  spme  time  in  the  year  1 600, 
9ummone4  before  the  president  and  cen^prs.  Here  he 
cqnfessed  that  he  had  praqtispd  physic  in  London  at  least 
Qipre  than  six.  months,  and  kad  cured  twenty  persons  of 
several  diseasje^,  tp  "whpm  he  a%4  given  purging  smd  vomitr» 
ing  physic,  and  to  others,  a  diaphoretic  medicine,  pre-f 
po^r^d.from  gold  af|d  mercury,.  2^  their  case  required ;  but 
apknowledged  th(|t  he  had  no  UgePQe,  and  being  examined' 
in  several  parts  of  physiis,  and  fonnd  inpii^p^rt,  he.wasin^ 
terdicted  pn^^tjce,  About  a  month  after,  he  waei  com-^ 
Dpitted  tp  the  Cpunterrprison,  m\d  fined  in  the  sum  of  &w^ 
pounds  ^^  propter  Ulic^dm  ptH:»mi^  that  is,  for  presoribinff 
phytic  against  the  i|t$^tntefi  and  privilege  of  the  college ; 
hut  upon  hiip  application  to  tb«i  U>i?d  chief  justice^  he  wai^ 
«^t  f|t  liberty,  >yhich  gave  SQ  gFO^t  umbriHa(e  to  the  ooll^^ 
thftt  the  president  and  pne  of  the  qensprp  wiiited  on  the 
chief  jnsUcp,  tp  reqnest  bis  favour  in  de£teding  and  pre^. 

^  M«rerl.^MilAer>f  Chareh  Hist,  Tok  I.  f.  594,— -Cave^  vol.  t^-^^ii  Onih 


nerving  the  college  privileges ;  upon  which  Mr.  Anthony 
aubmitted  hiinself^  promisea  to  pay  bis  fine,  and  was  for«- 
biddep  practice.  Si^not  long  after  be  was  accused  agaiii 
of  practising  physie,  and  upon  jbis  own  confession  was 
jfined  five  pounds;  which,  on  hii|  refusing  (Q  pay  it,  was 
increased  to  twenty  pounds,  and  he  cpmnutted  to  prison 
till  he  p^id  it ;  neither  were  the  college  satisfied  with  this, 
but  couimenced  a  suit  at  law  against  hirn  in  the  name  of 
the  que^n,  as  well  as  of  the  cpllegei  in  which  they  sue* 
needed,  and  obtained  judgment  against  him;  but  after  some 
time,  were  prevailed  upon  by  the  intreaities.of  his  wife,  t^ 
remit  their  share  of  the  penalty,  as  appes^rs  by  their  war*- 
rant  to  the  keeper  of  the  prison  for  bis  discharge,  dated 
under  the  college  seal,  the  6th  of  August,  1602.  After 
his  release,  .be  seems  to  bjEt^e  met  with  considerable  pa- 
trons, who  ^ere  able  to  protect  him  from  the  authority  of 
the  college ;  and  though  Pr.  Gbpdall  tells  us,  that  this 
ieariied  society  thought  him  weak  and  ignorant  in  physic, 
yet  he  contrived  to  obtain  the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic 
in  $ome  university.  This  did  not  hinder  new  complaints 
being  brought  against  him,  by  Dr.  Taylor,  and  another 
physician,  who  grounded  their  proceedings  chiefly  on  hid 
giving  a  certain  nostrum,  which  be  called  ^^  Aurum  pota-f 
Jilff,^^  or  potable  gold^  and  which  he  represented  to  the 
world  as  au  universal  niedicine.  There  were  at  this  time 
ftlso  several  things  written  agaiust*  him,  and  his  manner  of 
practice,  insinuating  that  .he  was  very  inaccurate  in  his 
method  of  philosophizing,  that  the  virtues  of  metals  as  to 
physical  uses  were  very  uncertain,  and  that  the  boasted 
effects  of  his  medicine  were  destitute  of  proof.  Dr.  An-^ 
thopy,  upon  this,  published  a  defence  of  himself  and  his 
Aurum  pptabile  in  Latin,  written  with  a  plausible  display 
of  skill  in  chemistry,  and  with  au  apparent  knowledge  of 
thq  theory  and  history  of  physic.  This  book,  which  he 
published  in  1610,  was  printed  at  the  university  press  of 
Cambridge,  and  entitled  ^*  Medicinae  Cbymicss,  et  veri 
potabilis  Auri  assertio,  ex  lucubrationibus  Fra.  Anthonii 
{xipdiuensia,  in  Medicina  Doctoris.  Cantabrigias,  ex 
oigSkcipa  Cantrelli  Legge  celeberrims^  Academies  Typo-^ 
fTfipbi/'  4tp.  It  bad  a  very  florid  dedication  to  king  Jaoiesk ' 
j^f^fiyed^  lie,  likewise,  itnnexed  certificates  of  cures,  un-? 
^  tfa^  hfknd^  of  several  personss  of  extinction,  and  some 
ef  the  &iculty ;  but  bis  book  was  quickly  answeredi  and 

31*  X  N  T  H  6  N  T, 

the  eontroversy  abotit  Atirutn  pot^Ue  grew  so  warm,  that 
he  was  obliged  to  publish  anotber  apology  in  the  English 
languagei  which  was  also  translated  into  Latin,  biit  did  not 
answer  the  doctor^s  expectation^  in  conciliating  the  opidioh 
of  the  faculty^  yet,  what  is  more  valuable  to  an  empiric,  it 
procured  the  general  good- will  of  ordinary  readers,  and 
contributed  exceedingly  to  support  and  extend  bis  prac- 
tice, notwithstanding  all  the  pains  taken  to  decry  it.  'What 
chiefiy  contributed  to'  maintain  his  own  reputntion,  and 
thereby  reflectied  credit  on  his  medicine,  was  that  which  is 
rarely  met  with  among  quack's,  his  unblemished  character 
in  private  life.  Dr.  Anthony  was  z  man  of  unaffected  pietj^ 
untainted  probity,  of  eady  address,; great  modesty^  and 
boundless  charit)' ;  which  procured  him  many  friends,  and 
left  it  not  in  the  po^r  of  bis  enemies  to  attack  any  part  of 
fcift  conduct,  except^  that  of  dispensing  li  medicine,  of 
which  they  had  no  opinion.  And  though  much  has'  been 
f^id  to  disOre4it  the  use  of  gold  in  medieine^  yet  some  very 
able  wd  ingenious  men  wrote  very  plausibly  in  support  of 
those  principles  on  which  X>r.  Anthony^s  practice  was 
Ibunded,  and  ai^ong  thes^  the  illustrious  Robert  Boyte. 
The  process  of  making  the  potable  gold  h  given  ki  Ihe 
Biog.  Britannica,  but  in  such  a  confused  and  ignorant 
manner  that  any  modera  chemist  ipay  easily  detect  the 
fnilaoy,  and  be  convinced  that  gold  does  not  enter  into  th^ 
preparation.  The  time  in  which  Anthony  flourished,  if 
that  phrase  may  be  applied  to  him,  was  very  favourable  to 
bis  notions,  chemistry  being  then  much  admired  and  very 
little  understood^  He  had  therefore  a  most  extensive  and 
betieficial  practice,  which  ^labled  him  to  live  hospitably 
at  bis  house  in  Bartholomew*  close,  and  to  be  very  liberal 
in  his  alms  to  the  poor.  Hc'died  May  26,  1623,  and  was 
buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great,  where 
a  handsome  monument  was  erected  to  his  men^Ory.  His 
jprincipal  antagonists  w^re,  Dr.  Matthew  Gwinne,  of  th§ 
college  of  physicians,  who  wrote  *>*  Aurum  non  Aurum^ 
sive  adversaria  in  assertorem  OhymisEi,  sed  verae  Medicinsa 
desertorem  Franciscuro  Antbonium,^^  Lond.  16tl,  4U>y 
and  Dr.  Cotta,  of  Northampton,  in  1 628,  in  a  woik  en« 
*  titled,  <^  Coits,  contra  Antonium,  or  an  Ant*Antony^  or  aii 
Am-Apology,  manifesting  -Dr.  Anthony  his  ApoK>^  for 
Aurum  potabile,  in  true  and  equ^l  balance  of  right  ttesoii| 
to  be  false  aiid  c^unteffeit,^'  Ozfordy  4t04     -'     -         ^ 

t      f   t  4  '       •* 

A  N  t  tt  0  K  T. 


Dr.  Anthony  by  his  second  wife  had  two  sons  ^  Charkfli^ 
a  physician  of  -character  at  Bedford^  and  John,  the  subject 
^  the  fbllowing  article*  * 

ANThONY  (John),  son  of  theiabove,  to  whose  prac^ 
tice  be  Succeeded,  made  a  handsonre  living  by  the  sale  kS 
his  faither^s  medicine  called  Aiirum  potabile.  He  was^ta^ 
•authot 'of  "  Lucas  redivivus,  or  The  gospel  physiciai^ 
•prescribing  (by  way  of  meditation)  divine  physic  to  prevent 
'diseases  not  yet  entered  upon  the  soul,  and  to  cure  thost 
inaladies  which  have  already  seized  upon  the  spirit,"  165^ 
4to.  He  died  April  28,  1655,  aged  70,  as  appears  by  %b^ 
tnontiment  erected  for  bis  faither  and  himself  in  the  churca 
'f^  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great  in  London.  *         , 

ANTIGONU8  ^Carysthius),  a  philosopher  and  bis- 
4torian,  who  Aourtshed  under  the  reign  of  the  two  Ptolemiefi^ 
fbecame  £a.mottt  for  his  writings.  He  wrote  a  history  <dP 
philosophers,  of  which  Diogenes  Laertius  made  much  use^ 
and  which  4s  quoted  by  Eusebius.  Athenaeus  speaks  lof 
another  work  of  his,  entitled  '^  Historical  Commentaries^^ 
and  Hesychius  makes  mention  of  two  others,  the  first  on 
animals,  the  second  on  the  voice,  but  we  have  no  remains 
of  any  of  his  works,  except  a  collection  of  remarkable  anA 
not  very  probable  stories,  *^  Historiarum  mirabilium  coU 
lectio,*'  quoted  by  Stephanus  of  Byzantium.  It  was 
j)rinted  by  Meursius  in  1619,  and  an  excellent  edition  by 
Beckmann,  with  learned  notes  by  himself  and  others^ 
Xeipsic,  17i^l,  4to,  <arreek  and  Latin.  But  it  is  thought 
rathar  to  belong  to  some  grammarian  of  the  lower  empirei^ 
than  to  a  writer  of  the. age  of  the  Ptolemies.  There  are 
two  other  Antigonus^s,  who  were  writers  of  a  description 
of  Macedonia,  and  of  a  histor^^  of  Italy,  but  it  is  tincertaia 
who  they  were,  or  what  their  share  in  these  works. ' 

ANTIGONUS  SOCHiEUS,  a  Jew  who  was  born  at 
Socho,  on  the  borders  of  Judea,  about  three  hundred  years 
before  Christ,  was  president  of  the  sanhedrim  at  ^erctsa^ 
iemy  and  teacher  of  the/law  in  the  principal  divinity  school 
•of  that  city.  Having  often,  in  his  lectures,  inculcated  to 
his  scholars  that  they  ought  not  to  serve  God  in  a  servile 
manner,  but  only  out  of  filial  love  and  fear,  two  of  fail 
scholars,  Sadoc  and  Baithus,  thence  ioferr^,  that  there 
were  no  rewards  at  all  after  this  life,  and  therefore  sepa« 

•  »  aiog.  Brit.  «  Ibid.— Granger, 

A  Moreri.— BJog.  Universelle.— -Saxii  QnomastfcMu 

316  A  N  T  J  G  0  N  U  S. 

jrating  firora  the  school  of  their  inM^er^  they  tbdueht  there 
was  no  resurrection  nor  future  state,  neither  angel  n^r  spi- 
rit: hence  arose  the  sect  of  the  Saklducees.  They  seem  to 
agree  in  general  with  the  Epicureans,  diflPering,  however^ 
IB  this :  that  though  they  denied  a  future  state,  yet  they 
aJlowed  the  powet  of  God  to  create  the  world,  which  the 
followers  of  Epicurus  denied.  It  is  said  also,  that  they  ire- 
jected  the  scriptures,  except  the  Pentateuch;  denied  pre-* 
4lestination  ;  and  taught,  that  God  had  made  man  absolute 
xnaster  of  all  his  actions,  without  assistance  in  what  ia 
good,  or  restraint  from  evil.  *      .  . 

ANTIMAiCHUS,  one  of  foilr;  poets  of  the  same  nanae 
mentioned  by  Suidas,  was  a  native  pf  Claros,  according  te 
Ovid,  and  of  Colophon,  according  to' ethers.  The  aAony<« 
mous  author  of  the  description  of  the  olympiads  makea  him 
contemporary  with  Lysander,  and  even  vdth  Plato,  who^ 
when  a  youth^  is  said  to  have  been  present  when  Antima<« 
chus^s  poem  the  ^^  Thebaid*'  was  read.  The  leaitoed 
Author  of  the  travels  of  Anacbarsis  places  him.  in  the  fifth 
century  B.  C.  Whenever  he  lived,  we  must  ■  regret  thai 
acarcely  any  of  his  writings  have  descended  to  posterity, 
as  he  had  such  reputation  as  to  be  accounted  neit  to  Ho* 
mer,  and  it  is  said  that  the  emperor  Adrian  preferred  hkn 
to  that  illustrious  poet.  Besides  the  ^<  Tbebaid,^'  he  wrote 
the  ^^  Lydian/*  Being  violently  enamoured  of  Chryseia, 
he  followed  her  into  Lydia,  her  native  country,  where  she 
died  in  his  arms.  On  his  return  hoKie,  he  perpetuated  hia 
affliction  in  a  poem  to  her  memory,  and  called  from  her 
name,  which  is  praised  by  Ovid.  We  find  a  fragment  of 
Antimachus  in  the  Analects  of  BruBck,  and  Schellenberg 
published  what  else  remains,  in  1786,  uuder  the  title  <*  An* 
timachi  Colophonii.  Reliquias  nunc  .primum  conquirere  et 
ejcplicare  instituit  C.  A.  G.  ScbeUenberg^  Accessit  Epistola 
frid.  Aug.  Wolfii."  * 

ANTIMACHUS  (Mark- Antony),  or  ANTIMACO, 
one  of  the  most  celebrated  Greek  professors  in  Italy  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  bom  at  Manti|^,'abouft  the  year  1473k, 
After  learning  Greek  as  far  as  it  could  be  taught  iipi  his  owt 
<)o^n^,  be  went  into  Greece,  and  improved  his  i^p(}uaiiit«« 
fince  with  that  language  tinder  the  ^lest  masters  during  % 
residence  there  of  five  years,  and  wrote  and  spoke  Greek 
as  easily  as  (^atin  or  Italian,    On  his  retura  tQ  Maptua^  h^ 

1  Bnicker.«^Bki^.  UniTencite. 

s  Vosciaf«-«-Fabric,  Bibl.  Onec-^axii  Onoiaasticoa^ 

A  N  T  I  M  A  C  H  U  S.  317 

engaged  in  teachiDg  the  Greek  language,  and  lectured  on 
that  and  oft  Greek  literature*  In  1532  he  was  invited  ta 
Ferrara^  where  he  became  professor  of  the  same  sttKiies^ 
and  held  the  office  until  his  death  in  1552.  He  transkted^ 
GemistUd  Ptethon,  and  part  of  Dionysius  of  Halicarnas'sus^ 
&c.  under  the  title  *^  Gemisti  Plethonis  de  ge&tis  Grseco* 
rum  post  pugnaoi  ad  Mantineam  per  capita  tractatro  duobu^ 
libri»  explicata,  M.  Antonio  Antimacho  interprete.  Ad  base 
Dio»y^ii  Halicarnassei  prcecepta,  &c."  Bale,  1540,  4to, 
He  wrote  also  many  Latin  poemsj  which  are  mostly  unpub- 
lished. Some  have  attributed  to  bim  eight  books  of  Greek 
epigrams,  and  there  are  several  by  him,  both  in  Greek*' 
and  Latin,  in  a  collection  of  letters  addressed  to  Vettori,' 
and  published  by  Bandini^  at  Pavia,  1758,^  > 
.    ANTINE.     See  D'ANTINE. 

.  ANTIOGHUS  of  Ascalon  in  Palestine,  was  the  discipte 
of  Philo,  the  founder  of  the  fourth  academy  of  the  Platonic 
sehool^  and  founded  himself  a  fifth,  which  procured  bim 
the  name  of  Antiochus  the  Academician.  He  attempted  to- 
reconcile  the  tenets  of  the  different  sects,  and  maintained 
that  the  doctrines  of  the  Stoics  were  to  be  found  in  the 
writings  of  Plato.  Cicero  greatly  admired  his  eloquence, 
and  the  politeness  of  his  manners;  and  Lucullus  took  him 
as  his  companion  into  Asia.  He  resigned  the  academic 
dKair  in  the  157th  olympiad,  or  B.  C.  80,  and  was  the  last 
preceptor  of  the  Platonic  school  in  Greece.  After  his  time 
the  professors  of  the  Academic  philosophy  were  dispersed 
by  the  tumults  of  war,  and  the  school  itself  was  transferred 
to  Rome.  • 

ANTIOCHUS,  a  monk  of  Seba,  in  Palestine,  lived  in 
the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century.  He  was  the  author 
of  ^'  PandectsB  divinas  Scripturse,''  and  of  an  hundred  and 
ninety  homilies.  He  speaks  in  his  preface  of  the  taking  of 
Jerusalem  by  Chosroes,  king  of  Persia,  and  of  the  cruelties 
inflicted  on  the  monks  of  Palestine*  To  this  is  added  a 
poem,  in  which  he  deplores  the  loss  of  the  real  cross  which 
the  Persians  carried  away  among  the  rest  of  their  booty, 
and  celebrated  the  restitution  of  it  in  another  poem  written 
in  Italian.  The  former,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  is  inserted  in 
the  supplement  to  the  Bibl.  Patrum.  ^ 

ANTIPATER  (Lalius  C«liu&),  a  Roman  historian, 
lived'  in-  the  time  of  Gracchus,  and  wrote  a  history  of  the 

»  Thraboschi.— Bibg.  tMiverselte. 

s  Bnieker.—Bioir.^Uluv^rsellc.  *  CRVe»  vol.  !• 

tt*  A  N  T  I  P  A  T  E  R. 

aecond  Funic  war,,  of  which  Brutus  made  an  ahridgmenV 
^wccordiiiig  to  Cicero>  who.  frequeatly  mentions  Antipater. 
The  emperor  Adrian,  of  whose  taste  we  have  jusi  giyea  a; 
sample  (in  art.  Antimachus),  preferred  Antipater  to  Sal- 
bisty  a&  he  did  Ennius  to  Virgil.  Riccoboni,.  in  1568, 
published  the  fragments  of  Antipater,  which  have  been  re« 
lurinted  by  Ant.  Augustine,  1595,  and  by  Ausonius  Pa- 
pona,.  and  they  are  likewise  added  to  Havercamp^s  edition 
of  Sallust,  1742,  and  to.  other  editions  of  the  same  author. ' 

ANTIPATER,  of  Sidon,  a  Stoic  philosopher,  who  wrote 
poems,  that  were  much  praised  by  Cicero,  according  to 
whose  account  he  appears  to  have  possessed  the  talents  of 
fixe,  improvisaiori,  Valerius  Maximus  and  Pliny  record  of 
lilm  that  he  had  every  3rear  a  return  of  fever  on  the  da^ 
which  wa&  that  of  his  birth,  and  happened  to  be  that  of  his 
death*.  He  flourished  about  one  hundred  and  forty  years 
ftw  C     Some  of  bis  epigrams  are  ia  the  Antholbgy.* 

ANTIPHANES,  one  of  the  several  ancient  Greek  comic 
Boeta  of  the  same  name  mentioned  by  Suidas,  Athenseus, 
Stiabojt,  and  others,,  waa  either  of  Rhodes,  Caristia,  or 
Sbiyma»  and  lived  in  the  time  of  Alexander.  Thisi  mdnarch 
expressing  little  taste  for  his^  comedies^  the  author  took  the 
liberty  to  inform  him,,  that  in  order  to  enjoy  them,  he  must 
he  better  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  the  subjects  and  the 
scene;  from  which  it  haa  been  inferred  tliat  he  described 
depraved  manners.  This,  howeVer,  did  not  prevent  his 
carrying  off  the  {)rize  three  times.  He  composed  three 
hundred  and  sixty-five,  or  at  least  two  hundred  and  eighty 
eomedies^  of  which  Fabricius  has  given  a  list  from  Herte- 
lius,.  Koenigft  Vossius,  and  Meursius,  who  often  mention 
these  pieces  of  Antiphanes ;  and  Gronovtus,  in  his  **  Ex*^ 
eerpta  Comicorum,^^  has  given  the  fragments  found  in 
Athenasus  and  other  authors.  The  leanied  Koppiers  has 
be&towed  great  pains  on  these  fragments  in  his  **  Pbilolo- 
gica  observata,*^  Leyden,  1771,  8vo.  But  this  poet  is 
often  confounded  with'  others,  of  the  same  name,  and  of 
Qjther  names  disfigured  by  the  blunders  of  transcribers.  * 

ANTIPHON,  an  Athenian  oratqr,  called  the  Rhamnu- 
sian  from  the  place  of  his  birth,  Rbamnus  in  Attica,  is 
said  to  have  been  the  first  who  reduced  eloquence  to  an . 
«irt,  and  who  taught  and  harangued  for  hire.     Thucydide» 
waa  one  of  his  disciples.     He  wrote  several  works*.    Six-* . 

.  ^  Vossiusi.-»-Moreri. — ^Biog.  Unhrerselle.-^axn  Onottasticott*        ^  HVftfk  > 
t  F«br,  Babl.  QnecfWSavU  Onomasticon*— Bio|(.  UnlverMlle* 

A  NT  I  P  HO  K* 


tjten  of  faid  orations  were  printed  in  tbe  collection  of  the 
ancient  Creek  orators  by  Stephens  iu  1575,  foK  and  before 
that  by  Aldus  in  1 5  i  3^  foL  His  death  is  said  to  have  i^en 
plaoe  in  the  year  4il  B.  C.  He  was  condemned  to  die 
for  fa^^ouring  the  p^trty.  of  the  four  hundred  tyrants  at 
Athens^  and  on  this  occasion  made  an  able  but  unsuccess-^ 
ful  defence  of  liis.  conduict.  ^ 

ANTiaUARIUS  (JLames),  a  heara^d  Italian  of  the  fif- 
teenth ceoturyj^  was  a  native  of  Perugia,  and  of  a  family  of 
some  rank^'  He  was  the  scholar  of  Joannes  Antonius  Cam* 
paousy  and  published  tiie  first  and  perhaps  only  entire  edi<* 
tioa  of  Campanus'  works^  1495^  Michael  Ferhus,  a  Milan*  . 
ese  schQlaar>;  at.  his  request  superintended  the  press,  and 
enriched  the  publication  with  a  copious  life  of  Campaniis, 
and  a  variety  of  elaborate  prefaces  addressed  to  various 
persons.  That  which  is  addressed  to  Antiquarius  himself 
beats  ample  testimony  to  his  literary  reputation.  -  On  quit«- 
ting  his  native  city,  Antiquarius  obtained  a  political  office 
of  consequence  and  responsibility  at  Bologna.  About  i  460 
he  removed  to  Milan,  where  his  erudition  enabled  him  to 
secure  the  favour  and  patronage  of  Giovanni  Galeozzo  and 
Lud.  Maria  Visconti,  dukes  of  Milan,  to  whom  he  was  se-^ 
cretary  and  prime  minister,  and  employed  his  influence  ia  ^ 
the  patronage  of  literature.  As  he  was  in  the  church  he 
obtained  some  rich  benefices  from  pope  Alexander  VL 
Many  teamed  works,  the  publication  of  which  he  had  en- 
couraged, were  dedicated  to  him,  but  we  have  nothing  of 
his  own,  except  an  '^  Orauo^"  Milan,  1509,  4to,  and  a  vo» 
lume  of  Latin  letters,  1 S 1 9,  4to.  He  died  at  Milan  in 

,  ANTISTHENES,  a  Greek  philosopher,  and  founder  of 
the  sect  of  the  Cynics,  was  born  at  Athens  in  423  B.  C^ 
His  father  wa^r  of  the  same  name  with  him,  and  his  mother 
was  either  a  Thracian  or  a  Phrygian,  but  he  appears  to 
liave  .despised  the  honours  of  £eimily,  and  made  them  the 
topicstof  ridicule,  a  practice  not  uncommon  with  those 
wiboa^  origin  is  jn^au  or  doubtfuL  He  appears  to  have 
served  in  the  army,  and  behaved  with. great  courage  in  the 
battle  of  XdJaagra.  His  first  preceptor  was  Gorgias  the 
orator,,  from  whom  he  imbibed  a  florid  and  showy  manner^ 
but  ;ati«aiRed  afterwards  much  <  eminence  under  Socrates, 
aiid  advised  his^ischolarstoi  become  his  fellowMlisciples  io: 

»  Pabr.  Bibl.  €hiBc.*— ^'i^tti  Onotnaflicdtil^^og.  I7niy*rs«lle. 

*  UrcMiveirs  Remain  of  PQlitiaa.—^Biog.  Uaiverselic-^Saxii  Onommticoii. 


the  school  of  that  celebrated  philosopher.  Laiertiife  htforms 
us  that  there  wer^  ten  volumes  of  his  works ;  hot'  a  collect 
tion  of  apophthegms  only  remain,  some  of  which  are  excels 
lent.  Modem  wit  perhaps  aflbrds  few  better  hits  than 
what  he  bestowed  on  the  Athenian^^  when  he  advised  them 
to  elect  asses  to  be  horses*  This  tfaiey  said  was  absurd; 
**  and  yet,"  he  replied,  "  you  chuse  those  for  general* 
virha  have  nothing  to  recommend  them  but  your  votes.*' 
Antisthenes  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  austerity^ 
and  a  most  rigid  disciplinarian.  Some  of  his  contempora- 
ries give  him  a  very  high  character  in  other  respects,  and 
his  life,  upon  the  whole,  appears  to  have  escaped  the  im^ 
putation  of  the  sensual  vices  practised  by  many  of  the 
ancient  philosophers. ' 

ANTONELLI  (Nicholas  Maria),  count  of  Pergola^, 
who  rose  through  various  ecclesiastical  promotions  to  that 
of  cardinal,  was  born  in  1697,  and  died  Sept.  24^  1767^ 
esteemed  for  his  learning,  modesty,  and  other  virtues.  Hef 
published,  I.  ^^  De  titolis  quos  S.  Evaristus Romanis  pres« 
byteris  distribuit,"  Rome,  1725,  8vo.  2.  "  Ragioni  della 
Sede  apostolica  sopra  il  Ducato  di  Parma  e  Piacenza  es- 
poste  a*  sovrani  e  principi  Catbolici  dell'  Europa,"  Rome,^ 
1742,  4  vols.  4to.  3.  "  S.  Athanasii  interpretatio  psalmo-- 
mm,'*  Rome,  1746,  folio,  which  he  printed,  for  the  first 
time,  from  a  uianuscript  in  the  Barberini  library,  with  a^ 
Latin  translation  and  notes.  4.  ^^  Vetus  Missale  Roma* 
num,  prsefationibus  et  notis  illustratam,*'  Rome,  1756,  4to. 
He  also  cultivated  Italian  poetiy,  and  there  are  several  at 
his  pieces  in  the  tenth  volume  of  the  poems  ^^  Degli  Ar«' 
eadi  di  Roma,"  1 747,  8vo.  Other  works  by  him,  separately 
printed,  were  collected  and  published  in  a  folio  vol.  Rome^ 

-*  ANTONIANO'  (Silvio),  a  man  of  great  learning,  vAsof 
x^ised  himself  from  a  low  condition  by  his  merit,  his  pfaureuts 
being  so  far  from  able  to  support  him  in  his  studies,<  that 
they  themselves  stood  in  need  of  charity,  was  bom  at  Rome 
in  1540.  He  made  a  quick  and  most  surprising  progress 
in  his  studies ;  for  when  be  was  but  ten  years  olc^  he  could* 
make  verses  upon  any  subject  proposed  to  him ;  aird  these  so 
excellent,  though  pronounced  extempore,  that  it  was  com- 
monly thought  th^  exceeded  those  of  the  most  studied, 

*  Biof .  Univcrselle, 

A  N  T  O  N  I  A  N  O.  321 

preparation.    A  proof  of  this  was  at  the  table  of  the  cardi- 
nal of  Pisa,  when  he  gave  an  entertainment  one  day  to 
several  other  cardinals.    Alexander  Famese,  taking  a  nose- 
gay, gave  it  to  this  youth,  desiring  him  to  present  it  to  him 
of  the  company  whom  he  thought  most  likely  to  be  pope : 
he  presented  it  to  the  cardinal  of  Medicis,  and  madg  an 
eulogium  upon  him  in  verse.    This  cardinal,  who  was  pope 
some  years  afterwards^  under  the  name  of  Pius  IV.  imagined 
it  all  a  contrivance,  and  that  the  poem  had  been  artfully 
prepared  before-hand,  by  way  of  ridicule  upon  him.     He 
therefore  appeared  hurt  at  it,  but  the  company  protested, 
that  it  was  an  extempore  performance,    and  requested 
him  to  make  a  trial  of  the  boy :  he  did  so,  and  was  con- 
vinced of  his  extraordinary  talents.     According  to  Strada, 
as  the  cardinal   of  Medicis  was  thinking  upon   a  sub- 
ject for  this  purpose,  the  clock  in  the  hall  struck;  which 
was  the  occasion  of  his  proposing  a  clock  for  the  subject 
of  his  verses.    The  duke  de  Ferrara  coming  to  Rome,  to 
congratulate  Marcellus  II.  upon  his  being  raised  to  the 
pontificate,  was  so  charmed  with  the  genius  of  Antoniano, 
that  he  carried  him  to  Ferrara,  where  he  provided  able 
masters  to  instruct  him  in  all  the  sciences.     From  thence 
he  was  sent  for  by  Pius  IV.  who  recollecting  the  adventure 
of  the  nosegay,  made  inquiry  fbr  the  young  poet;  and 
having  found  him,  invited  him  to  Rome,  and  gave  him  an 
honourable  post  in  his  palace,  aad  some  time  after  made 
him  professor  of  th«  belles  lettres  in*  the  college  at  Rome. 
Antoniano  filled  this  place  with  so  much  reputation,  that 
on  the  day  when  he  began  to  explain  the  oration  pro  Mar« 
CO  Marcello,  he  had  a  crowd  of  auditors^  and  among  these 
no  less  than  twenty-five  cardinals.     He  was  afterwards 
chosen  rector  of  the  college;  and  after  the  death  of  Pius 
IV.  being  seized  with  a  spirit  of  devotion,  he  joined  him- 
self to  Philip  Neri,  and  accepted  the  office  of  secretary  to 
the  sacred  college,  offered  him  by  Pius  V.  which  he  exe- 
cuted for  many  years  with  the  reputation  of  an  honest  and 
able  man.     He  refused  a  bishopric  which  Gregpry  XIV. 
would  have  given  him,  but  he  accepted  the  office  of  secre- 
tary to  the  briefs,  offered  him  by  Clement  VIII.  who  made 
him  his  chamberlain,  and  afterwards  a  cardinal.    It  is  re- 
ported, that  cardinal  Alexander  de  Montajto,  who  had  be- 
haved a  little  too  haughtily  to  Antoniano,  said,  when  he 
saw  him  promoted  to  the  purple,  that  for  the  future  he 
would  not  despise  a  mw  of  the  cassoc  a^d  little  band, 
VOL.  II.  Y 

3123  A  N  T  O  N  I  A  N  O, 

however  low  and  despicable  he  might  appear;  since  it 
might  happen  that  he  whom  he  had  despised,  might  not 
only  become  his  equal,  but  even  his  superior.  His  intense 
application  is  said  to  have  hastened  his  death,  Aug.  15, 
I603i  His  printed  works  are,  1.  "  Dele*  Educazione 
Cristiana  de  Figliuoli  libri  tre,*'  Verona,  1584, 4to,  reprint- 
'  ed  at  Cremona  and  Naples.  This  work  on  education  he 
wrote  at  the  request  of  cardinal  Borromeo.  2.  <' Orationes 
tredecim,"  Rome,  1610,  4to,  with  a  life  of  the  author  by 
Joseph  Castalio.  3.  Various  discourses,  letters,  pieces  of 
poetry,  both  Latin  and  Itahan,  in  the  collections.  ^ 

ANTONIDES  (John),  an  eminent  Dutch  poet,  sur- 
tiam^d  VANDER   GOES,   from  the  place  in   Zealand 
where  he  was  born,  April  3,  1647,  of  parents  who  were 
anabaptists,  people  of  good  character,  but  of  low  circum* 
stances.    They  went  to  live  at  Amsterdam,^  when  Antonides 
was  about  four  years  old ;  and  in  the  ninth  year  of  his  age 
he  began  his  studies,  under  the  direction  of  Hadrian  Juni- 
us and  James  Cocceius.     Antonides  took  great  pleasure  in 
reading  the  Latin  poets,  carefully  comparing  them  with 
Grotius,  Heinsius,  &c.  and  acquired  a  considerable  taste 
for  poetry.     He  first  attempted  to  translate  some  pieces  of 
Ovid,  Horace,  and  other  ancients ;  and  having  formed  his 
taste  on  these  excellent  models,  he  at  length  undertook 
one  of  the  most  difficult  tasks  in  poetry,  to  write  a  tragedy, 
entitled,  "  Trazil,"  or  the  **  Invasion  of  China,**  but  was 
so  modest  as  not  to  permit  it  to  be  published.     Vondel, 
who  wsui  then  engaged  in  a  dramatic  piece,  taken  also  from 
some  event  that  happened  in  China,  read  Antonides*s  tra- 
gedy, and  was  so  well  pleased  with  it,  that  he  declared,  if  the 
^uthor  would  not  print  it,  he  would  take  some  passages  out 
of  it,  and  make  use  of  them  in  his  own  tragedy,  which  he 
did  accordingly;  and  it  was  reckoned  much  to  the  honour 
pf  Antonides,  to  have  written  what  might  be  adopted  by  so 
great  a  poet  as  Vondel  was  acknowledged  to  be.  ^  Upon 
the  conclusion  of  the  peace  betwixt  Great  Britain  and 
Holland,  in  the  year  1697,  Antonides  wrote  a  piece,  en- 
titled "  Bellona  aan  band,"  i.  e.  Bellona  chained ;  a  very 
elegant  poem,  consisting  of  several  hundred  verses.     The 
applause  with  which  this  piece  was  received,  excited  him 
.  to  try  his  genius  in  something  more  considerable  ;  be  ac« 
cordingly  wrote  an  epic  poem,  which  he  entitled  Th^  River 

>  Geo.  2>kt.«^oreri« 

A  N  T  O  N  t  D  E  a  S23 

Y.    The  description  of  this  river,  or  rather  lake,  is  the 
subject  of  the  poem,  which  is  divided  into  four  books ;   iii 
the  first  the  poet  gives  a  very  pompous  description  of  all 
that  is  remarkable  on  that  bank  of  the  Y  on  which  Amster* 
dam  is  built.     In  the  second  he  opens  to  himself  a  larger 
field,  beginning  with  the  praises  of  navigation,  and  describ- 
ing the  large  fleets  which  cover  the  Y  as  an  immense  fo- 
rest, and  thence  go  to  every  part  of  the  world,  to  bring 
home  whatever  may  satisfy  the  necessity,  luxury,  or  pride 
of  men.     The  third  book  is  an  ingenious  fiction,  which 
supposes  the  poet  suddenly  carried  to  the  bottom  of  the 
river  Y,  where  he  sees  the  deity  of  the  river,  with  his  demi- 
gods and  nymphs,  adorning  and  dressing  themselves  for  a 
feast,  which  was  to  be  celebrated  at  Neptune^s  court,  upon 
the  anniversary  of  the  marriage  of  Thetis  wiii^  Peleus.     In 
the  fourth  book  he  describes  the  other  batik  of  the  Y, 
adorned  with  several  cities  of  North  Holland  ;  and  in  the 
close  of  the  work  addresses  himself  to  the  magistrates  of 
Amsterdam,  to  whose  wisdom  he  ascribes  the  riches  and 
flourishing  condition  of  that  powerful  city.     This  is  a  very- 
short  abridgment  of  the  account  of  this  poem  given  in  the 
General  Dictionary,  according  to  which  it  appears  to  have 
contained  many  other  fictions  that  s&vour  of  the  burlesque. 
Antonides's  parents  had  bred  him  up  an  apothecary^  but 
his  genius  for  poetry  soon  gained  him  the  esteem  and 
friendship  of  several  persons  of  distinction ;  and  particu- 
larly of  Mr.  Buisero,  one  of  the  lords  of  the  admiralty  at 
AQisterdam,  and  a  great  lover  of  poetry,  who  sent  him  at 
his  own  expence  to  pursue  his  studies  at  Leyden,  where  he 
remained  till  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  and 
4hen  his  patron  gave  him  a  place  in  the  admiralty.     In  1 678 
Antonides  married  Susanna  Bermans,  a  minister's  daugh- 
ter, who  had  also  a  talent  for  poetry.     In  the  preface  to  bis 
heroic  poem,   he  promised  the  life  of  the  apostle  Paul, 
which,  like  Yirgirs  Mneidy  was  to  be  divided  into  twelve 
books ;  but  be  never  finished  that  design,  only  a  few  frag- 
ments having  appeared.     He  declared  himself  afraid  to 
hazard  his  reputation  with  the  public  on  theological  sub- 
jects, which  were  so  jcommonly  the  subject  of  contest 
After  marriage  he  did  not  much  indulge  his  poetic  genius ; 
and  within  a  few  years  fell  into  a  consumption,  of  which  he 
died  on  the  1.8tb  of  Sept«  1684.     He  is  esteemed  the  most 
eminent  Dutch  poet  after  Vondel,  whom  be  studied  to 
imitate,  and  is  thought  to  have  excelled  in  sweetness  of  ex- 


324  A  N  T  O  N  I  D  E  S. 

pression  and  sr^oothness  of  style,  but  in  accuracy  and  lof- 
Uness  he  is  greatly  inferior  to  his  original.  His  works  have  ' 
been  printed  several  times,  having  been  collected  by  his 
father  Anthony  Jansz.  The  last  edition  is  that  of  Amster- 
dam«  1714,  4to,  which,  however,  contains  several  miscella** 
neous  pieces  that  add  but  little  to  the  reputation  he 
acquired.  The  editor,  David  Van  Hoogstraten,  prefixed 
his  life  to  this  edition.  ^ 

ANTONINE  (De  Forciglioni),  St.  archbishop  of  Flo- 
rence, was  born  in  that  city  in  1389,  and  became  a  domi- 
nican,  and  afterwards  superior  of  ^  numerous  society,  who 
devoted  themselves  to  a  life  of  austerity.  He  appeared  to 
advantage  at  the  council  of  Florence,  where  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  dispute  with  the  Greeks.  In  1446,  he  was,  with 
much  reluctance  on  his  side,  promoted  to  be  archbishop  of 
Florence,  and  from  the  moment  of  his  installation  is  said  to 
have  shewn  a  bright  example  of  all  the  virtues  ascribed  to 
ihe  bishops  of  the  primitive  ages.  He  practised  great  tem- 
perance, preserved  a  simplicity  of  garb  and  manner,  shunned 
honours,  and  distinguished  himself  by  zeal  and  charity, 
particularly  during  ^e  plague  and  famine  with  which  Flo- 
rence was  visited  in  1448;  and  died,  much  lamented,  in 
1459.  Cosmo  de  Medicis  bestowed  his  confidence  on  him ; 
pope  Eugene  IV.  wished  he  might  die  in  his  arms;  Pius 
II.  assisted  at  his  funeral,  and  Adrian  VI.  enrolled  him  in 
the  number  of  the  saints,  in  1523.  His  studies  had  been 
chiefly  directed  to  ecclesiastical  history  and  theology,  and 
his  principal  works  are,  1.  ^^  Historiarum  opus  seu  Chro- 
nica libri  viginti  quatuor,"  Venice,  1480;  Nuremberg, 
1484;  Basil,  1491,  3  vols.  fol.  2.  <' Summa  theologize 
moralis^^'  Venice,  4  vols.  4to,  often  reprinted,  and  in  the 
edition  of  Venice,  1582,  entitled  "  Juriii  Pontificii  et  C»- 
saraei  summa.''  Mamachi  published  an  edition,  in  1751, 
at  Venice,  4  vols.  4to,  with  prolix  notes.  This  work  is  still 
consulted.  3.  <^  Summula  confessionis,*'  Venice,  1473^ 
one  of  the  earliest  printed  books.  * 

ANTONINI  (Annibal),  brother  to  Joseph  Antonini, 
who  wrote  the  history  of  Lucania,  was  born  at  Salernum,  in 
1702.  He  studied  first  at  Naples,  under  the  direction  of 
his  brother,  and  afterwards  at  Rome.  He  then  travelled  in 
England,  Holland,  and  Germany,  and  at  last  settled  at  Pa- 
ris,  where  he  taught  Italian  for  many  years^    fie  died,  how* 

*  Gen*  DicU-x-Moreri.  *  Moreri.-<»Biog«  Uaiversellt* 

A  N  T  O  N  I  N  I.  325 

ereVf  in  his  oWn  country,  in  August  1755.  During  his 
residence  at  Paris  he  published  an  Italian,  French,  and 
Latin,  and  Latin,  French,  and  Italian  dictionary,  2  vols. 
4to,  1735,  often  reprinted,  and  esteemed  the  best  until 
that  of  Alberti  appeared ;  an  Italian  grammar ;  a  treatise 
on  French  pronunciation ;  some  good  editions  of  Ariosto, 
Tasso,  and  other  Italian  authors ;  and  an  excellent  collec- 
tion of  Italian  poetry,  1729,  2  vols.  12mo.  * 

ANTONINUS  PIUS  (Titus  Aureuus  Fulvius'Boio- 
Nus  Antoninus),  was  born  at  Lanuvium  in  Italy  (of  parents 
originally  of  Nismes)  in  the  eighty-siicthyearof  the  Christ* 
ian  era.  He  was  first  made  proconsul  of  Asia,  then  gover- 
nor of  Italy,  and  consul  in  the  year  120,  and  displayed  the 
same  virtues  in  these  employments  as  he  did  afterwards  on 
the  imperial  throne :  he  was  mild,  prudent,  moderate,  and  just. 
In  the  year  138  he  succeeded  the  emperor  Adrian,  who  had 
adopted  him,  and  the  first  step  of  his  government  was  to 
release  a  number  of  persons  whom  his  predecessor  had  con* 
demned  to  die.  The  senate,  charmed  with  such  a  com- 
mencement of  authority,  decreed  him  the  title  of  Pius,  and 
ordered  that  statues  should  be  erected  to  his  honour. 
These  he  appears  to  have  amply  merited.  He  set  about 
diminishing  the  taxes,  und  preventing  the  litigious  and 
oppressive  exaction  of  them ;  and  bestowed  much  of  his 
private  fortune  in  charity.  Such  conduct  made  his  name 
as  much  respected  abroad  as  at  home.  Several  nations 
sent  embassies  to  him,  and  others  besought  his  counsel  in 
the  appointment  of  their  sovereigns :  even  kings  came  to 
pay  homage  to  his  exalted  virtues.  This  must  have  been 
highly  gratifying  to  him,  as  his  object  was  to  render  his 
name  respected  by  cultivating  the  gentler  arts  of  peace, 
rather  than  by  extending  his  dominions  by  war.  Rome, 
accordingly,  and  her  provinces,  never  enjoyed  such  days 
of  honour  and  tranquillity  as  under  his  reign.  Besides^ 
redressing  the  wrongs,  and  alleviating  the  calamities  which 
happened  to  fall  upon  any  part  of  his  dominions,  he  displayed 
his  taste  by  the  erection  of  several  noble  and  usefuVpublic 
edifices.  In  short,  in  every  respect  of  public  or  private  cha- 
racter, he  is  celebrated  as  one 'of  the  greatest  and  best 
characters  in  ancient  times.  Whatever  is  amiable,  gene- 
rous^ and  magnanimous,  has  been  ascribed  to  him;  but 

>  Biog.  Uoiveneller— Memoirs  of  Literature,  vol.  XII.  p.  116» 


what  ought  to  endear  bis  memory  even  to  the  present  day, 
was  his  conduct  towards  the  Christians. 

In  his  days  the  enemies  of  the  Christians  had  no  preten* 
slons  to  support  persecution  but  the  grossest  misrepresent- 
ations. These  were  probably  offered  to  Antoninus  as  they 
had  been  to  other  sovereigns.  To  repel  them  Justin  Mar- 
tyr presented  his  "  Apology"  to  Antoninus  about  the  third 
year  of  his  reign,  in  140,  -and  not  in  vain.  Antoninus  was 
a  man  of  sense  and  humanity,  and  open  to  conviction. 
Asia  Proper  was  still  the  scene  of  Christianity  and  of  per- 
secution, and  thence  the  application  was  made  to  Antoni- 
nus, and  earthquakes  had  then  happened,  with  which  the 
Pagans  were  much  terrified,  and  ascribed  them  to  the  ven- 
geance of  heaven  against  the  Christians.  This  will  explain 
some  circumstances  in  the  edict  sent  by  our  emperor  to  the 
council  of  Asia,  which  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  pro- 
ductions of  pagan  wisdom,  and  evinces  an  uncommon  spirit 
of  liberality.  No  apology,  we  trust,  can  be  requisite  for  its 
insertion  in  this  place. 

<*  The  Emperor  to  the  Council  of  Asia.  I  am  quite  of 
opinion,  that  the  Gods  will  take  care  to  discover  such  per- 
sons. For  it  much  more  concerns  them  to  punish  those 
who  refuse  to  worship  them  than  you,  if  they  be  able.  But 
you  harass  and  vex  the  Christians,  and  accuse  them  of 
iatheism  and  other  crimes,  which  you  can  by  no  means 
prove-  To  them  it  appears  advantageous  to  die  for  their 
religion,  and  they  gain  their  point,  while  they  throw  away 
their  lives,  rather  than  comply  with  your  injunctions.  As 
to  the  earthquakes,  which  have  happened  in  past  times,  or 
lately,  is  it  not  proper  to  remind  you  of  your  own  despon- 
dency, when  they  happen;  and  to  desire  you  to  compare 
3'our  spirit  with  theirs,  antd  observe  how  serenely  they  con- 
fide in  God  ?  Ill  such  seasons  you  seem  to  be  ignorant  of 
the  gods,  and  to  neglect  their  worship ;  you  live  in  the 
practical  ignorance  of  the  supreme  God  himself,  and  you 
harass  and  persecute  to  death  those  who  do  worship  him. 
Concerning  these  same  men  some  others  of  the  provincial 
governors  wrote  to  our  divine  father  Adrian,  to  whom  he 
returned  answer,  *  That  'they  should  not  be  molested,  un- 
less they  appeared  to  attempt  something  against  the  Ro- 
man government'  Many  also  have  signified  to  me  con- 
cerning these  men,  to  whom  I  have  returned  an  answer 
agreeable  to  the  maxims  of  my  father.  But  if  any  person 
\  will  still  persist  in  accusing  the  Christians  merely  as  such-^ 



let  the  accused  be  acquitted,  though  he  appear  to  be  a 
Christian;  and  let  the  accuser  be  punished.'* 

Eusebius  infbrms  us,  that  this  was  no  emp^ty  edict,  but 
was  really  put  in  execution.  Nor  did  Antoninus  content 
himself  with  one  edict.  He  wrote  to  the  same  purpose  to 
the  Larisseans,  the  Thessalonians,  the  Athenians,  and  all 
the  Greeks.  It  may  be  therefore  concluded  that  the  Christ- 
ians enjoyed  complete  toleration  during  his  reign,  which 
lasted  twenty- three  years.  He  died  March  7,  161,  aged 
seventy-three.  His  death  was  a  public  calamity,  and  his 
memory  w^s  honoured  by  every  testimony  of  public  grati- 
tude. For  a  century  afterwards^  all  the  Roman  emperors 
assumed  the  name  of  Antoninus,  from  its  popularity. 
Many  curious  particulars  of  his  private  and  public  life  may 
be  seen  in  the  authors  referred  to  in  the  note.  * 

ANTONINUS  Philosophus  (Marcus  Aurelius),  the 
Roman  emperor,  was  born  at  Rome,  April  26,  in  the  year 
121.  When  he  was  adopted  by  his  grandfather  by  the  fa- 
ther's side,  he  received  his  name,  M.  Annius  Verus  ;  and 
Adrian  the  emperor,  instead  of  Verus,  used  to  call  him  Ve- 
rissimus,  on  account  of  his  rectitude  and  veracity.  When 
he  was  adopted  by  Antoninus  Pius,  he  assumed  the  name  of 
M.  ^lius  Aurelius  Verus,  because  Aurelius  was  the  name  of 
Antoninus's  family,  and  ^Elius  that  of  Adrian's,  into  which 
he  entered.  When  he  became  emperor,  he  left  the  name 
of  Verus  to  Lucius  Commodus,  his  adopted  brother,  and 
took  that  of  Antoninus,  under  which  he  is  generally  known 
in  history.  But  he  is  distinguished  from  his  predecessor 
Titus  Antoninus,  either  by  the  name  of  Marcus,  or  by  the 
name  of  Philosophus,  which  is  given  him  by  the  general 
consent  of  writers,  although  we  do  not  find  this  title  to  have' 
been  conferred  by  any  public  act  or  authority  of  the  senate. 
Adrian,  upon  the  death  of  Cejonius  Commodus,  turned  his 
eyes  upon  Marcus  Aurelius;  but  as  he  was  not  then  eight- 
een years  of  age,  and  consequently  too  young  for  so  im- 
portant a  station,  he  fixed  upon  Antoninus  Pius,  whom  he 
adopted,  on  condition  that  be  should  likewise  adopt  Mar-r 
cus  Aurelius.  The  year  after  this  adoption  Adrian  ap- 
pointed him  quaestor,  though  he  had  not  yet  attained  the 
age  prescribed  by  the  laws.  After  the  death  of  Adrian, 
Aurelius  married  Faustina,  the  daughter  of  Antoninus  Pius^ 

1  Gen.  Dict.*^Univer8al  Hist.— Eusebius's  Hist.  Eccl,  lib.  IV.  cap.  13. — ^Mo- 
sbeim. — Milner's  Church  History,  vol.  I.  p.  206. — Lnrduer's  Works,  vol.  VII. 
vhere  there  is  an  excellent  defence  of  the  authenticity  of  t^e  above  edict. 


by  whom  he  had  several  children.  In  the  year  139  be  was 
investecf  with  new  honours  by  the  emperor  Pius,  and  be* 
haved  in  such  a  manner  as  endeared  him  to  that  prince 
and  the  whole  people* 

Upon  the  death  of  Pius,  which  happened  in  the  year 
161,  he  was  obliged  by  the  senate  to  take  upon  him  the 
government,  in  the  management  of  which  he  took  Lucius 
Verus  as  his  colleague.  Dion  Cassius  says,  that  the  reason 
of  doing  this  was,  that  be  might  have  leisure  to  pursue  his 
studies,  and  on  account  of  his  ill  state  of  health ;  Lucius 
being  of  a  strong  vigorous  constitution,  and  consequently 
more  fit  for  the  fatigues  of  war.  The  same  day  he  took 
upon  him  the  name  of  Antoninus,  which  he  gave  likewise 
to  Verus  his  colleague,  and  betrothed  his. daughter  Lucilla 
to  him.  The  two  emperors  went  afterwards  to  the  camp, 
where,  after  having  performed  the  funeral  rites  of  Pius, 
they  pronounced  each  of  them  a  panegyric  to  his  memory. 
They  discharged  the  government  in  a  very  amicable  man- 
ner. But  the  happiness  which  the  empire  began  to  enjoy 
under  the  two  brothers,  was  interrupted  in  the  year  162, 
by  a  dreadful  inundation  of  the  river  Tiber,  which  destroyed 
a  prodigious  number  of  cattle,  and  occasioned  a  famine  at 
Rome.  This  calamity  was  followed  by  the  Parthian  war, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  Catti  ravaged  Grermany  and  Rhse- 
tia ;  and  an  insurrection  was  apprehended  from  the  Britons, 
against  whom  Calphurnius  Agricola  was  sent,  and  Aufidius 
Victorinus  against  the  Catti.  But  it  was  thought  proper 
that  Lucius  Verus  should  go  in  person  to  oppose  the  Par- 
thians,  while  Antoninus  continued  at  Rome,  where  his 
presence  was  necessary.  During  this  war  with  the  Par- 
thians  about  the  year  l63  or  164  he  sent  his  daughter 
l-ucilla  to  Verus,  having  before  promised  her  to  him  in 
marriage,  and  attended  her  as  far  as  Brundusium,  resolving 
to  have  conducted  her  to  Syria,  if  it  had  not  been  objected 
to  him  by  some  persons,  that  his  design  of  going  into  the 
east  was  to  claim  the  honour  of  harinor  finished  the  Parthian 
war ;  upon  which  he  immediately  returned  to  Rome.  The 
Romans  having  gained  a  victory  over  the  Parthians,  who 
were  obliged  to  abandon  Mesopotamia,  the  two  emperors 
triumphed  over  them  at  Rome  in  the  year  166,  and  were 
honoured  with  the  title  of  fathers  of  their  country.  But 
this  year  was  fatal  on  account  of  a  terrible  pestilence  which 
spread  itself  over  the  whole  world,  and  a  famine,  under 
which  Rome  laboured.    The  Marcomanni;  and  many  other 



people  of  Germany!  likewise  took  up  arms  against  the  Ro« 
mans ;  but  the  two  emperors  having  marched  in  persoa 
against  them,  obliged  the  Germans  to  sue  for  peace.  The 
war,  however,  was  renewed  the  year  following,  and  the  two 
emperors  marched  again  in  person ;  but  Lucius  Verud  was 
seized  with  an  apoplectic  fit,  and  died  at  Altinum. 

In  the  year  170  Antoninus  made  vast  preparations  against 
the  Germans,  and  carried  on  the  war  with  great  vigour^ 
During  this  war,  in  the  year  174,  a  very  extraordinary 
event  is  said  to  have  happened,  which,  t  according  to  Dioa 
Cassius,  was  as  follows :  Antoninus's  army  being  blocked  up 
by  the  Quadi  in  a  very  disadvantageous  place,  where  there 
was  no  possibility  of  procuring  water ;  and  in  this  situation^ 
being  worn  out  with  fatigue  and  wounds,  oppressed  with 
l&eat  and  thirst,  and  incapable  of  retiring  or  engaging  tha 
enemy,  instantly  the  sky  was  covered  with  clouds,  and 
there  fell  a  vast  quantity  of  rain.  The  Roman  army  were 
about  to  quench  their  thirst,  when  the  enemy  came  upon 
them  with  such  fury,  that  they  must  certainly  have  been 
defeated,  had  it  not  been  for  a  shower  of  hail,  accompanied 
with  a  storm  of  thunder  and  lightning,  which  fell  upon  the 
enemy,  without  the  least  annoyance  to  the  Romans,  whoi 
by  this  means  gained  the  victory*.  In  the  year  175  Anto- 
ninus^ made  a  treaty  with  several  nations  of  Germany. 
Soon  after,  Avidius  Cassius,  governor  of  Syria,  revolted 
from  the  emperor :  this  insurrection,  however,  was  sup<« 
pressed  by  the  death  of  Cassius,  who  was  killed  by  a  cen« 
turion  named  Anthony.  .  Antoninus  behaved  with  great 
lenity  towards  those  who  had  been  engaged  for  Cassiur; 
he  would  not  put  to  death,  nor  imprison,  nor  even  sit  in 
judgment  himself  upon  any  of  the  senators  engaged  in  this 
revolt ;  but  he  referred  them  to  the  senate,  fixing  a  day  for 
their  appearance,  as  if  it  had  been  only  a  civil  affair.     He 

*  The  Pagans  as  well  as  Christians, 
according  to  M.  Ti)lemont,  p.  621,  art. 
XTi.  have  acknowledged  the  truth  of 
this  t^rodigy,  but  have  greatly  differed 
«8  to  the  cause  of  such  miraculous 
event,  the  former  ascribing  it,  some 
to  one  magician,  and  some  to  another : 
In  Antoninus*s  Pillar,  the  glory  is  as- 
cribed to  Jupiter  the  god  of  rain  and 
thunder.  -Sut  the  Christians  affirmed, 
that  God  granted  this  favour  at  the 
prayer  of  the  Christian  soldiers  in  the 
Emnan  army,  who  are  said  to  have 
compoied  the  twtiCtbi  or  the  Melitene 

legion ;  and,  as  a  mark  of  distinction^ 
we  are  told  that  they  received  the  titlft 
of  the  Thundering  Legion  from  Antooi* 
nus.  (Euseb.  £ccles.  Hist.  Jib.  v.capu.. 
5.)  Mr.  Moyle,  in  the  second  volum# 
of  his  works,  has  endeavoured  to  ex» 
plode  this  story  of  th«  Thundering  Le* 
gion,  which  occasioned  Mr.  Whistou  to 
publish  an  answer  in  1726,  entitled, 
'«  Of  the  Thundering  Legion)"  or,  Of 
the  miraculous  Deliverance  of  Marcus 
Antoninus  and  his  Army,  upon  the 
X'rayer*  of  the  Christians. 


wrote  also  to  the  senate,  desiring  them  to  act  with  indul- 
gence rather  than  severity ;   not  to  shed  the  blood  of  any 
senator  or  noble,  or  of  any  other  person  whatsoever,  but  tc 
allow  this  honour  to  his  reign,  that  even  under  the  misfortune 
of  a  rebellion,  none  had  lost  their  lives,  except  in  the  first 
heat  of  the  tumult:  "  And  I  wish,"  said  he,  "  that  I  could 
even  recal  to  life  many  of  those  who  have  been  killed  ;  for 
revenge  in  a  prince  hardly  ever  pleases,  since,  even  when 
just,  it  is  considered  too  severe."     In  the  year  176  Anto- 
ninus visited  Syria  and  Egypt ;  the  kings  of  those  countries, 
and  ambassadors  also  from  Parthia,  came  to  visit  him.     He 
staid  several  days  at  Smyrna,  and  after  he  had  settled  the 
affairs  of  the  east,  went  to  Athens,  on  \khich  city  he  con- 
ferred several  honours,  and  appointed- public  professors 
there.     From  thence  he  returned  to  Rome  with  his  son 
Com  mod  us,  whom  he  chose  consul  for  the  year  following, 
though  he  was  then  but  sixteen  years  of  age,  having  ob- 
tained a  dispensation  for  that  purpose.     On  the  27th  of 
Sept.  the  same  year,  he  gave  him  the  title  of  imperatpr; 
and  on  the  23d  of  Dec.  he  entered  Rome  in  triumph,  with 
Commodus,   on  account  of  the  victories  gained  over  the 
Germans.     Dion  Cassius  tells  us  that  he  remitted  all  the 
debts  which  were  due  to  himself  j^nd  the  public  treasury 
during  forty-six   years,   from  the  time  that  Adrian   had 
granted  the  same  favour,  and  burnt  all  the  writings  relating 
to  those  debts.     He  applied  himself  likewise  to  correct 
many  enormities,  and  introduced  several  excellent  regula- 
tions.    He  moderated  the  expences  laid  out  on  gladiators  j 
iK)r  would  he  sutfer  them  to  fight  but  with  swords  which 
were  blunted  like  foils,  so  that  their  skill  might  be  shewn 
without  any  danger  of  their  lives.     He  endeavoured  to  clear 
up  many  obscurities  in  the  laws,  and  mitigated,  by  new 
decrees,  the  severity  of  the  old  laws.     He  was  the  first,  ac- 
cording  to    Capitol inus    (Vit.    Anton,    dap.   xxvii.)    wjio 
appointed  the  names  of  all  the  children^  born  of  Roman 
citizens,   to  be  registered  within   thirty  days  after  their 
birth ;  and  this  gave  him  occasion  to  establish  public  re- 
gisters in  the  provinces.     He  renewed  the  law  made  by 
Nerva,  that  no  suit  should  be  carried  on  against  the  de^id^ 
but  within  five  years  after  their  decease.     He  made  a  de-. 
cree,  that  all  the  senators  should  have  at  least  a  fourth  part 
of  their  estate  in  Italy.     Capitolinus  gives  an  account  of 
several   other  regulations  which   he  established.     In  the 
year  171  he  left  Ron:e  with  hit  son  Commodus,  in  order  to 

A,N  T  O  N  I.N  U  S.  331 



go  against  the  Marcomanni,  and  other  barbarous  nations; 
and  the  year  following  gained  a  considerable  victory  over 
them :  he  would,  in  all  probability,  have  entirely  subdued 
them  in  a  very  short  time,  had  he  not  been  taken  with  an 
illness,  which  carried  him  off  on  the  17  th  of  March  180, 
in  the  fifty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  nineteenth  of  his 
reign.  The  whole  empire  regretted  the  loss  of  so  valuable 
^  prince,  and  paid  the  greatest  regard  to  his  memory ;  he 
was  ranked  amongst  the  gods,  and  every  person  almost 
had  a  statue  of  him  in  their  houses.  His  book  of  "  Medi- 
tations'' has  been  much  admired.  It  is  written  in  Greek, 
and  consists  of  twelve  books ;  there  have  been  several  edi* 
tions  of  it  in  Greek  and  Latin,  two  of  which  were  printed  be- 
fore the  year  1 635,  when  the  learned  Meric  Casaubon,  pre- 
bendary of  Canterbury,  published  a  second  edition  of  his 
translation  of  this  work  into  English,  dedicated  to  Laud, 
archbishop  of  Canterbury.  It  was  also  translated,  in  a  very- 
inelegant  style,  by  Jeremy  Collier.  There  was  an  edition 
afterwards  printed  at  Glasgow,  which  is  more  correct ;  but 
the  best  is  that  published  by  the  rev.  R.  Graves,  1792,  8vo. 
Of  the  learned  Gataker's  two  editions,  Cambridge,  1652, 
4to,  Gr.  and  Lat.  and  London,  1697,  the  former  is  pre- 
ferred. It  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  remark,  that  the 
valuable  **  Itinerary,"  called  Antoninus's,  does  not  belong 
to  this,  or  any  emperor  of  the  name. 

In  Dacier's,  and  some  other  lives  of  this  emperor,  in 
which  h